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FSU / Family Development / FAD 2230 / What are the three sources of work family conflicts?

What are the three sources of work family conflicts?

What are the three sources of work family conflicts?

Description

School: Florida State University
Department: Family Development
Course: Family Relationships: A Life Span Development Approach
Professor: Mallory greer
Term: Fall 2016
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: FAD 2230 Exam 3 Study Guide
Description: Here's a detailed study guide of what will be on our next exam!
Uploaded: 12/01/2016
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FAD2230 Exam 3 Study Guide 


What are the three sources of work family conflicts?



Chapter 14: Families and the Work They Do

∙ Role Overload

∙ Work Family Conflict: a form of tension under which people feel that  the pressures from paid work and family roles are incompatible in  some way

o Spillover: The process by which experiences and well-being are  transferred between home and work

 Positive work to family

∙ Ex: Getting a promotion

 Negative work to family

∙ Ex: Literally bringing work home; difficult situations  

at work

 Positive family to work

∙ Ex: Having a kid (happy)

 Negative family to work

∙ Ex: If a child is sick


What is an example of negative or harmful spillover?



∙ How unhealthy relationships influence work outcomes

o Family  Work

 Work absence

 Presenteeism: The person is present, but their mental  Don't forget about the age old question of To what extent is a person’s personality unique?

capabilities may not be

 Productivity loss

o Work  Family

 How much money you make

∙ Minimum wage vs. “living wage”

 When you work

∙ Non-standard work hours are becoming increasingly  Don't forget about the age old question of What is an example of selection bias?

common

∙ Number of hours doesn’t affect as much as what  

time you work

o Night shift = more distress, higher depression,  

lower marital quality

 The wage gap


How unhealthy relationships influence work outcomes?



∙ Difference in earnings between men and women

∙ Varies depending on the occupation If you want to learn more check out If bonds with a face value of $100,000 are sold for $96,000, how must this $4,000 difference be accounted for?

o Higher among more elite occupations

∙ National Workplace Policies If you want to learn more check out Who benefits from alienated labor?

o Family Medical Leave Act of 1993

 Eligible employees can take unpaid, job-protected leave for up to 12 work weeks

∙ Reasons: child birth, adoption, fostering, health  

condition

∙ Two-Career Marriages

o Traditional

 Both parents work, but the woman takes on the care role  as her identity and the male supports

o Non-Traditional

 Where the man incorporates the care role into his identity  and the female incorporates the career into hers

o Family first

 The decisions of the family are prioritized even though  both parents work

o Outsourced

 Both parents focus their identity on their career and they  outsource care to nannies and caregivers

o Egalitarian

 Both parents put equal emphasis on their career and the  care of their family

∙ The Second Shift (Hochschild)

o Describes the domestic work that employed women must  perform after coming home from work

 More enjoyable when shared by both parents

∙ Women spend 50% more time on household tasks

o Household Labor

 Routine Household Labor

∙ Women Don't forget about the age old question of What are the types of natural selection?

∙ Repetitive and nondiscretionary

∙ Has to be done

 Occasional Household Labor

∙ Men

∙ Time-flexible and discretionary

∙ Doesn’t have to be done immediately

∙ Family-Work Spillover Don't forget about the age old question of What are the steps in conducting scientific research?

o Cohesive families have a more positive family/work spillover o Women have a more positive spillover when there is satisfaction  with the division of the household labor

o Men have a more positive spillover when there is satisfaction  with the relationship

∙ Childcare

o When both parents work, 76% of time spent on childcare is done  by the mother

o If only the dad is employed, 83% of time spent on childcare is  done by the mother

o If only the mom is employed, 53% of childcare is done by the  mother

o Explaining gender division of labor

 Time-Availability Perspective

∙ Division of labor is determined by  

o 1. Needs of the home

o 2. Each partner’s availability to perform  

household tasks

 Relative Resources Perspective

∙ The spouse with the most resources (makes the most

money) has the power in the relationship

o Exchange theory

 Doing Gender Hypothesis

∙ Ingrained by society

∙ Gender roles exhibit powerful norms on what we see  

as normative

∙ Gatekeeping

o Re women reluctant to give up control of tasks

∙ Is childcare harmful?

o CLAIM: Children who spent more time in childcare had:

 More aggressive behavior

 Poorer work habits and social skills

 Higher language and other academic skills

o REALITY: Children in childcare

 Had aggressive behavior within the normal range and it  disappeared by the 3rd grade

 Had minimal differences in work habits and social skills o Childcare is safer than family daycare

 Higher ratio of care provider to kids

o The quality of the childcare is the most important factor  Childcare costs about $12,000 a year

∙ Resolving Work-Family Issues

o Families need:

 1. Adequate provision for quality child care and elder care  2. Family leave

 3. Flexible employment scheduling

Chapter 16: The process of Divorce

∙ Divorce is easier now, but not new

o 1860s-1973

 Divorce is granted if you can give a valid reason  

(abandonment, abuse)

o 1870-1893

 If one person files for divorce and it sits in the court long  enough, it will be granted

 Irreconcilable differences

∙ Calculating the divorce rate

o 1. Number of divorces in a given year/ number of marriages in a  given year

 Issues:

∙ Not the same people marrying and divorcing

∙ Easiest way to estimate without time studies

o 2. Crude Divorce Rate

 Number of divorces taking place within a sample of the  entire population

∙ Issues:

o Age is not factored into who can be asked

o Second easiest

 3. Refined Divorce Rate

∙ Number of divorces among a sample of those  

married at a given time

∙ This rate is expected to be higher because everyone  in the sample has been married

∙ Divorce has been declining since a peak in 1980

∙ Why are couples divorcing?

o Parental Divorce

 Intergenerational transmission of divorce (passed from one generation to the next

∙ Modeling

o Attitudes

 Attitudes predict behavior

∙ If divorce is possible, it is more likely to happen

∙ If the commitment is strong and determination to  

keep the marriage going is strong, divorce is less  

likely

o Age at marriage

 Marrying younger = higher risk

 Especially among teenagers because the brain is not fully  developed

o Parental Status

 Those without children are more likely to divorce

 Children add stress, but add relationship stability

o Premarital child-bearing

 Having children before marriage  higher divorce risk  Less relationship stability from possible rush into marriage o Sex of the child

 Sons  less risk of divorce

∙ Fathers tend to be more involved

o Heterogeny

 Fewer similarities more risk for divorce

∙ Age, religion, ethnic group

 Differences cause stress which cause stress

o Income

 Lower income more risk for divorce

 Stress leads to marital problems

o Education

 Lower education  more risk for divorce

 When the woman has more education that the man,  divorce risk is higher

o Race/ethnicity

 Black couples  More likely to divorce

∙ They marry at the lowest rates still

 Hispanic/ Asian couples  least risk

o All of these are micro-level factors (deal with individual  characteristics)

o Macro-level factors

 1. Level of socioeconomic development

 2. Religion

∙ Religion/ political views of the country

o Divorce rates are lower in Italy because they  

are primarily Catholic

 3. Divorce laws

 Women’s status and employment

 Attitudes of the country towards divorce

∙ Deciding to divorce

o Recall the 4 Horsemen

 Criticism

 Contempt

 Stonewalling

 Defensiveness

 Belligerence

∙ What are you going to do about ti??

o Experiencing divorce

 Pre-separation

∙ Thinking about what it would be like to be out of the  relationship

∙ Keeping to each other

 Early-separation

∙ Facing the logistic issues

o How to tell others

o What to do with the house

o Child care

o Child’s school

 Mid- separation

∙ Face daily lives apart

∙ Starts shared visitation

∙ Some people decide to get back together at this  stage

 Late separation

∙ Being on your own and figuring out life

∙ How to function as a newly single person

o Model of deciding about marriage

 Rewards of the marriage

∙ Time

∙ Effects of past love

 Barriers to divorce

∙ Expenses

∙ Embarrassment

 Alternatives to the marriage

∙ Pro/con list

o Stations of divorce

 Emotional

∙ When the individual has moved past the romantic  feelings for their partner

∙ Usually the person who did not initiate the divorce  because they had time to think about it before  

initiating

 Legal

∙ Can be a long and expensive proves

o Especially if children and property are involved

 Economic

∙ Adjusting to the financial aftermath

 Community

∙ Splitting friends

∙ Shared relationships (in-laws)

∙ Shared communities (church)

 Psychic

∙ Autonomy

∙ Figuring out life as single instead of a we

∙ Visualizing yourself outside of the couple identity  Co-parental divorce

∙ Figuring out how to do life and raise children apart

∙ Some parents do this really well and some don’t

∙ His and Her divorce

o First year after divorce is stressful, but there are different  stressors for men and women

 The primary stressor for women is economic discrimination  The primary stressor for men is gender expectations

∙ Men benefit from marriage more

o His divorce

 Involves:

∙ Loss of time with children

∙ More general loneliness

∙ Male gender role discourages them from sharing  

feelings with other men

 Physical custody: where the children stay

 Legal custody: Who makes the decisions for the children ∙ Joint means shared, not equal

o Her divorce

 Financial worries

 Emotional overload from trying to be a “complete” parent  Struggles with personal identity

∙ Should divorce be harder to obtain?

o Considering a waiting period of as long as five years

o A more extensive process for divorces involving children to  prioritize the needs of the children

o Is there such a thing as a good divorce?

 Depends on your expectations

∙ Divorcing your lasting enemy vs. ending the romantic relationship and continuing the co-parenting  

relationship

∙ Half of divorces involve children

o Challenges children from divorced families face

 Feeling the blame

 Picking a side

 Abandonment

 Confusion

 Things are suddenly changing

o How parents can support children through the process of divorce  Keep the child informed

 Staying neutral around them and not trying to get them  overly involved

 Knowing it’s not a competition

 Making decisions for the child, not the parents

 Not using the child as an information carrier

∙ Divorce and Children: Wallerstein vs. Hetherington

o Wallerstein: Qualitative microanalysis

 Conclusion: serious psychological debilitations in children  experiencing divorce, often continuing on through  

adolescence and adulthood

 Study: 60 families entering counseling over 20-25 years ∙ “Glass half empty”

o Hetherington: Quantitavie analysis

 Conclusion: Majority of the children are resilient to the  

changes

 Study: 1,400 families and more than 2,500 children

∙ A majority of the children are not much different than

families with married parents

∙ What causes the child to have problems after divorce?

o Life stress

o Parental Loss

 The feeling of loosing a parent

o Parental adjustment

 If the parents are not coping well, it spills into the children o Economic hardship

 If this is prominent in the stability of the stability of the  housing or necessities, it makes it even harder

o Inter-parental conflict

 Parents continuously fighting through and after the divorce  that the child sees

o Family instability

 Divorces that last a long time

 Continuous changes

∙ Marital conflict is worse for children than divorce

Chapter 17: Remarriage

∙ Many paths lead to divorce

o 75% of people who divorce will remarry

 About ½ of the marriages today are remarriages

o Dealing with

 Anger with ex-spouse

 Stigma of being divorced

 Single Parenting

 Re-partnering after divorce

∙ “pool of eligibles” changes

∙ Re-partnering vs. re-marriage

o Demographic trends

 No evidence of “Rebound effect”

 Does the time between divorce and remarriage predict  another divorce?

∙ No

 Men are more likely to remarry within 3 years and women  are more likely within 5 years

 Whites are more likely to get married faster

o How stable are remarriages?

 Same challenges of a first marriage in addition to:

∙ Boundary maintenance

∙ Challenges with relationship development

 Re-partnering with kids

∙ The couple has to

o Maintain their relationship with their own kids

o Maintain their relationship with their partner’s  

kids

o Introduce their kids

o Navigate around relationships with former  

partners

∙ Step-Family Subsystems

o Remarried couple subsystem

o Former Spouse Subsystem

o Sibling Subsystem

∙ Mutual children: children from new marriage

o What matters more fro a healthy child development?

 Family structure: living with a step-parent and visiting  biological parent

 Or Family Environment: Quality of communication and  relationships, as well as the extent at which the children  are monitored

o Most stepchildren do well

 Negative outcomes result from stress and instability, social  deprivation (lack of love or attention), parenting quality

o Challenges in remarried families with stepchildren

 No legal status between stepparent and stepchild

 Finances

∙ Financial obligation from first marriages

 Step-parent role ambiguity

∙ Low role ambiguity has been associated with higher  

re-marital satisfaction and greater parenting  

satisfaction

 Children’s hostility

∙ The child may hope their parents will reunite

 The stepparent should enter as permissive and slowly  move into aa more authoritative parent

Chapter 18: Family Stress

∙ Crisis: critical change or event that disrupts the functioning of a  person’s life

o Can be positive or negative

∙ Family Stress: tensions that test a family’s emotional resources o When an event affects one member, it can affect all others ∙ Stressors

o Internal (within the family) vs. External (outside the family) o Negative vs. Positive

o Normative (part of daily life) or Non-Normative (not part of  normal life)

o Acute (Short term) or Chronic (long term)

o Isolated (occurring on its own) or Cumulative (Stress combining  with multiple things)

o Family Stressors:

 Financing and budgeting

 Children’s behavior

 Insufficient time as a couple

 Lack of shared responsibility in family

 Communication with children

 Insufficient time for “me”

 Guilt for not accomplishing more

 Relationship with spouse

 Insufficient family down time

 Overscheduled family calendar

o Responses to Stress

 Your body has a typical and predictable coping pattern  Three phases

∙ 1. Alarm Response (Fight or flight)

∙ 2. Resistance (elevated alert)

∙ 3. Exhaustion

o Patterns of Family Stress

 Predictable

∙ Phase 1: The event

∙ Phase 2: Disorganization

∙ Phase 3: Reorganization

 Families can be strengthened or weakened from a crisis ∙ It sometimes needs to happen to force a change

 Coping or Not: The ABC-X Model

∙ A: Stressor event

∙ B: Internal family resources/ formal and social  

supports

∙ C: Family’s perception

∙ X: Family Crisis

 The Double ABC-X Model

∙ aA: Pile up

∙ bB: Existing and New Resources

∙ cC: Family’s original perception and how they reacted ∙ X: Bon-adaptation, adaptation, maladaptation

 This leads to learned helplessness

∙ Psychological condition of having low self-esteem,  

feeling helpless and having no control, which is  

caused by repeated abuse

∙ Cycle of violence

o Tension building (initial mood swings)

o Acute Explosion (hitting, use of weapons)

o Honeymoon (Asking for forgiveness)

o Most people go through this cycle 6-7 times  

before getting out

 Explanation

∙ Micro-level explanations

o The intergenerational transmission of violence

o Stress

∙ Macro level explanations

o Patriarchy

o Cultural norms

 Types of intimate partner violence

∙ Situational

∙ Intimate Terrorism

o Ongoing environment of violence and abuse

∙ Violence and resistance  

o Responding with violence to protect yourself

∙ Mutual violent control

o Both members of the couple are violent

 Consequences

∙ Stress

∙ Psychological effects

o Depression, anxiety

∙ More likely to participate in risky behaviors

 Coping with Violence

∙ Learned helplessness

∙ Women eventually leave, but it’s a process

∙ When the crisis and stress is violence

o Intimate Partner Violence (IPV)

 Between partners/ spouses

 Serious, public health problem

 Physical, economic, sexual or psychological abuse o Child Abuse

 An attack on a child that results in injury and violates social norms

∙ Withholding basic needs

 Physical abuse

 Sexual abuse

 Psychological maltreatment

 Medical neglect

 Unknown or missing

o Influencers

 Age

 Type of maltreatment

 Frequency, duration and severity

 Relationship between the child and perpetrator

o Consequences

 Physical health

 Psychological

 Behavioral

o Elder Abuse

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