Study Guide 3
Lutz Chapter 10
1. How does the Verbal Learning research differ from prior learning research studied in the course?
a. Verbal learning research dealt with human subjects and with task and theories influenced by older learning research while prior learning research dealt with learning that had been learned prior to the
research being done.
2. What type of stimuli did Ebbinghaus use in his memory research? a. Ebbinghaus used CVC non-syllables as his stimuli.
3. What is meant by Retention Interval?
a. A retention interval is the amount of time the elapses between the initial look at the list and the relooking at the list.
4. What is Ebbinghaus’ Savings Score?
a. Ebbinghaus’ saving score is the measurement for the effectiveness of memory in releasing a list.
5. What did Ebbinghaus’ data look like?
a. His data also known as the forgetting curve looked like a negative slope curve.
6. What was Ebbinghaus’ explanation for his data? Describe another explanation for his data.
a. Decay Theory Explanation
b. Interference Theory Explanation
7. Distinguish between Pro-active and Retro-active Interference. a. Proactive interference deals with older memoires that interfere with your ability to recall more recent memoires, while retroactive
interference deals with new memories that interfere with your ability to recall older memories.
8. How do some researchers use the idea of response competition to explain interference?
a. You can see this idea being used in the Stroop effect as they want to produce the correct responses, but a similar response intrudes upon them.
9. How do some researchers use the idea of list differentiation to explain interference?
10.Describe the Houston and Reynolds (1965) experiment on interference and list differentiation.
11.Draw the serial position curve. Describe the parts of the curve.If you want to learn more check out ogpn
12.How did Rundus and Atkinson (1970) explain the primacy effect (of the serial position curve)?
a. Landmarks. The first and last items on a list are distinctive simply because they are first and last.
13.What is the von Restorff Effect?
a. it is also known as the isolation effect, that predicts the when multiple stimuli are present, the stimulus that is different is most likely to be remembered.
14.Describe the paired associates task.
a. The learning of syllables, digits or words in pairs so that one member of the pair evokes recall of the other.
15.Give me an example of a concrete word. An abstract word.
a. Concrete: a noun that describes things you experience through your senses: smoke, mist
b. Abstract: a noun that describes emotions, states or innate feelings: Love, fear, courage, bravery, desire, uncertainty. If you want to learn more check out monocytes leave the circulation to become
Don't forget about the age old question of what is User Generated Content?
16.What is the effect of imagery on paired-associates learning? a. An imagery value may occur as the paired associates create meaningfulness.
17.Distinguish between an incidental learning task and an intentional learning task.
a. Incidental learning deals with unintentional or unplanned learning that comes from activities, while intentional learning deals with the persistent, continual process to understand to improve the ability to attain and apply knowledge. We also discuss several other topics like bild 4 ucsd syllabus
Lutz Chapter 11
1. Describe the properties of sensory memory.
2. Describe the row-reporting procedure used by Sperling to investigate visual sensory memory.
3. What results did Sperling find?
4. Describe the phenomenon of masking discovered by Averbach and Coriell. a.
5. What did Darwin, Turvey, and Crowder (1972) discover about auditory sensory memory?
a. They discovered that auditory sensory memory has a duration of 3-4 seconds and the auditory stimulus unfolds in time.
6. Distinguish between bottom-up vs top-down processing.
a. Bottom up deals with the flow of information that goes from the data that hits the sensory systems to LTM while top down deals with prior knowledge that can influence the processing of earlier stages. 7. What is the word superiority effect?
a. It deals with being able to better recognize letter presented within words as compared to isolated letters.
8. Describe the procedure used by Brown and the Petersons to study the duration of short term memory.
a. They gave the subjects three letters. Then gave their subjects distractor task. they varied the time of distractor task then they had to recall the three letters.
9. What were their results?
a. The subjects lost all will and time was lost by 20 seconds.
10.What did Keppel and Underwood (1963) find when they looked at the data for only the first trial for participants involved in a Brown-Peterson experiment? a. STM forgetting was due to decay. There was procedure interference as earlier letter triples were interfering with the attempt to recall the current letter triple. Don't forget about the age old question of pooja puneet
11.What did Conrad (1964) see when he looked at the errors made by participants in his short term memory study?
a. With his results, he saw that subjects made sound alike errors, not look alike errors.
12.Describe the procedure used by Wickens, Born, and Allen (1963) in their Release from Proactive Interference study.
a. They used the same procedure as Brown-Peterson Technique, but they only did 5 trials.
13.Describe the results found by Wickens, Born, and Allen.
a. They said that forgetting in STM is due to interference and that short term memory recognizes the differences in stimulus type.
14.What can we conclude about the Brown-Peterson results on the basis of the Wickens, Born, and Allen data? If you want to learn more check out output objectives pr
a. Their results showed that short term represents memory not just sound.
15.What can we conclude about the nature of the representation used in short term memory on the basis of the Wickens, Born, and Allen data? a. ghjk
16.According to George Miller, what was the capacity limit for short term memory?
a. It is the magical number 7±2 which means that STM had only 5 to 9 slots for information.
17.According to Miller, what was a way around those limits?
a. The way to get around those limits is known as chunking which means you can repackage lower level units of information into higher level units of information.
18.Name and describe the three components of short term memory according to Baddeley.
a. Sensory Memory
b. Working Memory
c. Long Term Memory
19.What did Sternberg (1966) discover about the nature of short term memory search?
a. He discovered that serial search, searching one STM at a time, was the best and fastest way, which also showed in his results.
20.Distinguish between a recall task and a recognition memory task. a. A recall task deals with retrieving from memory while recognition task deals with being able to recognize information as it is familiar.
21.What did Bahrick, Bahrick, and Wittlinger (1975) discover about the permanence of memories in Long Term Memory?
22.Give me examples of misleading questions asked by Loftus in her research on eyewitness testimony.
23.How did these questions influence the recall of participants in her experiment?
24.What did Loftus mean by overwriting?
a. Memories can be changed by later events.
Lutz Chapter 12
1. Distinguish between episodic vs semantic memory.
a. Episodic memory which is also autobiographical memory which deals with memory for specific event in your life, while semantic memory deals with general world knowledge.
2. What was Collins and Quillian’s (1969) cognitive economy principle? a. Is was the properties that are true of a more general category that are present only at the general category node not at specific member category nodes.
3. What does a link represent in a Collins and Quillian network? a. A link represents a relationship between concepts.
4. Sketch an example of a Collins and Quillian Hierarchical Network. a.
5. What type of data supports the Collins and Quillian Model of Semantic Memory?
a. data that would be seen used in a network.
6. What type of finding (Smith, Shoben, and Rips (1974)) is inconsistent with the Collins and Quillian Theory?
a. The finding they found was known as the typicality effect which is longer RT for a typical category member.
7. Describe what Rosch meant by describing concept structure as being composed of a prototype and fuzzy boundaries.
a. Natural categories have good and bad categories and have fuzzy boundaries. Natural categories have the structure of a prototype. 8. Give me examples of the Superordinate Level of categories. The Basic Level. The Subordinate Level.
a. Superordinate Level Clothing Fruit Vehicle b. Basic Shirt Apple Car
c. Subordinate Sweater Red Apple Sedan
9. How did Collins and Loftus (1975) modify the Collins and Quillian Network Model of Semantic Memory?
a. By having any semantic association will have a link in the semantic network and the links will not all be the same length.
10.What is meant by the term spreading activation?
a. An activated node sends activation out through assorted links. 11.What is priming?
a. Is when experience of a 1st stimulus facilitates the process of the 2nd stimulus.
12.Describe the Fan Effect.
a. The activation will be slower/weaker when it is broken into more parts as opposed to when it is broken into few parts.
13.What is a script?
a. An organized body of knowledge about a common activity. 14.What did Bower, Black, and Turner (1979) find when studying recall of script based stories?
a. They found that the best recall was for relevant details and the worse recall was for irrelevant details.
15.Distinguish between a script and a schema.
a. Scripts deal with organized body of knowledge about a common activity, while schema describes a pattern of thought or behavior that organizes categories of information and the relationships among them.
16.How did Smith, Shoben, and Rips (1974) think a concept was represented? a. It is represented as a list a features.
17.What did Smith, Shoben, and Rips think happened (in semantic memory) when you were trying to answer the question “Is a canary a bird?” a. Two types of features would be defining the characteristic features. 18.According to Smith, Shoben, and Rips what would happen if you were trying to answer the question “Is a penguin a bird?”
a. There would be a faster reaction time when looking at the typical features and a slower reaction time when looking at atypical features.