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MSU / Geography / GEOG 1123 / world geography final exam

world geography final exam

world geography final exam

Description

School: Mississippi State University
Department: Geography
Course: Intro World Geography
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: World Geography
Cost: 50
Name: GR1123 FINAL EXAM 4 STUDY GUIDE
Description: Study Guide covers all information required for the test as well as video answers.
Uploaded: 11/30/2016
12 Pages 6 Views 12 Unlocks
Reviews


1


what are the impact of colonial rule in india?



Study Guide Exam 4

South Asia 

● India’s History  

○ Colonial Rule’s impacts on India  

■ British colonialism is most of South Asia  

● Mid 1800s, East India Trade Company was established by  

Britain

○ Used to control South Asia through economy/trade of the  

region

■ Colonial rule drastically changed the landscape, both politically and  culturally

● Infrastructure (railroads, electricity, communication, etc.)

● Cultural Transmission between India and Great Britain

○ Democracy and English language in India; Tikka Masala 

in Great Britain

● British left India in 1947

○ Countries that became independent from India and why  

■ Pakistan and Bangladesh became independent from India in 1947

● Religious differences were the main cause for this separation  


what are the examples of infrastructure?



● Bangladesh was stateless until the 70s

○ Poorest country in the world

○ Plagued by natural disasters  

■ 8 of 10 largest natural disasters occur in  

Bangladesh (Sea Level)

● India Fun Facts and Economy

○ Fun Facts

■ 1.2 billion people in 28 states, 6 territories, and 1 capital district

■ Largest democracy by population in the world

■ Hindi in the north, English speaking in the south

■ West India is richer, East India is poorer  

■ >70% of the population is rural; mostly farmers  

● Rice, millet, and wheat are the largest crops in India

● Only 29% of the population lives within an urban area

○ India’s Economy

■ Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi/New Delhi, Bangalore

● Mumbai is called “East Hollywood” or Bollywood We also discuss several other topics like a volcano built of many thin flows of fluid lava is a
If you want to learn more check out mihaly csikszentmihalyi discovered that creative people regularly experience a state he called _____, which represented a heightened state of pleasure experienced when people engage in mental and physical challenges that absorb them.
If you want to learn more check out ohcsa

● Kolkata is the steel manufacturing center  


what are the country that became independent from india in 1947?



● Bangalore is the largest IT hub in India (lots of US outsourcing)

■ Other parts of India are not so productive due to education and poverty ● Rural/poor areas hamper the overall economy of India

○ Hence India does not have an overpopulation problem  

(i.e. China) but an education/economic problem

● A large majority of the Indian population is young

2

○ As the young generations age, the working population will  

increase

■ Economic growth  

● Social issues of South Asia

○ Male dominated society:

■ Huge wealth disparity between men and women

■ Most landowners are men who inherit money/business

○ Dowry: 

■ “Property or money brought by a bride to her husband on their marriage” ■ Dowry Deaths: women who are murdered or driven to suicide by  

continuous harassment and torture by husbands and in-laws for an  

increased dowry

○ Marriages are often organized when women are teenagers

○ Malaria and clean water is a very big issue  

■ Clean water for both bathing and drinking

● “Indo-China”

○ Main countries

■ Cambodia - Khmer Rouge regime

■ Laos

■ Vietnam - War with US

■ Thailand

■ Burma (Britain)

○ Historical and Cultural Influencers  

■ Established by France when they invaded SE Asia in the mid-1800s

■ Defined culturally by influence from China and India 

● Indonesia’s main islands and fun facts about them If you want to learn more check out mark feldstein umd

○ Main Islands:

■ Borneo

● Large forests (lots of biodiversity)

○ Kamado dragon

■ Java

● Large populous island, fertile soil

■ Papua

● Deforestation issues

■ Sumatra

● Largest of the Indonesian islands spatially

East Asia  

● Fun Facts  

○ Contains 20% of the world’s population

■ >1.5 billion people  

○ China’s climate controls the population

■ Water and soil in the east

■ Dry and infertile in the west

○ Massive increase in economic power over the last 30-40 years

3

■ Particularly China

○ Capital punishment is very common  

■ Execute 4 times the amount of people than anywhere else in the world ○ Facebook, Twitter, and the New York Times are blocked in China

■ Autocratic dictatorship 

○ China has 1 time zone 

■ Sun can rise as late as 10 am in Beijing during the summer If you want to learn more check out cs010 ucr
We also discuss several other topics like 103 comm trouble

○ Great Wall of China

■ The largest structure ever built by humans  

■ Over 13000 miles  

○ Gobi Desert

■ Hot in the summer, cold/icy in winter

○ Japan has ca 6800 islands

■ Archipelago 

○ Japan has the oldest population

■ 50,000 people over 100 years old 

○ There are more sheep in Mongolia than people (35 to 1)

○ Superstition in South Korea

■ Writing your name in red ink, electric fans, and the number 4 are all bad  luck

○ North Korea has the 4th largest military in the world with 1.2 million people ● Geologic Processes affecting the area  

○ Japan impacted by the Ring of Fire 

■ 2011 earthquake and Tsunami, due to colliding plates

○ Tsunami: Japanese for “harbor wave” 

■ Caused by lifting/sinking of tectonic plates

○ Southwest China impacted by the Himalayas 

■ Converging plates

■ Non-Volcanic

■ Mountains grow 1 cm per year (tallest mountain in the world- Mount  Everest 29,029 ft.)

■ Ice melt is major source of water for India, Nepal, China

● Definitions: Tsunami, sinophone, logographic language, extraterritoriality, cult of  personality, archipelago, autocratic government  

○ Tsunami: Japanese for “harbor wave” 

○ Sinophone, or widespread “Chinese-speaking” peoples

■ Huge influence in this area

○ Language is based in symbols or glyphs not an alphabet

■ Logographic language: one symbol may represent a word or statement ■ Very complex with many dialects

■ Mandarin is the most widespread

○ Extraterritoriality: “the state of being exempted from the jurisdiction of local law,  usually as a result of diplomatic negotiations”

4

○ Cult of Personality: when an individual uses mass media, propaganda, or other  methods to create an idealized, heroic, and worshipful image  

○ Archipelago: a group of islands, a sea or stretch of water containing many  islands

○ Autocratic government: supreme power is concentrated in the hands of one  person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor  regularized mechanisms of popular control

● 4 Major Rivers and the fun facts about them

○ 1. Huang He (Yellow) 

■ Beijing is located along this river

○ 2. Yangzi (Long) 

■ Shanghai is located along this river

○ 3. Xi (Pearl) 

■ Hong Kong/ Macau

■ Shenzhen (fastest growing city in history)

○ 4. Liao (Mother) 

■ Gobi Desert is the headwater (big for mining)

● Population and economy  

○ More people live in the east than west

■ 1. China: 1.3 billion 

■ 2. Japan: 127 million

■ 3. South Korea: 56 million

■ 4. North Korea: 24 million

■ 5. Taiwan: 23 million

■ 6. Mongolia: 2.9 million

○ Population  

■ Japan exports mostly technology based equipment

● Machinery, textiles, automobiles (Honda, Nissan, etc.)

■ China contains 95% of the rare-earth minerals

● Due to the country’s size and recent exploitation (Industrial  

revolution not that long ago…)

● Regions of East Asia and the fun facts about them

○ China’s Coastal Core 

■ economic center of the country

■ Huge population centers

○ China’s Interior 

■ North: mining

■ Central: oil/coal production

○ China’s Western Periphery 

■ Very rural

○ Mongolia 

■ Size of Alaska but only 3 million people

○ The Korean Peninsula 

■ Size of Idaho 72.3 million people

5

○ Japan 

■ Mostly urban population

○ Taiwan 

■ An island democracy

● Religious cultures of East Asia  

○ Religion: Confucian, Shinto, Taoism, and Buddhism

■ Also complex...many sects, beliefs

■ Tao: “Flow of the universe, energy, and nature”

■ Taoism is trusting your instincts

● Ancient China  

○ (DO need to know what ALL of the important Dynasties mentioned did or  contributed to China.)

■ Rice was domesticated some ca 10,000 years ago

● Neolithic

● 1st to selectively breed plants (botanical engineers)

■ Very Complex, advanced culture (established before Greek and Rome) ● Yangzhou (6000 BCE) the silkworm

● Hongshan (4500 BCE) jade jewelry

● Lingzhu (3500 BCE) ivory, lacquering, gold inlay, paintings,  

ornate pots and dishes, etc.

■ Japan state formation began around 660 BCE, borrowed concepts from  China

■ Confucianism originated in China and spread to Korea/Japan (still exists  today)

● Confucius was a philosopher who lived from 551 BC to 479 BC

● Human virtues not godly connections should determine a  

person’s place in society

● Major cultural influence: rudeness is extremely bad in Japan

○ Dynasties of Japan

■ Dynasty: a line of rulers from the same family usually in the context of  feudal or monarchical system

■ 26 Dynasties over 5000 to 6000 years

■ Xia dynasty (2200-1700 BCE)

● Founded the first advanced civilization

■ Shang dynasty (1200-1050 BCE)

● Established the basis for the current day Chinese language

■ Zhou dynasty (100-250 BCE)

● Buddhism came to China during this time

● Theocracy (priests rule in the name of a god)

■ Manchu dynasty (1636-1911)

● Greatest extent of the Chinese empire

● Fell to the Japanese (WWI)

● Great Wall of China and the Silk Road  

○ Great Wall

6

■ Can be seen from space

■ 13,171 miles long (northern portion of country)’

● Earth is 24,901 miles long (53% of the earth’s circumference)

■ The largest human construction in history 

■ The wall had many purposes: 

● Border control (unwanted immigration)

● Collection of taxes (tolls)

● Transport goods via the silk road

● Defense (Mongol invasion, Genghis Khan)

○ Silk Road  

■ Major transportation route for goods, cultural transmissions,  religions, and even disease

■ Marco Polo traveled this route as the first European to travel east ● Boxer Rebellion  

○ Basics- What caused it and who led it?  

■ Extraterritoriality: (“the state of being exempted from the jurisdiction of  local law, usually as a result of diplomatic negotiations”) Caused the  

Boxer Rebellion in 1900

■ Rebellion against western and Japanese control in China

■ Rebels led by the secret Society of the Righteous and Harmonious  Fists

■ “Diplomatic immunity”

● China

○ Fun Facts

■ In 2016, China is still the 2nd largest economy in the world (US #1,  Japan #3)

● Foreign investment is attracted because of low wages and high  skills market 

■ Complex government structure

● 22 Provinces 

○ Small in the east, and large in the west (less people)

○ Each with own governing body

■ Population issues

● Overpopulation: 

○ For most of the 20th Century, population grew 3% per year

● Population control: 

○ Government realized in order to grow economically, the  

population needed to be “controlled”

■ As of 2010, growth is down to 0.05%  

■ There is now a majority elder population (people  

under 30 are the minority)

■ One-child policy: OVERTURNED 2015 (2  

children)

○ Military

7

■ People’s Liberation Army (PLA)

■ Ca 2,285,000 members (another 2.3 million is in reserve)

● Compared to USA’s 1.4 million

■ World’s largest standing military  

■ Service is based entirely on volunteers, not conscription or drafting ● Japan

○ Fun Facts/Ancient practices

■ 5 main islands (archipelago):

● Hokkaido, Honshu, Kyushu, Okinawa

● Tokyo and Osaka are on Honshu 

■ Known as the “land of the rising sun” (see flag)

■ National symbol: Chrysanthemum 

■ Practiced Isolationism for a long time

● 700 AD-1900s

● Foreigners were not allowed in … Japanese were not allowed to  

travel outside

○ This is why Japan is ethnically and culturally  

homogenous (>99% ethnic Japanese)

■ Isolationism was replaced with Imperialism 

● Early 1900s, Japan started to expand in the Pacific, China, and  

Eastern Russia

■ The Meiji Restoration 

● Modernization

● Acceptance of western culture

● Relocated the Capital:

○ From Kyoto to Edo (Now called Tokyo)

○ How it is today  

■ After WWII US forced Japan to:

● Adopt a new constitution

● Drastically reduce spending on its military

● Accept a permanent US military base on its soil

■ These acts allowed Japan to focus on its economy 

● Made things better and cheaper than anyone else

● Electronics (Sony, Nintendo, Panasonic, Toshiba, Hitachi, etc.)

● Automobiles beat out the US in the 1980s (Toyota, Nissan, and  

Honda)

■ Japan is the 3rd largest economy in the world

■ 4 other nations followed the Japanese model, referred to as “4 Asian  Tigers”

● Includes: Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore

■ Japanese Population

● Adult literacy rate 99%

● Life expectancy: 79 (male) 86 (female)

● 80% urban population

8

○ >50% of these live in 3 major urban areas: Nagoya,  

Tokyo, and Osaka

■ As a result, the cost of living is extremely high

■ Tokyo is considered the most expensive city in the world

○ Culture

■ Japanese society is group oriented 

● Loyalty to the group and superiors takes precedent over personal  

feeling

■ Important tenants: honor, patience, respect, and politeness

■ Uniformity in appearance: is a Japanese characteristic

● Businessmen wearing black pants, white shirt, and tie are very  

common

● In general, students wear uniforms in school

■ Outside of school, youth wear the latest American and European fashions ■ Tokyo and Osaka: Cultural Centers of Japan

● Culturally distinct: 

○ Osaka: more laid back, service industry, informal etiquette,  

“blue-collar”

○ Tokyo: business oriented, formal, “upper-class”

○ Rivalry dates back hundreds of years, when each was its  

own territory

● Fun Country Facts  

○ Taiwan

■ Called the “Republic of China”

■ A democracy, not communistic

● Supported by the US both economically and militarily  

■ 125 miles off the mainland  

■ Both PRC and ROC are connected economically  

● Both do business in each other’s country

■ Imports raw materials: cotton, oil, aluminum, iron

■ Exports finished goods: computers, textiles, telecom equipment, GPS,  satellites

● Lots of tech

○ Tibet

■ Complex dynamic with China

● Independent from China for years, but “taken over” in the 1950s  

by China

○ Annexation: the forcible acquisition of a state’s territory by  

another state

● Tibetan society: Buddhist monasteries and the Dalai Lama 

● China removed the monks in Tibet and forced the western  

Chinese to move into Tibet, replacing the Tibetan way of life

● Assimilation: 

○ ROC has called for the re-establishment of Tibet

9

○ PRC won’t allow independence

■ Stateless population of 3 million people led by the Dalai Lama ● Seeking support for independence

○ Mongolia

■ Land-locked nation dominated by steppe and desert landscapes ● Mostly 800,000 nomads 

■ Home of Genghis Khan 

■ Considered a buffer state between 2 large superpower interests ● Russia & China

■ Has a huge potential in the mining industry 

● Gold, copper, coal have been found by Chinese and Russian  inverters

● Doesn’t currently have the infrastructure to exploit

○ North Korea

■ Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK)

● “Democratic” is used rather loosely…

○ Kim family has been in power for years

○ Really is a single-party autocracy 

● Kim Jong Un (31 years old) took office in 2011 after the death of  his father

● Cult of Personality: when an individual uses mass media,  

propaganda, or other methods to create an idealized, heroic, and  worshipful image

■ 7 Decades of very strict governance has caused the country many  issues

● Famine, poor population

● Very isolated internationally

○ Not much is known about North Korea

● Prison camps: those who do not respect government rule

■ Population is divided upon status and compassion towards the  government

● If so, more food and power - if not, bad things happen…

■ A nuclear power

● Why the US gives so much aid to South Korea

○ South Korea

■ Republic of Korea 

● 50 million people

● Capital: Seoul 

● Most secularized country (>50% don’t practice religion)

■ Split due to the removal of Japan after WWII

■ Has woman president (Park Geun-hye)

● 2nd highest standard of living in Asia

● 17 Provinces

10

● Heavily protected by the US and NATO

○ Dynamic with North Korea

■ Exports drive the economy

● Electronic integrated circuits make up 8% of exports

● Cruise ship manufacturing is a large here as well (9%)

● Automatic producers: Kia, Hyundai, Daewoo  

● Overfishing in East Asia – Two offenders and how they are contributing  ○ Japan and China are the biggest offenders 

■ Japan

● Mainly exploiting the bluefish tuna crop

● Tuna very important to Japanese culture

● As sushi spreads, problem compounded

■ China

● Shark-fin soup 

● Cultural tension: tradition vs. sustainability

● Very wasteful (irony: odds with Chinese culinary tradition)

● Inhumane process “shark finning”

● Years of Living Dangerously video questions

○ 1. What litters Indonesia’s forest floor?  

■ Peat  

○ 2. What is in Peat?  

■ Decaying vegetation on the forest floor that has absorbed a lot of carbon  dioxide.  

○ 3. What are the 4 natural causes for climate variability?  

■ a. Natural Cycles  

■ b. The sun  

■ c. Geologic processes such as volcanic eruptions and ice ages  

■ d. Orbital Cycles  

○ 4. Is the National Park of Indonesia being policed?  

■ No  

○ 5. What creates black soil?  

■ Burning of the forests.  

○ 6. What did the Syrian commander say about the revolution?  

■ Revolution for freedom and a revolution of the hungry.

Australia 

● Ancient Australia

○ Colonized by the Dutch, Spanish, Portugal until 1616

■ Known as New Holland

○ 1770: Great Britain claimed ownership

■ Named it New South Wales 

■ Initially used as a mining outpost and a prison colony 

● Essentially where England sent its riff-raff

○ 1901: Gained “independence” from Britain, becoming known as the  

Commonwealth of Australia

11

○ Commonwealth of Australia

■ Established as a constitutional monarchy

● ‘Constitutional’: established with a written constitution

● “Monarchy’: head of state was Queen Victoria

■ Considered a federation

● Powers were divided between a central government and several  

regional governments

● In Australia, power is divided between the federal govt and the  

govts of the 6 colonies (states)

● Australia’s Regions  

○ 6 states: 

■ Victoria

■ Western Australia

■ Queensland

■ South Australia

■ New South Wales

■ Tasmania

○ o 2 territories 

■ Australian Capital Territory

■ Northern Territory

● Fun Facts  

○ 6th largest country

○ Its own continent, a country, and an island

■ Only country in the world to occupy the entire continent

○ Capital: Canberra

■ Why? Because Sydney and Melbourne couldn’t stop arguing where the  capital should be

○ Nearly 20% of the land is occupied by deserts

○ Largest Greek population outside of Athens, Greece, located in Melbourne,  Victoria.  

○ >80% of the population live within 100KM of the coast

■ One of the world’s most urbanized coastal dwelling populations

○ Situated between Indian and Pacific Oceans

○ Has 3 island territories in the Pacific:

■ Norfolk Island

Christmas Island

■ Cocos Islands

○ In 1902, it became the 2nd country I the world to grant women the right to vote ○ In 2012, it was the most obese country in the world with 26% obesity rate,  despite being a sport-loving nation

■ Known as the sports capital of the world

○ Ugg boots

■ Called “very ugly boots” by locals, are an Australian design where a  sheepskin has been turned inside-out and turned into a boot

12

● Biodiversity  

○ Outback and Very Diverse wildlife

■ Vegetation covers 90% of the continent

● Great Barrier Reef

○ What is it?  

■ Largest living structure on earth

■ Over 2000 km long stretching from Queensland into the Pacific Ocean ■ Became a National Park in 1975

■ About 500,000 years old

○ What’s causing its death?  

■ Coral Bleaching

● Color has gone from coral

● Algae gives color

○ Warm temperatures cause algae to leave and the color  

leaves and the coral die

○ Can take decades to bounce back, if they ever do

○ Warming of ocean waters lowers pH, raising the  

acidity, killing the reef

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