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UT / History / HIS 301 / who is Pericles?

who is Pericles?

who is Pericles?

Description

School: University of Texas at Austin
Department: History
Course: Introduction to Ancient Greece
Professor: Stephanie craven
Term: Fall 2016
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: CC301 Intro to Ancient Greece, Final Study Guide!
Description: This study guide covers all the topics that were in our lectures and are on the list that Professor Craven gave us.
Uploaded: 12/02/2016
10 Pages 9 Views 18 Unlocks
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Study Guide 3


who is Pericles?



Thursday, December 1, 2016 9:13 AM

People

Perikles - Athenian general 

- was a xenos of the Spartan king

- strategy during Peloponnesian War: recede into the city 

- caused plague (poor sanitation and close proximity)

Thucydides - Athenian general at Amphipolis 

- Brasidas beat him 

- Went into exile and began writing histories 

Alcibiades - Young noble 

- Wealthy

- Sexual (politicians and prostitutes) 

- Friend and pupil of Socrates 

- Raced horses and Olympic chariots

Kleon - Athenian general 

- opposed Perikles's strategy to stay in the city during the  

Spartan seige

- accused Perikles of maladministration of public money;  

got him removed from office 

Brasidas - Spartan general 

- Takes Amphipolis 

- Is killed during the battle

Nikias - Politician 


who is Thucydides?



- Wealthy

- Moderate

- Arete (virtue): liturgical contribution at Delos If you want to learn more check out coaling station b

- Peace of Nikias (421 BCE) 

Euripides - poet of Attic Tragedy 

- Wrote 80 plays

- 17 survive

- died in exile at Pella, Macedonia

- Dies before the defeat of Athens in the Peloponnesian War

- Distinguishing features of his plays: 

- Heavily emotive 

- atypical plot structure 

- deus ex machina 

- use of mundane elements 

- use of everyday words 

- contrasts Aeschylus 

- uses often overlooked characters 

- servants/slaves 

- women 

- accused of making female characters too  

sympathetic 

- uses trendy intellectual arguments 

- Sophists 

- strong arguments for morally weak causes 

Socrates - Philosopher 

- tutored many politicians and other philosophers


who is Cyrus (Cyrus the Younger)?



Don't forget about the age old question of ∙ What was Cythera and what work was it related to?

- sentenced to death in court for heresy and corrupting the  

 Midterm3StudGuide Pae 1

- sentenced to death in court for heresy and corrupting the  

minds of the youth of Athens 

- repeatedly claims that he actually knows nothing about  

the world 

Xenophon - Athenian writer and mercenary 

- Student of Socrates 

- Memorabilia

- Oeconomicus

- Cyropaedia

- Military/historical writings

- Anabasis, Hellenica, On Horsemanship, On hunting,  

The Spartan Politeia

- Part of the Ten Thousand (in campaign of Cyrus) 

Cyrus (Cyrus the Younger) - Persian prince and general 

- Gathers men; says they're only to fight encroaching  

Pisidians

- Dies very quickly while trying to oust brother from the  

throne 

- Battle of Cunaxa (401 BCE) 

Epaminondas - Theban general 

- 371: Leuctra

- Spartan invasion of Boeotia failed

- Messenia liberated from Sparta 

- 362: Mantineia

- is killed

Demosthenes- Athenian orator 

- under Philip II of Macedon

- convinces Athenian allies to back Athens 

- made his name early by suing his uncle for his father's  

money

- pro Athenian democracy and independence

- had a stutter; put pebbles in his mouth on the beach to  

practice speaking 

Philip II - Macedonian king 

- one of the first rulers to put his face on a coin instead of  

that of a god 

- Began the professionalization of the army 

- unit cohesion We also discuss several other topics like pentadactylism

- year-round fighting

- payment (small change in bronze; new)

- diplomacy through war and marriage 

- use of Panhellenic religion: 

- 3rd sacred war (Delphi)

- seen as savior of Greek religion

Alexander III - Alexander the Great of Macedon 

- student of Aristotle 

- King of Macedon in 336 BCE after Philip II is assassinated

- Subduing Greece: 

- 336: Battle of Chaeronea

- 385: Thebes sacked

- Sparta is payed to make trouble by the Macedonians  

and Persians

- Defeat of the Persians: If you want to learn more check out auguste comte saw societies as moving forward in their thinking from

- 334: Granicus

 Midterm3StudGuide Pae 2

- 334: Granicus

- 333: Issus

- 331: Gaugamela

- overthrows Darius III

- Siege of Tyre (332 BCE):

- Builds a mole (land bridge) to attack them 

- In Egypt:

- 331: founds Alexandria 

- Talks to the Oracle of Zeus Ammon at Siwa

- Is installed as Pharaoh 

Ptolemies- ruled Egypt 

- The library of Alexandria (founded by Ptolemy II) 

- gathering and editing of texts

- Homer

- archaic lyric poetry

- Attic tragedies

- Septuagint (Greek translation of the Old  

Testament)

Seleucids - ruled Mesopotamia to India 

Antigonids - ruled Macedonia If you want to learn more check out sociology 1010

Attalids - ruled Asia Minor 

Terminology

First Delian League - Athenian control 

- Methods:

- Garrisons 

- Cleruchies 

- Land grants for Athenian citizens in the  

territories of allies

- Tribute 

- funds, grain, equipment, harbors for navy,  

manpower

- No reliable venue for redress of abuses for non

citizens

- Tribute list is kept in the acropolis

- Bread discontent among "allies"; gave Sparta an  

opportunity 

- supposedly started to unite Greece against Persia

- met on the island of Delos until Perikles moved it to  

Athens

Second Delian League - 378 (Athenian control)

- more respectful 

- no tributes

- more autonomy for allies

Fifty - Year Peace - 479-432 BCE

- First Delian League growth 

- growth of Athens (territory and acropolis) 

- between the end of the Persian War and the beginning of  

the Peloponnesian Wars

Periklean Strategy - Recede into the city instead of attacking the  Don't forget about the age old question of reniasance

Spartans 

- caused the plague

- made many politicians mad

Long Walls - connect Athens and ports 

 Midterm3StudGuide Pae 3

Long Walls - connect Athens and ports 

- built so that sieges were ineffective (could just get supplies  

from the two ports)

- meant that effective siege had to be both land and sea

Mytilene Revolt - 428-427

- Ekklesia says to destroy all of them, enslave the women  

and children, and provide an example to all other subjects 

- Changes its mind next morning and quickly sends  

messenger to stop the generals 

Sphakteria - 424 battle

- Spartan hoplites lose 

- They are trapped on an island next to Pylos 

- land battle in the Peloponnesian War

- Athens vs. Sparta

Amphipolis - 422 battle

- Brasidas betas Thucydides 

- Spartans win

- Athenian colony founded in 437

Spartan Mirage - a misconception about Sparta

- Histories idealize the image of Sparta into a pristine, static  

political community to eulogize and exaggerate 

Old Comedy - Plays from 5th century BCE

- Aristophanes 

- satire of public persons and affairs 

- song, dance, personal invective

- performed for religious festivals of Dionysus

- Ex. The Clouds (play about Socrates)

- Ex. The Frogs (play about Euripides)

- ended with defeat of Athens in Peloponnesian War

Mutilation of the Herms - Statues

- Herms - statues of Hermes with erect penises (were good  

luck) 

- overnight, someone knocked off all the penises of all the  

statues in the city

- seen as an omen of extremely bad luck 

Eleusinian Mysteries/Mystery Cults - for gods

- Demeter and Kore

- Orpheus

- Isis (Roman)

- Dionysos

- Cult - certain trend in a religion 

Mystes - initiates to mystery cults 

Sicilian Expedition - Athenian military

- during Peloponnesian War

- Alcibiades recalled from command to stand trial 

- Spartans supported Syracuse

- large failure to Athens

- almost all of the Athenians surrendered or were killed 

Thirty Tyrants - Installed in Athens by Sparta after defeat in  

Peloponnesian War 

- drastically reduced the rights of Athenian citizens

- reign of terror 

Eros vs. philia - love vs. friendship 

- eros

 Midterm3StudGuide Pae 4

- eros

- love (sexual)

- philia

- friendship

- dispassionate

- loyalty

Homosocial culture - nonromantic relationships with same sex Hetaira - high class prostitute (companion)

Sophists/sopistry - Group who challenged conventional thought - atheists 

- offered to teach youth how to make sound arguments 

- controversial, many people hated them

Parrhesia - when in the court defendant's would ask for  

forgiveness for being completely honest about their lack of  experience 

Xenos - guest-friend/stranger 

Third Sacred War - Phocians seized the Temple of Apollo at Delphi - Philip II beat them, thus earning "savior of Greek religion"

Places

Amphipolis

Athens

Screen clipping taken: 12/1/2016 12:28 PM Delphi

Screen clipping taken: 12/1/2016 12:28 PM Sparta

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CorinthThebes

 Midterm3StudGuide Pae 5

Corinth

Thebes

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Macedon

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Syracuse

Screen clipping taken: 12/1/2016 12:31 PM

Hellespont

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Alexandria

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Rome

 Midterm3StudGuide Pae 6

Screen clipping taken: 12/1/2016 12:35 PM

Texts

Thucydides: Melian Dialogue - negotiations between Athenian invaders and rulers  of Melos 

 - Athens wanted tribute from Melos or promised destruction

- Athenians pointed out overwhelming odds

- Melians appealed to decency and fear of gods

- Negotiations failed: Athens conquered Melos 

Thucydides: Sicilian Expedition (Alcibiades' Speech) - convinces the Greeks to  

attack Sicily 

- Against Nikias, who argues for peace 

- claims that though he is young, he is the correct leader for the expedition

- claims that peace makes them weak

- says that when Sparta sees how they have scorned peace, they will be  

ashamed of themselves

Plato: Apology - legal self-defense of Socrates 

- Socrates is on trial for his life

- Socrates defends himself

- once sentenced to death, claims that death is better than life 

- might be like dreamless sleep

- might be afterlife

- in either case, he will be away from the jury and their corruption

 - it will also be eternal rest in either case

Plato: Symposium - purpose of love 

- contains speeches by philosophers on the nature of love and why it exists

- Aristophanes 

- suggests that men are made whole when they are in bed with their  

partner

- people were cut in half by Zeus for being too upstart

- humans were given sexual love so that they could be whole again at  

night, and still function during the day 

- Alcibiades 

- mentions his sexual relationship with Socrates

Euripides: Trojan Women - Play focusing on what happened to the women of Troy  after the sack of the city 

- is sympathetic with them, which was controversial 

- was performed soon after the Sack of Melos 

- Cassandra

- priestess of Apollo

- daughter of Hecuba

- princess

- Polyxena

 Midterm3StudGuide Pae 7

- Polyxena

- youngest daughter of Hecuba

- princess

- sacrificed offstage to Apollo without Hecuba's knowledge

- Andromache 

- husband of Hector

- mother of Astyanax

- daughter-in-law of Hecuba

- Question: faith to old or new husband? 

- Talthybius

- messenger

- says Odysseus convinced the Greeks to kill Astyanax

- Helen 

- on trial

- example of defending weak moral cause with strong argument  

(Indefensible Defendant) 

- Gorgias defends Helen

- large moral ambiguity

- Hecuba prosecutes (women not allowed in court in reality) 

- defense speaks first (unusual) 

- Hecuba wins 

- Hecuba

- former queen of Troy

Euripides: Bacchae - Play about cult of Dionysus and faith in the gods 

- Cadmus (former king): hedges his bets and says that it won't hurt to  

worship Dionysus, even if he's not a true god

- Agave, Ino, and Autonoe: sisters (also with mother of Dionysus); cast  

doubt upon the divine parentage of Dionysus and told everyone that she  

lied about sleeping with Zeus

- Pentheus (son of Cadmus and Autonoe; current king of Thebes): tries to  

stop and profane the rites of Dionysus; tries to imprison Dionysus and  

refuses to worship him 

Aristophanes: Lysistrata - comedy about women of the cities trying to end the  

Peloponnesian War themselves 

- sex strike 

- battle between the sexes

- first shift from Old Comedy 

- early play that deals with gender relations in male-dominated society

Xenophon: Anabasis - The March of the Ten Thousand 

- large group of mercenaries hired by Cyrus the Younger to attack Persia

- Cyrus was killed early, which ended the purpose of the invasion 

- army is stranded in Persia

- story is that of the ten thousand that are left trying to march back to the  

Black Sea and the safety of Greek coastal cities 

Concepts

Causes of the Peloponnesian War -

- Delian League 

- Athenian control

- began as a cold war

- Plataea: allied with Athens and attacked by Thebes (Sparta) 

- 431-421:

- Periklean Strategy

- Revolt of Mytilene (428-427)

 Midterm3StudGuide Pae 8

- Revolt of Mytilene (428-427)

- 424: Sphakteria

- 424-422: Amphipolis

- 421: Peace of Nikias

Later Events of the Peloponnesian War -

- Melos surrenders to Athens 

- Men are killed, women and children are enslaved 

- 500 colonists settle there

- Nikias and Alcibiades

- Statesmen

- both wealthy

- Nikias - moderate and virtuous; Alcibiades: sexual and gambling

- Trojan Women 

- About the sack of Troy, but performed very soon after Melos 

- Athenians would remember Melos while watching it 

- Lysistrata

- about women of Athens and Sparta forcing the men to negotiate a  

peace by going on a sex strike until it is done

- Execution of Socrates

- heresy

- corrupting the youth of Athens

Women in the Greek World -

- Sparta

- women had power because of childbearing of sons and warriors

- Athens

- women should be neither seen nor heard 

- women were not generally allowed out of the house

- Production

- children

- homemakers

- legality

- could not represent themselves in court 

- were generally seen as not at fault for their actions since "men  

could influence them so easily"

- in plays

- often overlooked or minor characters

- not seen as credible sources

- played by male actors

Coinage -

- Philip II of Macedon is first to put his own face on a coin 

- small change is invented and minted in bronze 

Greek sexuality -

- male

- symposiums 

- in charge of their own

- women

- don't have any of their own drives

- it is the man's fault if a women has an affair with him

- in plays

- women are often frivolous

- in comedies the actors go around with erect penises attached to  

their costumes

- women can be easily influenced

Moral Debates -

 Midterm3StudGuide Pae 9

Moral Debates -

- making strong arguments for morally weak causes is seen as shady 

- Powerful people and groups should be able to take what they want  

because they can

- the power of rhetoric was important in court and in philosophy

Rise of Thebes after Peloponnesian War -

- effect on Sparta

- lost control of many of their territories (Thebes liberated them) 

Alexander's Conquests -

- Persian empire before

- hard to control because of extent of territory 

- controlled by a feudal-like system

- Anabasis 

- The March of the Ten Thousand

- Philip the II's inspiration

- story meant that it was possible for a Greek army to defeat a  

Persian army many times its size 

- Macedonian phalanx

- used 20 ft long spears so that they reached their enemy before  

their enemy could reach them 

- Building to Hellenistic period

- accumulation of wealth

- establishment of soldier colonies

Hellenistic Period -

- larger empires and kingdoms than the classical world

- changes in warfare

- armies were seasoned instead of just hired mercenaries

- longer spears were used in phalanxes so that you could hit your  

enemy first

- soldiers were payed

- costs of warfare increased exponentially 

- soldier pay

- more men

- larger fortifications

- large weapons (catapults)

- transmission of Classical literature

- Library of Alexandria 

- collected and preserved many examples of classical literature

- some plays were still performed

- continuities from the Classical world

- Greek religion

- hero cults

- demigods

 Midterm3StudGuide Pae 10

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