COMM265G Exam 3 Fall 2016
Chapter 2: Verbal Communication
∙ Symbols=anything that stands for something else
∙ Verbal communication=*Our use of symbols to generate meaning
o Arbitrary= we do not have a natural relationship with the things they represent; ex. table
o Conventional= they represent meanings that have been agreed upon by members of linguistic communities
Tone of voice, sighs,
appearance, facial ,
We also discuss several other topics like Why do the constellations we see depend on latitude and time of year?
CHARACTERISTICS OF VERBAL COMMUNICATION
∙ Exhibits displacement
∙ Allows us to talk about things that aren't there or in our presence
∙ Self reflexive
∙ Creates our social worlds and social realities
∙ Meaning is never derived entirely from the words alone
The Functions of Verbal Communication
THE REFERENTIAL FUNCTION
∙ Signification= the process by which signs (and therefore meaning) are produced ∙ Signifier= the expression of a sign
∙ Signified= the concept of the thing being referred to
∙ Denotative meaning= a commonly held meaning, like a dictionary definition ∙ Connotative meaning= meaning from out personal experiences with the phenomenon We also discuss several other topics like What are pieces of music?
THE GROUP MAINTENCANCE FUNCTION
∙ Groups are a product of the ways people communicate them into existence Jargon= a specialized vocabulary associated with a particular group
Slang= an informal use of language that is often associated with a particular group THE LANGUAGE AND IDENTITY FUNCTION:
Avowal= the process of expressing who one's self is
Ascription= the process in which others express who one is
Chapter 12: Health Communication
(Why did Witte come up with EPPM) Problems w/ other theories : complicated, specificity, predictive power, success v. failure.
The model is based on Leventhal's PPM If you want to learn more check out How do the types of statistical test differ from one another?
Threat & Efficacy are already in the theory
Kim W. added danger control & fear control.
Danger control= a cognitive process where someone rationally evaluates a threat and thinks of strategies to fight that threat.
Ex. Smokers need ways to quit.
Fear control= emotionally or irrationally process the threats and you do not fight the threats If you want to learn more check out Which country was the first to adopt family planning?
2 Cognitive Appraisals
Susceptibility (do I think I can get
cancer?) Self-efficacy (do I feel that I can do something about this threat?) ****
Severity (if I get cancer will it kill me?) Response efficacy (how easy is the recommended response?)
NEED TO BALANCE ALL 4
To get danger control your feelings of efficacy have to be higher than threat. Fear control is when you're way to scared and have way to little efficacy. Different ideas and approaches are needed in different communities. Every one is different. Critical point is the balance in-between threat and efficacy
Lecture & Comm. Tech Articles:
* Computer-mediated communication (CMC)= any human communication achieved through computer or internet technology
* Textual Chemistry: when two people achieve a "vibe" or "chemistry" through texting; texting compatibility may be an important indicator of how communication would work in a long-term relationship If you want to learn more check out What pertains to the cost added by producing one extra item of product?
The Online Disinhibition Effect=Tendency for people to say and do things in cyberspace that they would not ordinarily say and do in face-to-face encounters
"cost of caring": the users who DO feel more stress are those whose use of technology is tied to higher level of awareness of distressing events in the others' lives
Social media through studies has shown to not cause higher levels of stress Online daters tend to engage in 2 processes:
1. Selective Self- Presentation (SSP)
o The means by which a communicator is able to convey a desired impression to others; people tend to highlight positive information that makes them most desirable, they don’t necessarily lie but they embellish If you want to learn more check out What are examples of non-point sources of pollution?
o Information with warranting value cannot be easily altered or falsified; links to blogs, personal websites, or other verifiable sources, specific info
Broad Patterns found:
1. Women report more stress than men.
2. Women are more aware of stressful events between their family and friends 3. Social media has made men and women more aware of events that are stressful around them.
4. #3 is a contributor to people's own stress.
Chapter 11: Small Group Communication
Problem solving group: attempt to discover a solution to a problem by analyzing the problem thoroughly and deriving potential solutions
Decision-making group: same as problem solving but ADDED the function of deciding which solution will be implemented, how and when it will be put into effect, how progress will be monitored how the solution will be handled, and how the program will all in all be evaluated.
STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT:
1. Forming: no conflict, people feel valued and accepted, are also flexible. 2. Storming: goals are clarified, each member is assigned a role, group develops structure; conflict emerges
3. Norming: groups solidify each members roles and set rules, conforming starts and there is less conflict.
4. Performing: The group overcomes obstacles together, meet goals, and conflict is resolved.
5. Adjourning: group dismembers, some people maintain relationships. Abilene Paradox: the ability to manage agreement NOT the ability to manage conflict
Lecture: Myths of Communication
MYTH NOTES WILL BE UPLOADED AFTER THE LECTURE 12/2/2016 3 Models of Communication:
* Linear Model, first model of communication:
Receiver->message->sender>feedback->channel->feedback->Receiver Transactional Model
4 Types of Noise: -physical: vocal noise outwards -physiological: hearing loss, sickness, yawning(physical too), bodily functions... -semantic: not understanding, confusion, - psychological: daydreaming, thinking about what you're going to do tonight..
Situation or context...such as...
1. Chronological level-Timing 2. Situational level- Physical environment 3. Relational level Different types/stages of relationships 4. Functional level- purpose/objective
-One Can Not not Communicate, The receiver oriented view; everything is intended; One can not communicate. Sender oriented; not intended
FREEBIE EXAM QUESTIONS
Q) The communication of identity using symbols is a 2 part process. Specifically, ___ is the process of expressing who one's self is and ___ is the process in which other express who one is.
A) avowal; ascription
Q) If you have a stronger perception of threat than efficacy what cognitive process will you experience?
A) FEAR CONTROL
FREEBIE EXAM QUESTION:
Q) The tendency for people to say and do things in Cyberspace that they would not normally do in face-to-face encounters is referred to as the:
A) B. Online disinbition effect