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adv 310 uiuc

adv 310 uiuc

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School: University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign
Department: Advertising
Course: Intro to Public Relations
Professor: Mike yao
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: public relations
Cost: 50
Name: ADV 310 Quiz 2 Study Guide
Description: These notes cover from Week 7 after the 1st quiz to now. Its covers what a theory is various theories primary and secondary research qualitative and quantitative research ethics and the constitution writing objectives tactics and strategies glocalization and globalization advertising privacy rights
Uploaded: 12/01/2016
13 Pages 206 Views 0 Unlocks
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o How does PR, through media, influence the society as a whole?




o Under what conditions will they act the way they do?




o Why do people act the way they do?



ADV Quiz 2 Study Guide What is a theory? ∙ Textbook: a prediction of how events and actions are related ∙ Theory: a statement or set of statements that explain( or attempt to explain)  a phenomenon of interest o Why do people act the way they do? o Under what conditions will they act the way they do? What is If you want to learn more check out What are the Steps in Creative Research?
Don't forget about the age old question of What do you mean by path goal theory?
We also discuss several other topics like Who is Bernoulli?
If you want to learn more check out Differentiate between Feedforward vs. Concurrent, and Feedback Control.
We also discuss several other topics like What are the three subjects studied in Philosophy?
Don't forget about the age old question of What does the term Treasury stock mean?
a theory? ∙ Theory is important because o It helps us make better decisions when we are faced with a problem o Theories explain and predict ∙ Different types of theories o Expressed as laws  Physics  Mathematics o Expressed as rules  If a then b o Expressed as maps  System theory o Decision guides  Situational theory PR as mass communication and media studies ∙ Key Questions: o How does PR, through media, influence the society as a whole? o How would our society influence PR practices? ∙ Useful theoretical approaches o All theories about mass communication o Theories about media and culture PR as a sub field of social/behavioral science ∙ Key question: o How does PR work? o The social and psychological process behind PR ∙ Useful theoretical approaches: o Theories about persuasion ∙ In PR, why do we need theory? The more we can use theory, the more we  have control over our actions PR as a function of business/organizational management ∙ Key Question: o How to do PR? ∙ Commonly theoretical approaches: o Management theorieso Theories about relationship management o Grounded theories (case studies) o Pragmatic approach- any theory that helps me solve the problem will  be used Two dominant theoretical perspectives Social exchange theory ∙ Actions in relationships produce rewards and costs o Rewards: pleasurable outcome produced within the relationship o Costs: any negative outcome produced within relationship o Both: can be physical, emotional, social ∙ Overtime all relationships produce a “profit” or a “loss” o Profits = Net income > costs o Loss = Net income < costs ∙ Stability of relationship dependent upon o How consistent profit or loss is in relationship o Availability of alternatives Principles of ethics in PR Social exchange theory ∙ Actions in relationship produce rewards and costs o Overtime all relationships produce a profit or a loss ∙ Why is this theory useful for PR? o Helps explain process by which individuals and groups disconnect with  organization  Recall: relationship management o Can be applied to a wide range of relationships  Not just customer/organization  North Korea and US o Reminds us that different types of relationships have different types of  rewards/costs o As PR practioners need to be aware of costs and rewards for publics  What costs are there? What rewards?  Consistent cost or reward?  Can we do anything about it? Two dominant theoretical perspectives in PR 1) PR as relationship management 2) PR as organizational function Systems theory ∙ Many systems theories ∙ A general approach to understand human behavior ∙ Many specific systems theories in communication, psychology∙ A system is any set if distinct parts that interact to form a complex whole  (human body, clock, a company) ∙ All systems theories are based on one key idea o Made up of smaller systems o Smaller systems interact and are interconnected ∙ All systems theories try to understand o Changes in one system affect changes in another system ∙ Systems model of organization and environment o Key ideas  Interdependence or organization and systems inside and outside organization  Through systems can be open or closed most are open  External/environmental constraints o Two terms  Dominant coalition ∙ Group of people within organization that makes key  decisions  Boundary spanners ∙ PR look inside and outside organization ∙ University of Illinois o Undergraduates-key public  What issues are facing undergraduates  How might that affect and undergraduate, or other publics  What about external environment o When making changes to one part of the system, often causes change  to other systems  System shocks PR as propaganda persuasion ∙ Cialdini six principle of persuasion o Reciprocity o Commitment and consistency Social exchange: what keep the relationship stable Systems: factors in the environment Secondary vs Primary research Secondary research ∙ Research that uses existing data collected by someone else to answer a  question you are interested in ∙ Contrast to data you collect Examples: PR Web ∙ Relying on data that’s already complied and organized. Examples of  secondary research include: o Reportso Studies by the government o Trade agencies ∙ Benefits of secondary research: o Data is already collected Primary research ∙ You collect you own data ∙ Benefit: o Data directly suits your needs o Control and rigor ∙ Disadvantage o Expensive o Required training o Results are not immediately available Qualitative vs. Quantitative research Qualitative Research ∙ research that attempts to understand how an individual experiences or  interprets a situation ∙ Data usually gathered via observation, interviews, verbal interactions ∙ Research is present, often making the observation, interpretations Qualitative Research ∙ Benefits: o Easy to collect data o Data is rich with lots of details o More bottom up approach, let data lead to conclusions ∙ Disadvantage: o Difficult to interpret o Takes time o Sample size often small, harder to generalize ∙ Frequently used methods: o Ethnography o In depth interviews o Focus groups o Open ended questions on surveys Quantitative Research ∙ Research that examines situations, events and or phenomena through  numerical representation ∙ Statistical analysis being part of interpretation ∙ Things we use number to measure o Attitudes o Beliefs o Intentions o Behaviors∙ Commonly used quantitative research in PR/ADV o Surveys/polls o Experiments o Content analysis ∙ Benefits ∙ Disadvantages The constitution and PR ∙ Restrictions on free speech o Speech or actions that create unnecessary danger or panic o Defama tion-untrue statements that cause harm to someone’s  reputation o Violation of privacy o Regulatory agencies o Intellectual property laws PR and ethics ∙ Even though you can say it, should you say it? For what reason ∙ VW lies about emissions tests Why should we care about ethics ∙ PR reputation for bad behavior o Field has often struggled to define what is ethical ∙ PR dept. often sources of ethical stance of organization o Surveys indicate that executives look to PR dept. for guidance  ∙ Transparency vs. economical stance ∙ Ethics: the theory or study of correct behavior o Focus is on how we should act or what we ought to do o Explores how we should act in situations, often with competing  outcomes or loyalties Approaches to ethics o Deontological ethics o Duty ethics: places emphasis on the process or means that produces  the result  Means justify the ends o Teleological ethics o Consequentialism o Places emphasis on the end results of an action to determine its  “goodness” o Look at the outcome of your actions o Dr. has to tell you, you have months to live  “ends justify the means” Deontological ethics applied to PR: o Focus is on doing what is “right” (adhering to correct principles) and not  worry about outcomeo Following code of ethics important even if clients reputation damaged, causes short term problems for client o Would this person lie to (or for) a client?: No Teleological ethics applied to PR: o Focus is on the outcome o What is most important is positive result o If you tell a lie, cut corners, fudge billing, it’s all good if the client (and  boss) is/are happy o Would this person lie to (or for) a client? Yes What is your view on ethics? o Individual application o Value of knowing yourself prior to being placed in settings where you have to  make decisions o What is important to you o Are there things that are always right? Always wrong? o What principles guide your behavior Corporate ethics o The same ethics issues can be applied to a business organization as a whole o How should a business behave? o How should individuals behave? o For PR, discussions around ethics tend to focus on two areas o Transparency  Practice of open and honest communication between an  organization and its public o Accountability  Acknowledgement of and assumption of responsibility for  actions by organization o Can be at corporate level, as well as individual level Transparency o Organization publicizes value, ethical principles and how they are maintained o Leaders of organization are accessible and open to public/publics o Including critics o Organizations report “good” things but also when company makes mistakes o Allow external individuals or groups to audit organization Examples: Walmart Roadtrip and BP oil spill Hierarchy of objectives∙ Acceptance/attitude objectives o Are evaluation positive or negative o Recall: attitude= a measure how positively or negatively someone  evaluates an object o How we measure acceptance objectives  Interest: how people respond to message  Attitude: is their evaluation more positive or negative?  Recall: pre-/post- test o Sample objective:  To create a positive attitude toward the university name change  among 75% of current donors within first year of name change ∙ Action objective o Addresses some type of desired measurable behavior from target  public o Sample action objective:   To increase new donor by 5% within one year of name change  implementation Writing smart objectives ∙ S.M.A.R.T ∙ Specific: have a specific outcome or end point o What will we do? Who will be affected? o PR: publics o Ad/Marketing: customers, markets ∙ Measurable: indicates how much change should occur, will help show success or failure o Most common: increase, decrease, percent, or count ∙ Attainable: should be able to achieve objective given resources (time, money, knowledge ,etc) ∙ Relevant: should relate to goals of organization and /or campaign o Do objectives help achieve goals? o Do they relate to mission, vision, value and or strategic plan or  organization ∙ Time-based: specify when results of action should be achieved Example of a SMART objective: UIUC: to increase the four year grad rate by 5% by 2016 Goals: broad outcome that lets organization know it has succeeded Lecture 2 PR Strategy and Tactics Strategies: a statement that describes a general approach to accomplishing a goal  or objective ∙ Identifies explicitly ir implicitly a class category of actions ∙ Serves as link between objectives and tactics∙ Strategy comes first, tactics after Tactics ∙ Task or set of task that represents a concrete expressions of a strategy ∙ Tactics should be o Strong enough to know if tactic is implemented o Type of thing that gets assigned to individual or team o Able to answer question: did employee do___? Two categories of strategies ∙ Proactive strategies o Launched under conditions and timeline that fit best for organization  Doing what organization wants when it wants ∙ Reactive strategy o Strategies that respond to “influences and opportunities from  environment”  Organization forced to act because something happens outside  its control o Not just crisis Proactive strategy ∙ Improve organizational performance o No PR can save a poorly management company ∙ Special events o Influence the influencer and media attention o Banquet, forum, speeches, grand opening ∙ Forming alliances and coalitions o Should provide benefit for both o American cancer society and NFL ∙ Proactively seek media coverage ∙ Guest appearances ∙ Engaged dialogue through owned media Key factors consider in strategizing ∙ Effective message o Requires excellence communication skills ∙ Public’s reaction o Deep knowledges of target groups ∙ Channel of communication o Requires deep knowledge of the media ∙ It’s all about timing o Strategic thinking, when to do what -------------------------------------  Key factors to consider in strategizing∙ Effective messaging ∙ Publics reaction ∙ Channel of communication ∙ Its all about timing Tactics: task or set of tasks that represent a concrete of a strategy ∙ It should help achieve the objective of course Tactics that use interpersonal communication ∙ Employ face to face interaction to communicate with publics, accomplish  campaign objective ∙ May be one to one, one to few, one to many o Examples: plant tour, open house, town hall meetings, convention or  trade shows, stokehold meetings, speeches, festivals, luncheons, fund  raising events ∙ More intimate , direct control Tactics that use organizational media: ∙ Using information or content created by organization to communicate,  achieve goals and objectives o Brochures ∙ Less intimate Tactics that target news media to achieve goal/objective ∙ Earned media-unpaid positive media coverage about client, org. o Increasingly clogs treated like media o Less control over how message will be taken Tactics that use promotional media or paid media ∙ Increasingly PR campaigns contain paid element (or ad campaigns contain  earned media) o Paid media: ads in broadcast, print, online, sponsored content o Promotion items: clothes, items, home items with organizational name Client: local blood bank ∙ Research: people often give blood once and don’t come back, complain about check in procedure, people in community don’t know what blood bank does ∙ Client says: need to increase awareness about blood bank, increase blood  donations ∙ Objective: to increase repeated donations by 8% by May 1 ∙ Strategy: improve performance ∙ Tactics: Implement computer check in, sign up online ahead of time ∙ Strategy 2: using earned media to increase awareness ∙ Tactics 2: pitch stories to local media about someone helped by blood  donation, pitch to local bloggersNext step: Action and communication: implementing your ideas or plans Covered in the text: ∙ Selecting a target audience ∙ Identifying critical paths ∙ Channels of influence ∙ Stakeholder analysis What is not covered in text: ∙ Budgeting  ∙ Timeline Budgeting ∙ Budget planning o Process of determining how organizational resources will be used to  implement tactics and achieve objectives o Two types of budgets  Financial cost ∙ Things that require money  Human capital/resources ∙ Things that require people o Financial budget:  “anything where you have to write a check” ∙ Don’t overlook the small items, they add up  Should be very practicable  Cheap is not always better o Human capital/resources  Personnel: number of people + amount of time needed to  implement tactic  Very easy to forget or underestimate the cost of having people  do things Timeline  Process of establishing schedule for completing task, set of tasks  Identify potential “chokepoints” points where X has to be done before Y Learn to build in time for problems, delays Globalization vs glocalization Globalization: while the macroeconomic activities have become more globalized in  the last three decades, the microeconomics practices focused on the process of  glocalization Glocalization: the adaptation of international products around the particularities of a local culture in which they are sold. The process allows integrated of local markets  into world markets.Example of Glocalization:  ∙ 10 years ago, McDonalds only had hamburgers. Now you see rice in Asian  countries, the way you cook the chicken. ∙ Pizza Hut adapting to Asia, more upscale ∙ Coronel adapts attire in Asia The cultural Iceberg: ∙ The surface level: culture, food, flags ∙ The deep culture: customs, religion, concepts The challenges of global marketing and PR ∙ Differences in the surface culture dimensions o Dimensions o Customs/rituals ∙ Differences/conflicts in deeper culture dimensions o Religious beliefs o Political ideologies o Cultural heritage Case 1: Community relations and globalization ∙ Forging good relationship with local communities as an outsider o US companies overseas o Overseas companies in the US Case 2: the country of origin effect ∙ Also known as the made in image and ye nationality bias, is a psychological  effect describing how consumers attitudes, perception and purchasing  decisions are influences by products’ country of origin labeling ∙ Country of origin dimensions: o The origin of the brand o Origin of the production o Origin of the product o Origin of the company Summary ∙ Forces of globalization and glocalization can impact the strategies and  effectiveness of PR/Marketing/ ADV campaign ∙ To be an effective PR professional with a global visions, you need to  o Understand both surface/deep cultural issues o Understand cross cultural psychology and intercultural communication o Understand the glocal media ecosystem Native Advertising ∙ Is paid content marketing placed in context of an existing users experience  that is relevant, likeable and shareable∙ Native advertisements entice the consumer because they look and feel like  natural content, such as a sponsored content in the form of an article ∙ Ads as content, or ads hidden Banner ads are distracting ∙ Banner blindness ∙ Avoidance behavior ∙ Content in the banner ads aren’t relevant Solution: Move the ads into the content, and more relevant to the story Native advertising continuum: Classis banner-tourist-resident-citizen-native Tourist: similar to banners, but with rich media content, interactive features, and  social functionality and is clearly marked as sponsored. Content is visiting the  webpage. Takes up a dominant part of the page Resident: integrated into the page, placed between sections and paragraphs,  includes local and third party. Before you get to the next section, you have to scroll  through it. Citizen: core part of the content. Extension of the browsing experience.  True native ads: clearly marked as sponsored. But looks exactly like other content Native advertising and PR ∙ Traditional PR has to “Earn” media placement because of editorial control and ethics code of the press ∙ New media channels allow PR professional to avoid the editorial control and  “pay to play” o Allows more control over the content placement o Higher level or audience engagement o Allow for targeted-placement and content tailoring PR in Practice The impact of new media on professional communication  Overview of group project Trump is a master manipulator of “Earned media”! Technology and privacy 1) Privacy as a prerogative (legal right) 2) Privacy as a state of being (physical privacy & security) 3) Privacy as a social/cultural norm 4) Privacy as a state of mind (psychological privacy) Two types of privacy rights Constitutional (decisional) privacy- The freedom to make one’s own decisions without interference by others in  regard to matter seen as intimate and personal Tort (informational) privacy - The interest of individuals in exercising control over access to information  about themselves Psychological privacy 1) Accessibility of info and space 2) Controllability of info and space Print technologies & privacy - The ability to quickly and widely telecommunications and privacy - The development or telecommunication technology in the late 19th century  allowed the governments of both home and foreign countries to tap into the  citizens private communications in ways The “old” technological threat to privacy - The ability rog an access to private domains - To capture and record - To share and publicize - Push boundaries between private and public New media Content + hardware + software Smart+ social + Smart media - Modality (how many ways to input information) - Agency ( how intelligent is the machine) - Interactivity (how interactive is the machine) - Navigability ( how easy is it to use the machine) Social capital theory An individual’s relationships with others provide embedded resources that can be  accessed, mobilization and utilized for actions that lead to economic and non economic need

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