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FSU / Child and Family Studies / FAD 2230 / What are the three sources of work family conflicts?

What are the three sources of work family conflicts?

What are the three sources of work family conflicts?

Description

School: Florida State University
Department: Child and Family Studies
Course: Family Relationships: A Life Span Development Approach
Professor: Mallory greer
Term: Fall 2016
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: FAD 2230 Exam 3 Study Guide
Description: Here's a detailed study guide of what will be on our next exam!
Uploaded: 12/01/2016
12 Pages 69 Views 2 Unlocks
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FAD2230 Exam 3 Study Guide 


What are the three sources of work family conflicts?



Chapter 14: Families and the Work They Do

∙ Role Overload

∙ Work Family Conflict: a form of tension under which people feel that  the pressures from paid work and family roles are incompatible in  some way

o Spillover: The process by which experiences and well-being are  transferred between home and work

 Positive work to family

∙ Ex: Getting a promotion

 Negative work to family

∙ Ex: Literally bringing work home; difficult situations  

at work

 Positive family to work

∙ Ex: Having a kid (happy)

 Negative family to work

∙ Ex: If a child is sick


What is an example of negative or harmful spillover?



∙ How unhealthy relationships influence work outcomes

o Family  Work

 Work absence

 Presenteeism: The person is present, but their mental  

capabilities may not be If you want to learn more check out Why is it important to understand multiple perspectives?
We also discuss several other topics like What is an example of selection bias?

 Productivity loss

o Work  Family

 How much money you make

∙ Minimum wage vs. “living wage”

 When you work

∙ Non-standard work hours are becoming increasingly  We also discuss several other topics like If bonds with a face value of $100,000 are sold for $96,000, how must this $4,000 difference be accounted for?

common

∙ Number of hours doesn’t affect as much as what  

time you work

o Night shift = more distress, higher depression,  

lower marital quality

 The wage gap


How unhealthy relationships influence work outcomes?



∙ Difference in earnings between men and women

∙ Varies depending on the occupation

o Higher among more elite occupations

∙ National Workplace Policies

o Family Medical Leave Act of 1993

 Eligible employees can take unpaid, job-protected leave for up to 12 work weeks

∙ Reasons: child birth, adoption, fostering, health  

condition

∙ Two-Career Marriages

o Traditional

 Both parents work, but the woman takes on the care role  as her identity and the male supports We also discuss several other topics like What are the circumstances that supposedly lead to an increase in production?
We also discuss several other topics like What are the types of natural selection?

o Non-Traditional

 Where the man incorporates the care role into his identity  and the female incorporates the career into hers

o Family first

 The decisions of the family are prioritized even though  both parents work Don't forget about the age old question of What are the steps in conducting scientific research?

o Outsourced

 Both parents focus their identity on their career and they  outsource care to nannies and caregivers

o Egalitarian

 Both parents put equal emphasis on their career and the  care of their family

∙ The Second Shift (Hochschild)

o Describes the domestic work that employed women must  perform after coming home from work

 More enjoyable when shared by both parents

∙ Women spend 50% more time on household tasks

o Household Labor

 Routine Household Labor

∙ Women

∙ Repetitive and nondiscretionary

∙ Has to be done

 Occasional Household Labor

∙ Men

∙ Time-flexible and discretionary

∙ Doesn’t have to be done immediately

∙ Family-Work Spillover

o Cohesive families have a more positive family/work spillover o Women have a more positive spillover when there is satisfaction  with the division of the household labor

o Men have a more positive spillover when there is satisfaction  with the relationship

∙ Childcare

o When both parents work, 76% of time spent on childcare is done  by the mother

o If only the dad is employed, 83% of time spent on childcare is  done by the mother

o If only the mom is employed, 53% of childcare is done by the  mother

o Explaining gender division of labor

 Time-Availability Perspective

∙ Division of labor is determined by  

o 1. Needs of the home

o 2. Each partner’s availability to perform  

household tasks

 Relative Resources Perspective

∙ The spouse with the most resources (makes the most

money) has the power in the relationship

o Exchange theory

 Doing Gender Hypothesis

∙ Ingrained by society

∙ Gender roles exhibit powerful norms on what we see  

as normative

∙ Gatekeeping

o Re women reluctant to give up control of tasks

∙ Is childcare harmful?

o CLAIM: Children who spent more time in childcare had:

 More aggressive behavior

 Poorer work habits and social skills

 Higher language and other academic skills

o REALITY: Children in childcare

 Had aggressive behavior within the normal range and it  disappeared by the 3rd grade

 Had minimal differences in work habits and social skills o Childcare is safer than family daycare

 Higher ratio of care provider to kids

o The quality of the childcare is the most important factor  Childcare costs about $12,000 a year

∙ Resolving Work-Family Issues

o Families need:

 1. Adequate provision for quality child care and elder care  2. Family leave

 3. Flexible employment scheduling

Chapter 16: The process of Divorce

∙ Divorce is easier now, but not new

o 1860s-1973

 Divorce is granted if you can give a valid reason  

(abandonment, abuse)

o 1870-1893

 If one person files for divorce and it sits in the court long  enough, it will be granted

 Irreconcilable differences

∙ Calculating the divorce rate

o 1. Number of divorces in a given year/ number of marriages in a  given year

 Issues:

∙ Not the same people marrying and divorcing

∙ Easiest way to estimate without time studies

o 2. Crude Divorce Rate

 Number of divorces taking place within a sample of the  entire population

∙ Issues:

o Age is not factored into who can be asked

o Second easiest

 3. Refined Divorce Rate

∙ Number of divorces among a sample of those  

married at a given time

∙ This rate is expected to be higher because everyone  in the sample has been married

∙ Divorce has been declining since a peak in 1980

∙ Why are couples divorcing?

o Parental Divorce

 Intergenerational transmission of divorce (passed from one generation to the next

∙ Modeling

o Attitudes

 Attitudes predict behavior

∙ If divorce is possible, it is more likely to happen

∙ If the commitment is strong and determination to  

keep the marriage going is strong, divorce is less  

likely

o Age at marriage

 Marrying younger = higher risk

 Especially among teenagers because the brain is not fully  developed

o Parental Status

 Those without children are more likely to divorce

 Children add stress, but add relationship stability

o Premarital child-bearing

 Having children before marriage  higher divorce risk  Less relationship stability from possible rush into marriage o Sex of the child

 Sons  less risk of divorce

∙ Fathers tend to be more involved

o Heterogeny

 Fewer similarities more risk for divorce

∙ Age, religion, ethnic group

 Differences cause stress which cause stress

o Income

 Lower income more risk for divorce

 Stress leads to marital problems

o Education

 Lower education  more risk for divorce

 When the woman has more education that the man,  divorce risk is higher

o Race/ethnicity

 Black couples  More likely to divorce

∙ They marry at the lowest rates still

 Hispanic/ Asian couples  least risk

o All of these are micro-level factors (deal with individual  characteristics)

o Macro-level factors

 1. Level of socioeconomic development

 2. Religion

∙ Religion/ political views of the country

o Divorce rates are lower in Italy because they  

are primarily Catholic

 3. Divorce laws

 Women’s status and employment

 Attitudes of the country towards divorce

∙ Deciding to divorce

o Recall the 4 Horsemen

 Criticism

 Contempt

 Stonewalling

 Defensiveness

 Belligerence

∙ What are you going to do about ti??

o Experiencing divorce

 Pre-separation

∙ Thinking about what it would be like to be out of the  relationship

∙ Keeping to each other

 Early-separation

∙ Facing the logistic issues

o How to tell others

o What to do with the house

o Child care

o Child’s school

 Mid- separation

∙ Face daily lives apart

∙ Starts shared visitation

∙ Some people decide to get back together at this  stage

 Late separation

∙ Being on your own and figuring out life

∙ How to function as a newly single person

o Model of deciding about marriage

 Rewards of the marriage

∙ Time

∙ Effects of past love

 Barriers to divorce

∙ Expenses

∙ Embarrassment

 Alternatives to the marriage

∙ Pro/con list

o Stations of divorce

 Emotional

∙ When the individual has moved past the romantic  feelings for their partner

∙ Usually the person who did not initiate the divorce  because they had time to think about it before  

initiating

 Legal

∙ Can be a long and expensive proves

o Especially if children and property are involved

 Economic

∙ Adjusting to the financial aftermath

 Community

∙ Splitting friends

∙ Shared relationships (in-laws)

∙ Shared communities (church)

 Psychic

∙ Autonomy

∙ Figuring out life as single instead of a we

∙ Visualizing yourself outside of the couple identity  Co-parental divorce

∙ Figuring out how to do life and raise children apart

∙ Some parents do this really well and some don’t

∙ His and Her divorce

o First year after divorce is stressful, but there are different  stressors for men and women

 The primary stressor for women is economic discrimination  The primary stressor for men is gender expectations

∙ Men benefit from marriage more

o His divorce

 Involves:

∙ Loss of time with children

∙ More general loneliness

∙ Male gender role discourages them from sharing  

feelings with other men

 Physical custody: where the children stay

 Legal custody: Who makes the decisions for the children ∙ Joint means shared, not equal

o Her divorce

 Financial worries

 Emotional overload from trying to be a “complete” parent  Struggles with personal identity

∙ Should divorce be harder to obtain?

o Considering a waiting period of as long as five years

o A more extensive process for divorces involving children to  prioritize the needs of the children

o Is there such a thing as a good divorce?

 Depends on your expectations

∙ Divorcing your lasting enemy vs. ending the romantic relationship and continuing the co-parenting  

relationship

∙ Half of divorces involve children

o Challenges children from divorced families face

 Feeling the blame

 Picking a side

 Abandonment

 Confusion

 Things are suddenly changing

o How parents can support children through the process of divorce  Keep the child informed

 Staying neutral around them and not trying to get them  overly involved

 Knowing it’s not a competition

 Making decisions for the child, not the parents

 Not using the child as an information carrier

∙ Divorce and Children: Wallerstein vs. Hetherington

o Wallerstein: Qualitative microanalysis

 Conclusion: serious psychological debilitations in children  experiencing divorce, often continuing on through  

adolescence and adulthood

 Study: 60 families entering counseling over 20-25 years ∙ “Glass half empty”

o Hetherington: Quantitavie analysis

 Conclusion: Majority of the children are resilient to the  

changes

 Study: 1,400 families and more than 2,500 children

∙ A majority of the children are not much different than

families with married parents

∙ What causes the child to have problems after divorce?

o Life stress

o Parental Loss

 The feeling of loosing a parent

o Parental adjustment

 If the parents are not coping well, it spills into the children o Economic hardship

 If this is prominent in the stability of the stability of the  housing or necessities, it makes it even harder

o Inter-parental conflict

 Parents continuously fighting through and after the divorce  that the child sees

o Family instability

 Divorces that last a long time

 Continuous changes

∙ Marital conflict is worse for children than divorce

Chapter 17: Remarriage

∙ Many paths lead to divorce

o 75% of people who divorce will remarry

 About ½ of the marriages today are remarriages

o Dealing with

 Anger with ex-spouse

 Stigma of being divorced

 Single Parenting

 Re-partnering after divorce

∙ “pool of eligibles” changes

∙ Re-partnering vs. re-marriage

o Demographic trends

 No evidence of “Rebound effect”

 Does the time between divorce and remarriage predict  another divorce?

∙ No

 Men are more likely to remarry within 3 years and women  are more likely within 5 years

 Whites are more likely to get married faster

o How stable are remarriages?

 Same challenges of a first marriage in addition to:

∙ Boundary maintenance

∙ Challenges with relationship development

 Re-partnering with kids

∙ The couple has to

o Maintain their relationship with their own kids

o Maintain their relationship with their partner’s  

kids

o Introduce their kids

o Navigate around relationships with former  

partners

∙ Step-Family Subsystems

o Remarried couple subsystem

o Former Spouse Subsystem

o Sibling Subsystem

∙ Mutual children: children from new marriage

o What matters more fro a healthy child development?

 Family structure: living with a step-parent and visiting  biological parent

 Or Family Environment: Quality of communication and  relationships, as well as the extent at which the children  are monitored

o Most stepchildren do well

 Negative outcomes result from stress and instability, social  deprivation (lack of love or attention), parenting quality

o Challenges in remarried families with stepchildren

 No legal status between stepparent and stepchild

 Finances

∙ Financial obligation from first marriages

 Step-parent role ambiguity

∙ Low role ambiguity has been associated with higher  

re-marital satisfaction and greater parenting  

satisfaction

 Children’s hostility

∙ The child may hope their parents will reunite

 The stepparent should enter as permissive and slowly  move into aa more authoritative parent

Chapter 18: Family Stress

∙ Crisis: critical change or event that disrupts the functioning of a  person’s life

o Can be positive or negative

∙ Family Stress: tensions that test a family’s emotional resources o When an event affects one member, it can affect all others ∙ Stressors

o Internal (within the family) vs. External (outside the family) o Negative vs. Positive

o Normative (part of daily life) or Non-Normative (not part of  normal life)

o Acute (Short term) or Chronic (long term)

o Isolated (occurring on its own) or Cumulative (Stress combining  with multiple things)

o Family Stressors:

 Financing and budgeting

 Children’s behavior

 Insufficient time as a couple

 Lack of shared responsibility in family

 Communication with children

 Insufficient time for “me”

 Guilt for not accomplishing more

 Relationship with spouse

 Insufficient family down time

 Overscheduled family calendar

o Responses to Stress

 Your body has a typical and predictable coping pattern  Three phases

∙ 1. Alarm Response (Fight or flight)

∙ 2. Resistance (elevated alert)

∙ 3. Exhaustion

o Patterns of Family Stress

 Predictable

∙ Phase 1: The event

∙ Phase 2: Disorganization

∙ Phase 3: Reorganization

 Families can be strengthened or weakened from a crisis ∙ It sometimes needs to happen to force a change

 Coping or Not: The ABC-X Model

∙ A: Stressor event

∙ B: Internal family resources/ formal and social  

supports

∙ C: Family’s perception

∙ X: Family Crisis

 The Double ABC-X Model

∙ aA: Pile up

∙ bB: Existing and New Resources

∙ cC: Family’s original perception and how they reacted ∙ X: Bon-adaptation, adaptation, maladaptation

 This leads to learned helplessness

∙ Psychological condition of having low self-esteem,  

feeling helpless and having no control, which is  

caused by repeated abuse

∙ Cycle of violence

o Tension building (initial mood swings)

o Acute Explosion (hitting, use of weapons)

o Honeymoon (Asking for forgiveness)

o Most people go through this cycle 6-7 times  

before getting out

 Explanation

∙ Micro-level explanations

o The intergenerational transmission of violence

o Stress

∙ Macro level explanations

o Patriarchy

o Cultural norms

 Types of intimate partner violence

∙ Situational

∙ Intimate Terrorism

o Ongoing environment of violence and abuse

∙ Violence and resistance  

o Responding with violence to protect yourself

∙ Mutual violent control

o Both members of the couple are violent

 Consequences

∙ Stress

∙ Psychological effects

o Depression, anxiety

∙ More likely to participate in risky behaviors

 Coping with Violence

∙ Learned helplessness

∙ Women eventually leave, but it’s a process

∙ When the crisis and stress is violence

o Intimate Partner Violence (IPV)

 Between partners/ spouses

 Serious, public health problem

 Physical, economic, sexual or psychological abuse o Child Abuse

 An attack on a child that results in injury and violates social norms

∙ Withholding basic needs

 Physical abuse

 Sexual abuse

 Psychological maltreatment

 Medical neglect

 Unknown or missing

o Influencers

 Age

 Type of maltreatment

 Frequency, duration and severity

 Relationship between the child and perpetrator

o Consequences

 Physical health

 Psychological

 Behavioral

o Elder Abuse

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