Chapter 13: Personality
Personality: characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving.
There are multiple views, multiple approaches, and multiple perspectives. Perspectives: psychoanalytic, trait, social learning, and humanistic.
General questions asked:
To what extent is this person’s personality unique?
How much do they overlap?
How consistent is our behavior?
Biology and experience developing our personality?
Is human nature good or bad?
a. Freud: believed humans are inherently bad.
i. Society keeps us in control
ii. Ego: what we see, our personality, what people see.
iii. Superego: conscious voice. Id: unconscious drives.
iv. We have defense mechanisms: repression, regression, displacement,
denial, reaction formation, rationalization, projection, and sublimation.
b. Neo Freudians: Carl Jung
i. Believed in a personal and collective unconscious
ii. Archetypes: fundamental principles of matter and energy in the physical
world. We also discuss several other topics like What accounts for the event when an extraneous variable systematically varies with the independent variable?
events: births, deaths, adulthood, separation.
Motifs: creation, apocalypse, rebirth.
Figures: mother, father, child, wise old man, trickster, hero.
iii. Psychological truths are not metaphysical insights are habitual modes of thinking, feelings, and behaving that experiences has proved appropriate If you want to learn more check out If bonds with a face value of $100,000 are sold for $96,000, how must this
$4,000 difference be accounted for?
iv. Our environment and our unconscious shape us.
v. Persona: role. Anima: feminine. Animus: masculine.
vi. Shadow: repressed dark side, unconscious part of the ego. The personal and collective unconscious provides valuable information about the self,
keep it in check with projection (greed, gossiping). What angers you the
most is part of your shadow. Example: Dr. Jeckle and Mr. Heid. Trickster: release valve of shadow, disrupts the ego, can do this safely
c. Jung/ Joseph Campbell: Hero’s journey
i. d. Carl Rogers: humanistic theory, and the process of personality i. Humans strive for selfactualization.
ii. Use distortions/denials to protect selfconcept.
iii. Congruence vs. incongruence.
iv. Human needs (self actualization and positive regard) leads to others response (unconditional positive regard or conditional positive regard) We also discuss several other topics like What are the circumstances that supposedly lead to an increase in production?
leads to a result (selfactualization or selfdiscrepancy).
e. Personality traits
i. Anxiety, extroversion, receptivity, selfcontrol, independence. ii. Alport and Cattall: came up with 32 traits. Certain people based on their
jobs have a lot or a little of a certain trait.
iii. Eysenck: unstable, stable, introverted, extroverted. If you want to learn more check out Differentiate genotype and phenotype.
f. Big five
i. Openness to experience: based on how imaginative, open, standard you
ii. Consciousness: being careful or vigilant.
iii. Extroversion: concerned with things outside of the self.
iv. Agreeableness: kind, sympathetic, cooperative, warm
v. Neuroticism: how emotional you are.
g. Implications of trait theories.
i. Genetic contributions: temperament, neurotransmitter functioning. ii. Situational factors: personsituation interactions effect actions.
h. Social cognitive theories:
i. Albert Dandura: reciprocal determinism. Selfefficacy: how much
control we have. Personality: behavior, environment, cognitive If you want to learn more check out What are the steps in conducting scientific research?
factors when these things change personality changes. How does
social interaction shape us?
ii. Rotter: Locus of control. Learned helplessness: believe you cannot
∙ External: someone who needs outside resources to control
emotions because they cannot control it.
∙ Internal; blaming/taking credit for things related to yourself,
can control it on your own.
I. Assessing personality
a.) Personality inventors
i. MMPI2: psychological instrument, psychiatric diagnosis. Measure ten categories of abnormal behavior and four validity scales in order to test a person’s general test taking attitude.
10 categories: Hypochondriasis, depression, hysteria, psychopathic deviate, Masculine/Feminine, paranoia, psych asthenia, schizophrenia, hypomania, social introversion.
ii. Big 5 inventories: get to know yourself, rates on a scale of 15. Ranked between 040.We also discuss several other topics like Give a function of carbohydrates.
Extroversion, aggressiveness, conscientiousness, neuroticism,
openness to experience.
iii. Myers Briggs: it is an organized test that measures how we experience the world and how we get along with other people.
Identifies these continuums as dominant or auxiliary functions.
∙ Parts: Extroverted vs. Introverted. Sensing vs. Intuition.
Thinking vs. feeling. Judging vs. Perceiving.
∙ 16 types, 4 continuums
iv. Rohr Schach inkblot test: it is a projective test. It was originally made to detect schizophrenia but now it is used as a personality
test. Done to establish your unconscious mind. 10 cards total.
b.) Projective tests
i. Endearing and typical
Inner, private, subjective: cognitive: beliefs, attitudes, values, self
Outer, public, objective: Traits, temperament, extraversion, and
energy level. (Eyesank)
ii. Situation dependence
∙ Inner, private, subjective: activation: motives, defense
mechanisms, psychic structures (Freud)
∙ Outer, public objective: Social context: habits, models, culture,
Chapter 14: Psychological Disorders
I. Abnormal behavior: Not culturally accepted, statistically uncommon, causes distress,
and causes dysfunction. The perspective depends on the situation and culture. II. Diagnostic and statistic
a. DSM5: it is a diagnostic made in 2013
i. lists 20 categories of disorder.
ii. Covers more than 300 disorders.
iii. A reliable theoretical approach that provides a standard for diagnosis.
However, it does not always guarantee correct diagnosis.
i. 20% of Americans will have a psychological disorder in their life.
ii. Men are more likely to be antisocial and/or go through substance abuse
than women are.
iii. Women are more likely to have anxiety and/or depression than men are. III. Causes of disorders.
a. Components of mental disorder:
i. Biological dimension: genetics, brain anatomy, biochemistry, etc.
ii. Psychological dimension: personality, cognition, emotions, etc.
iii. Social dimension: family, relationships, love, etc.
iv. Sociocultural dimension: race, gender, sex, religion, etc.
i. Behavior is on a continuum
normal❑↔mild ❑↔moderate❑↔psychological disorder ❑↔severe psychological disorder iii. Intervention: brain chemistry, thoughts, emotions, behaviors.
a. Anxiety disorders:
i. Most adults suffer from social and specific anxiety disorders. 19% of
adults have anxiety disorders.
ii. Generalized anxiety disorder: excessive worry about a number of events,
often with no identifiable cause, lasts at least six months.
iii. Panic disorder or agoraphobia: Characterized by recurrent abrupt
experiences of unexpected intense fear accompanied by physical
iv. Specific phobia and social anxiety disorder: persistent fear that is excessive and unreasonable lasts more than six months. This one is very
v. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder: exposure to a traumatic event during which one feels helplessness or fear. Can have PTSD from an ongoing
vi. Obsessivecompulsive disorder: Presence of recurrent, persistent, intrusive, thoughts or images, and/or repetitive behaviors or mental acts that a person feels driven to perform. The action is there to control a
vii. Hoarding: Persistent difficulty discarding possessions causing significant
distress and impairment in functioning.
viii. Case study of Anna, a girl of 5.5 years.
Stopped speaking in school for about nine months, she would only
speak at home. This was bad for her development.
Circumstances: her parents were going through a bitter divorce. She has a very controlling personality and socially she had a very
strong relationship with her mother. It was also considered ok for her not to talk due to it being a gender norm for girls to be polite, this is a
She did not speak in order to attempt at controlling her environment.
This then made it hard for her to speak due to social anxiety.
ix. Selective mutism: consistent failure to speak in certain circumstances due
to an anxiety disorder.
b. Dissociative disorders
i. Involve a loss of connection with some part of our consciousness, identity, or memory.
ii. Dissociative Identity Disorder: split personality, each one is different and
unaware of the other.
c. Somatic symptom and related disorders
i. Involve physical complaints for which there is no apparent physical case. ii. Somatic symptom disorder: occurs when someone feels extreme anxiety
physical symptoms such as pain or fatigue. It comes from an illness, being injured is scary causing someone to have cognitive distortions regarding
iii. Illness anxiety disorder: a person develops an anxiety to prevent an illness.
Can stem from having an illness.
iv. Conversion disorder: physical symptoms due to a psychological cause. No medical condition but they believe they are sick. Hysteric blindness,
hysteric paralysis, etc.
v. Factitious Disorder: someone imposing on someone else a condition that is deliberately produced. For example, a mother makes her child sick and
keeps her sick in order reap the benefits of their child being sick. d. Mood disorders
i. Depressive disorder: involves a depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in ones usual activities, changed sleep patterns, appetite, and
motor functioning, and loss of energy.
Age 1524 is at the highest risk. 17% of adults experience it. 51% of people do not get help. Men most commonly have chronic
irritability, which is the same thing.
ii. Bipolar disorder: involves shifts in mood between two states depressive
and maniac. Need psychiatric help to deal with it.
iii. In general genetics, neurotransmitters, brain structure, psychological
factors, sociocultural factors cause mood disorders.
iv. Women in general have higher depression rates than men. Biologically= woman are genetically prone to be depressed.
Psychologically: women reminisce about problems.
Sociocultural: gender role encourages dependence and passivity. v. Suicide: killing oneself.
White males have the highest suicide rate
Men have a higher suicide rate than women.
The reason is that men believe they have an image to keep.
When you believe someone is going to commit suicide, ask him or her
then ask if him or her has a plan.
Suicide hot lines: 4809211006, 4807841500.
e. Past knowledge of psych disorders
i. West Virginia Hospital for the insane.
reasons for admission: asthma, crying, sons death, masturbation, disappointment, dog bite, dropsy, egotism, epilepsy, hard study,
ii. Ten days in a mad house: Elizabeth Cochrane (fake name: Ellie Bly) Experienced what it was like to be in a mental institution: cold
showers, rotten food, and restraints.
She caused a reform on how the mentally ill were treated.
iii. 1975 – on being sane in insane places
He took pseudo patients and said they heard voices.
Most were kept for 19 days while one was kept for 52 days.
Discharge: paranoid schizophrenia in remission.
iv. Big questions resolved: Do workers view mental illness as an irreversible condition? Are they trained to recognize mental health not just mental
i. Diagnosed in adolescence or early adulthood. Huge genetic component. ii. Abnormalities in brain structure and neurotransmitter function are
associated with schizophrenia these abnormalities may have origins in
early childhood development.
iii. Symptoms: Common: delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech,
disordered behavior. Uncommon: blunted effect, alogia, and avolition. iv. Treatment: medication to reduce severity of symptoms
g. Personality disorders: consist of long standing patterns of malfunctioning. Person’s thoughts, emotions, behavior, result in persistent distress to self or others
and interfere with one’s ability to function.
i. Cluster A: odd or eccentric behavior
1.) Paranoid personality disorder: mistrust and suspiciousness regarding
2.) Schizoid personality disorder: socially isolated, cold, and indifferent to
3.) Schizotypal personality disorder: peculiar thought/behavior, poor
ii. Cluster B: dramatic, emotional, or erratic behavior
1.) Antisocial personality disorder: failure to conform to legal codes, lack
of anxiety, guilt, and irresponsible, impulsive.
2.) Borderline personality disorder: intense fluctuations in mood, self
image, and interpersonal relationships. Selfdestructive behavior. 3.) Histrionic personality disorder: selfdramatization, exaggerated
emotional expression, seductive, provocative, attention seeking.
4.) Narcissistic personality disorder: exaggerated sense of self
empowerment, lack of empathy, exploitive behavior.
iii. Cluster C: anxious or fearful behavior
1. Avoidant personality disorder: pervasive social inhibition, fear of
rejection and humiliation.
2. Dependent personality disorder: excessive dependence on others,
inability to assume responsibilities, submissive.
3. Obsessivecompulsive personality disorder: Perfectionism, controlling
interpersonal behavior, devotion to details, and rigidity.
i. 2 paths on the test:
1. Personality disorder types.
2. Impairment in personality functioning, characteristics: identity, selfdirection, empathy, and intimacy. Leads to pathological personality traits,
characteristics: negative affectivity, detachment, antagonism, disinhibition, and psychoticism.
Chapter 15: Treatment
i. Biological and psychological perspectives
ii. Evidence based practice (EBP): Individual clinical expertise, best
scientific evidence, patient values and expectations.
Goal: is to get what the patient wants and needs.
iii. Types of mental health professionals: Psychologist (PhD), psychiatrist (Med school), counselors, social workers, couple or family therapist.
b. Therapy considerations:
i. Length of treatment
ii. Individual, family, or group therapy.
c. Online therapy
i. More comfortable for some people.
ii. Down side: the therapist could have fake credentials on the Internet and
patient confidentiality is an issue.
iii. Three main rules for therapists: must report if patients are going to harm
themselves, harm others, or child abuse.
d. Psychological therapies
i. Psychoanalysis: Freudian psychoanalysis: free association (say the first thing that comes to mind), Freudian slips (say something you didn’t mean to say), dream analysis, transference (taking conscious feelings and project them on the therapist), and resistance (when a unconscious thought is
surfaced and we can’t handle it).
ii. Humanistic therapies: empathy, genuineness, and unconditional positive
e. Behavioral therapies
i. Flooding: uses extinction in which the conditioned stimulus is represented by itself until it no longer produces the conditioned response of anxiety or fear.
ii. Aversion therapy: Pair what you are trying to get rid of with a bad
iii. Token economics: system of rewards for desired action.
iv. Systemic desensitization: replacing a fear or anxiety with an incompatible
response of relaxation and positive emotion. Treats anxiety and phobias. 1.) The client is trained in progressive muscle relaxation, teaches them to
2.) The client and therapist develop an anxiety hierarchy. Starts with least
stressful to most stressful scenarios.
3.) Progressive relaxation and the anxiety hierarchy are combined. f. Cognitive therapies
i. Restructuring cognitive distortions: recognize autonomic negative
thinking. List of cognitive distortions:
All or nothing: seeing everything as good or bad.
Arbitrary inference: drawing a conclusion without sufficient evidence. Emotional reasoning: negative emotions are negative without
Magnification and minimization: magnify bad and minimize good. Overgeneralization: applying a negative conclusion of ones event to
other unrelated events and into areas of ones life.
ii. Rational emotional therapy: irrational assumptions are rationally intervened by disputing the assumption creating a new effective
philosophy. Disputes the person’s belief.
iii. Cognitive behavioral therapy: change patterns of thinking or behavior that
are behind people’s difficulties.
g. Biological therapies:
i. Medications: antianxiety, antidepressants, mood stabilizers, and antipsychotics. This only helps brain chemistry hence psychotherapy is needed.
Chapter 18: neuropsychology: explores the relationship between brain processes, human behavior, and psychological functions.
1. Many complicated neural tasks involve subtasks that can be tested separately. 2. Different psychological processes are involved by different brain regions, or by
different combinations of brain regions.
II. Types of neuropsychologists
a. Experimental neuropsychologist: study how the brain controls and organizes separate
parts of complicated mental activity.
b. Clinical neuropsychologist: professional psychologist who applies principles of assessment and intervention based upon the scientific study of human behavior as it relates to normal and abnormal functioning of the central nervous system.
III. Lesion analysis: understand brain functions by looking at the results of brain damage.
a. Determine ability to complete a task.
b. Identify which parts have become dissociated.
c. 2 common approaches
i. Individual assessment
ii. Standardized batteries of tests
iii. Both approaches are used to pinpoint difficulties in the brain.
d. Neuropsychological assessment: individual assessment
i. Tests are tailored to the patient, allows the measurement of the specific problem. IV. Training in neuropsychology
a. Ph.D. in clinical psychology with a focus in neuropsychology.
b. Licensing is required and an internship.
c. Employment: work in a hospital, conduct research, and teach at a university. V. Prosopagnosia: face blindness
a. A brain condition with damage to both temporal lobes of the brain sometimes on the right. Inability to recognize faces. Cannot say a face is familiar but they can see changes to faces they know “recognize” at some level.
b. It changes the people by affecting their relationship with the world.
VI. Main causes of brain damage and dysfunction
a. Stroke: cardiovascular accident
i. Loss of blood supply to the brain disrupts mental processes.
ii. Third leading cause of death
iii. Little or no pain causes delayed treatment.
iv. It can be repaired easily with good quality and fast medical treatment, health
of brain tissue, and quality of salvaged tissue.
b. Traumatic brain injury
i. An impact on the brain caused by a blow or sudden violent movement of the
ii. The brain slides within the cerebrospinal fluid and hits the skull damaging its
iii. Force determines the damage.
iv. Widespread damage causes deficits that are difficult to specify.
c. Neurodegenerative disease
i. Gradual brain cell damage caused by a disease
ii. Examples: Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, Huntington’s disease
iii. Other: infections, nutritional deficits, and genetic abnormalities.
iv. Alzheimer’s disease: small clumps blocking celltocell signaling synapses. Plaques: abnormal clusters of chemically sticky proteins called beta amyloid.
These build up between nerve cells.
Why does this occur? Healthy brains wash out beta amyloid while asleep.
Alzheimer’s brains are less able to clear out beta amyloid.
Research/treatment: Treatment is comprised of adjustments in behavior and medications to manage symptoms. Research is looking into delaying the onset of severe symptoms.