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UTEP / Psychology / PSYC 3320 / ebbinghaus savings score

ebbinghaus savings score

ebbinghaus savings score

Description

School: University of Texas at El Paso
Department: Psychology
Course: Learning and Memory
Professor: Anthony blum
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: learning, and, and memory
Cost: 50
Name: Study Guide Exam 3
Description: I missed a couple of days as was said in the email, but this is most of the study guide!
Uploaded: 11/30/2016
5 Pages 9 Views 17 Unlocks
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PSYC 3320


How does the Verbal Learning research differ from prior learning research studied in the course?



Fall 2016

Study Guide 3

Lutz Chapter 10

1. How does the Verbal Learning research differ from prior learning research  studied in the course?

a. Verbal learning research dealt with human subjects and with task and  theories influenced by older learning research while prior learning  research dealt with learning that had been learned prior to the  

research being done.

2. What type of stimuli did Ebbinghaus use in his memory research? a. Ebbinghaus used CVC non-syllables as his stimuli.

3. What is meant by Retention Interval?

a. A retention interval is the amount of time the elapses between the  initial look at the list and the relooking at the list.

4. What is Ebbinghaus’ Savings Score?

a. Ebbinghaus’ saving score is the measurement for the effectiveness of  memory in releasing a list.


What type of stimuli did Ebbinghaus use in his memory research?



5. What did Ebbinghaus’ data look like?

a. His data also known as the forgetting curve looked like a negative  slope curve.

6. What was Ebbinghaus’ explanation for his data? Describe another  explanation for his data.

a. Decay Theory Explanation

b. Interference Theory Explanation

7. Distinguish between Pro-active and Retro-active Interference. a. Proactive interference deals with older memoires that interfere with  your ability to recall more recent memoires, while retroactive  

interference deals with new memories that interfere with your ability to recall older memories.

8. How do some researchers use the idea of response competition to explain  interference?

a. You can see this idea being used in the Stroop effect as they want to  produce the correct responses, but a similar response intrudes upon  them.


What is meant by Retention Interval?



9. How do some researchers use the idea of list differentiation to explain  interference?

a.

10.Describe the Houston and Reynolds (1965) experiment on interference and  list differentiation.

a.

11.Draw the serial position curve. Describe the parts of the curve.If you want to learn more check out ogpn

a.

12.How did Rundus and Atkinson (1970) explain the primacy effect (of the serial  position curve)?

a. Landmarks. The first and last items on a list are distinctive simply  because they are first and last.

13.What is the von Restorff Effect?

a. it is also known as the isolation effect, that predicts the when multiple  stimuli are present, the stimulus that is different is most likely to be  remembered.

14.Describe the paired associates task.

a. The learning of syllables, digits or words in pairs so that one member  of the pair evokes recall of the other.

15.Give me an example of a concrete word. An abstract word.

a. Concrete: a noun that describes things you experience through your  senses: smoke, mist

b. Abstract: a noun that describes emotions, states or innate feelings:  Love, fear, courage, bravery, desire, uncertainty. If you want to learn more check out monocytes leave the circulation to become
Don't forget about the age old question of what is User Generated Content?

16.What is the effect of imagery on paired-associates learning? a. An imagery value may occur as the paired associates create  meaningfulness.

17.Distinguish between an incidental learning task and an intentional learning  task.

a. Incidental learning deals with unintentional or unplanned learning that  comes from activities, while intentional learning deals with the  persistent, continual process to understand to improve the ability to  attain and apply knowledge. We also discuss several other topics like bild 4 ucsd syllabus

Lutz Chapter 11

1. Describe the properties of sensory memory.

a. g

2. Describe the row-reporting procedure used by Sperling to investigate visual  sensory memory.

a.

3. What results did Sperling find?

a.

4. Describe the phenomenon of masking discovered by Averbach and Coriell. a.

5. What did Darwin, Turvey, and Crowder (1972) discover about auditory  sensory memory?

a. They discovered that auditory sensory memory has a duration of 3-4  seconds and the auditory stimulus unfolds in time.

6. Distinguish between bottom-up vs top-down processing.

a. Bottom up deals with the flow of information that goes from the data  that hits the sensory systems to LTM while top down deals with prior  knowledge that can influence the processing of earlier stages. 7. What is the word superiority effect?

a. It deals with being able to better recognize letter presented within  words as compared to isolated letters.

8. Describe the procedure used by Brown and the Petersons to study the  duration of short term memory.

a. They gave the subjects three letters. Then gave their subjects  distractor task. they varied the time of distractor task then they had to  recall the three letters.

9. What were their results?

a. The subjects lost all will and time was lost by 20 seconds.

10.What did Keppel and Underwood (1963) find when they looked at the data for only the first trial for participants involved in a Brown-Peterson experiment? a. STM forgetting was due to decay. There was procedure interference as  earlier letter triples were interfering with the attempt to recall the  current letter triple. Don't forget about the age old question of pooja puneet

11.What did Conrad (1964) see when he looked at the errors made by  participants in his short term memory study?

a. With his results, he saw that subjects made sound alike errors, not look alike errors.

12.Describe the procedure used by Wickens, Born, and Allen (1963) in their  Release from Proactive Interference study.

a. They used the same procedure as Brown-Peterson Technique, but they  only did 5 trials.

13.Describe the results found by Wickens, Born, and Allen.

a. They said that forgetting in STM is due to interference and that short  term memory recognizes the differences in stimulus type.

14.What can we conclude about the Brown-Peterson results on the basis of the  Wickens, Born, and Allen data? If you want to learn more check out output objectives pr

a. Their results showed that short term represents memory not just  sound.

15.What can we conclude about the nature of the representation used in short  term memory on the basis of the Wickens, Born, and Allen data? a. ghjk

16.According to George Miller, what was the capacity limit for short term  memory?

a. It is the magical number 7±2 which means that STM had only 5 to 9  slots for information.

17.According to Miller, what was a way around those limits?

a. The way to get around those limits is known as chunking which means  you can repackage lower level units of information into higher level  units of information.

18.Name and describe the three components of short term memory according to Baddeley.

a. Sensory Memory

b. Working Memory

c. Long Term Memory

19.What did Sternberg (1966) discover about the nature of short term memory  search?

a. He discovered that serial search, searching one STM at a time, was the  best and fastest way, which also showed in his results.

20.Distinguish between a recall task and a recognition memory task. a. A recall task deals with retrieving from memory while recognition task  deals with being able to recognize information as it is familiar.

21.What did Bahrick, Bahrick, and Wittlinger (1975) discover about the  permanence of memories in Long Term Memory?

a.

22.Give me examples of misleading questions asked by Loftus in her research on eyewitness testimony.

a.

23.How did these questions influence the recall of participants in her  experiment?

a.

24.What did Loftus mean by overwriting?

a. Memories can be changed by later events.

Lutz Chapter 12

1. Distinguish between episodic vs semantic memory.

a. Episodic memory which is also autobiographical memory which deals  with memory for specific event in your life, while semantic memory  deals with general world knowledge.

2. What was Collins and Quillian’s (1969) cognitive economy principle? a. Is was the properties that are true of a more general category that are  present only at the general category node not at specific member  category nodes.

3. What does a link represent in a Collins and Quillian network? a. A link represents a relationship between concepts.

4. Sketch an example of a Collins and Quillian Hierarchical Network. a.

5. What type of data supports the Collins and Quillian Model of Semantic  Memory?

a. data that would be seen used in a network.

6. What type of finding (Smith, Shoben, and Rips (1974)) is inconsistent with the Collins and Quillian Theory?

a. The finding they found was known as the typicality effect which is  longer RT for a typical category member.

7. Describe what Rosch meant by describing concept structure as being  composed of a prototype and fuzzy boundaries.

a. Natural categories have good and bad categories and have fuzzy  boundaries. Natural categories have the structure of a prototype. 8. Give me examples of the Superordinate Level of categories. The Basic Level.  The Subordinate Level.

a. Superordinate Level Clothing Fruit Vehicle b. Basic Shirt Apple Car

c. Subordinate Sweater Red Apple Sedan

9. How did Collins and Loftus (1975) modify the Collins and Quillian Network  Model of Semantic Memory?

a. By having any semantic association will have a link in the semantic  network and the links will not all be the same length.

10.What is meant by the term spreading activation?

a. An activated node sends activation out through assorted links. 11.What is priming?

a. Is when experience of a 1st stimulus facilitates the process of the 2nd stimulus.

12.Describe the Fan Effect.

a. The activation will be slower/weaker when it is broken into more parts  as opposed to when it is broken into few parts.

13.What is a script?

a. An organized body of knowledge about a common activity. 14.What did Bower, Black, and Turner (1979) find when studying recall of script based stories?

a. They found that the best recall was for relevant details and the worse  recall was for irrelevant details.

15.Distinguish between a script and a schema.

a. Scripts deal with organized body of knowledge about a common  activity, while schema describes a pattern of thought or behavior that  organizes categories of information and the relationships among them.

16.How did Smith, Shoben, and Rips (1974) think a concept was represented? a. It is represented as a list a features.

17.What did Smith, Shoben, and Rips think happened (in semantic memory)  when you were trying to answer the question “Is a canary a bird?” a. Two types of features would be defining the characteristic features. 18.According to Smith, Shoben, and Rips what would happen if you were trying  to answer the question “Is a penguin a bird?”

a. There would be a faster reaction time when looking at the typical  features and a slower reaction time when looking at atypical features.

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