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NMSU / Communications / JOUR 265 / If you have a stronger perception of threat than efficacy what cogniti

If you have a stronger perception of threat than efficacy what cogniti

If you have a stronger perception of threat than efficacy what cogniti


School: New Mexico State University
Department: Communications
Course: The Principles of Communication
Professor: Armfield
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: communication, Intro to Communication, myths, Communications Small Group, EPPM, SocialMedia, aggies, and NMSU
Cost: 50
Name: COMM265G FINAL Exam Study Guide
Description: This study guide covers the chapters, lectures, and articles that are all action packed in the exam on Tuesday December 6, 2016. I'm uploading this earlier so it is available sooner, so the Myths of Communication notes will be uploaded on Friday December 2, 2016 IMMEDIATELY after the 11:30 class that I'm in. Within this study guide is also some freebie exam questions. Happy Studying!
Uploaded: 12/01/2016
5 Pages 49 Views 2 Unlocks

COMM265G Exam 3 Fall 2016  

If you have a stronger perception of threat than efficacy what cognitive process will you experience?

Chapter 2: Verbal Communication 

∙ Symbols=anything that stands for something else

∙ Verbal communication=*Our use of symbols to generate meaning

o Arbitrary= we do not have a natural relationship with the things they represent; ex. table

o Conventional= they represent meanings that have been agreed upon by members of linguistic  communities



Verbal communication

Spoken words

Written words

Nonverbal communication

Tone of voice, sighs,  


Gestures, movement,  

appearance, facial ,  

expressions, etc.

What are the models of communication?

We also discuss several other topics like Why do the constellations we see depend on latitude and time of year?


∙ Exhibits displacement

∙ Allows us to talk about things that aren't there or in our presence

∙ Self reflexive

∙ Creates our social worlds and social realities  

∙ Contextual  

∙ Meaning is never derived entirely from the words alone

The Functions of Verbal Communication 


∙ Signification= the process by which signs (and therefore meaning) are produced  ∙ Signifier= the expression of a sign

∙ Signified= the concept of the thing being referred to

What are the 4 stages of group development?

∙ Denotative meaning= a commonly held meaning, like a dictionary definition ∙ Connotative meaning= meaning from out personal experiences with the phenomenon We also discuss several other topics like What are pieces of music?


∙ Groups are a product of the ways people communicate them into existence Jargon= a specialized vocabulary associated with a particular group

Slang= an informal use of language that is often associated with a particular group THE LANGUAGE AND IDENTITY FUNCTION: 

Avowal= the process of expressing who one's self is  

Ascription= the process in which others express who one is

Chapter 12: Health Communication

(Why did Witte come up with EPPM) Problems w/ other theories : complicated, specificity,  predictive power, success v. failure.

The model is based on Leventhal's PPM If you want to learn more check out How do the types of statistical test differ from one another?

Threat & Efficacy are already in the theory

Kim W. added danger control & fear control.

Danger control= a cognitive process where someone rationally evaluates a threat and  thinks of strategies to fight that threat.

Ex. Smokers need ways to quit.

Fear control= emotionally or irrationally process the threats and you do not fight the  threats If you want to learn more check out Which country was the first to adopt family planning?

2 Cognitive Appraisals

Threat Efficacy

Susceptibility (do I think I can get

cancer?) Self-efficacy (do I feel that I can do something about this threat?) ****

Severity (if I get cancer will it kill me?) Response efficacy (how easy is the recommended  response?)


To get danger control your feelings of efficacy have to be higher than threat. Fear control is when you're way to scared and have way to little efficacy. Different ideas and approaches are needed in different communities. Every one is different. Critical point is the balance in-between threat and efficacy

Lecture & Comm. Tech Articles: 

* Computer-mediated communication (CMC)= any human communication achieved  through computer or internet technology

* Textual Chemistry: when two people achieve a "vibe" or "chemistry" through texting;  texting compatibility may be an important indicator of how communication would work in  a long-term relationship If you want to learn more check out What pertains to the cost added by producing one extra item of product?

The Online Disinhibition Effect=Tendency for people to say and do things in cyberspace  that they would not ordinarily say and do in face-to-face encounters

"cost of caring": the users who DO feel more stress are those whose use of technology is  tied to higher level of awareness of distressing events in the others' lives

Social media through studies has shown to not cause higher levels of stress Online daters tend to engage in 2 processes:

1. Selective Self- Presentation (SSP)

o The means by which a communicator is able to convey a desired impression to others;  people tend to highlight positive information that makes them most desirable, they don’t  necessarily lie but they embellish If you want to learn more check out What are examples of non-point sources of pollution?

2. Warranting

o Information with warranting value cannot be easily altered or falsified; links to blogs,  personal websites, or other verifiable sources, specific info

Broad Patterns found:

1. Women report more stress than men.

2. Women are more aware of stressful events between their family and friends 3. Social media has made men and women more aware of events that are stressful  around them.

4. #3 is a contributor to people's own stress.

Chapter 11: Small Group Communication 

Problem solving group: attempt to discover a solution to a problem by analyzing the  problem thoroughly and deriving potential solutions

Decision-making group: same as problem solving but ADDED the function of deciding  which solution will be implemented, how and when it will be put into effect, how progress  will be monitored how the solution will be handled, and how the program will all in all be  evaluated.  


1. Forming: no conflict, people feel valued and accepted, are also flexible. 2. Storming: goals are clarified, each member is assigned a role, group develops  structure; conflict emerges  

3. Norming: groups solidify each members roles and set rules, conforming starts and  there is less conflict.  

4. Performing: The group overcomes obstacles together, meet goals, and conflict is  resolved.

5. Adjourning: group dismembers, some people maintain relationships. Abilene Paradox: the ability to manage agreement NOT the ability to manage conflict

Lecture: Myths of Communication 

MYTH NOTES WILL BE UPLOADED AFTER THE LECTURE 12/2/2016 3 Models of Communication:  

* Linear Model, first model of communication:


Interactional Model  

Receiver->message->sender>feedback->channel->feedback->Receiver Transactional Model  


<-Chan() nel->  



4 Types of Noise: -physical: vocal noise outwards -physiological: hearing loss, sickness,  yawning(physical too), bodily functions... -semantic: not understanding, confusion, - psychological: daydreaming, thinking about what you're going to do tonight..  

Situation or context...such as...  

1. Chronological level-Timing 2. Situational level- Physical environment 3. Relational level Different types/stages of relationships 4. Functional level- purpose/objective

-One Can Not not Communicate, The receiver oriented view; everything is intended;  One can not communicate. Sender oriented; not intended


Q) The communication of identity using symbols is a 2 part process. Specifically, ___ is  the process of expressing who one's self is and ___ is the process in which other  express who one is.

A) avowal; ascription

Q) If you have a stronger perception of threat than efficacy what cognitive process will you  experience?



Q) The tendency for people to say and do things in Cyberspace that they would not  normally do in face-to-face encounters is referred to as the:

A) B. Online disinbition effect

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