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UT / History / HIS 301 / who is Pericles?

who is Pericles?

who is Pericles?


School: University of Texas at Austin
Department: History
Course: Introduction to Ancient Greece
Professor: Stephanie craven
Term: Fall 2016
Cost: 50
Name: CC301 Intro to Ancient Greece, Final Study Guide!
Description: This study guide covers all the topics that were in our lectures and are on the list that Professor Craven gave us.
Uploaded: 12/02/2016
10 Pages 9 Views 18 Unlocks

Study Guide 3

who is Pericles?

Thursday, December 1, 2016 9:13 AM


Perikles - Athenian general 

- was a xenos of the Spartan king

- strategy during Peloponnesian War: recede into the city 

- caused plague (poor sanitation and close proximity)

Thucydides - Athenian general at Amphipolis 

- Brasidas beat him 

- Went into exile and began writing histories 

Alcibiades - Young noble 

- Wealthy

- Sexual (politicians and prostitutes) 

- Friend and pupil of Socrates 

- Raced horses and Olympic chariots

Kleon - Athenian general 

- opposed Perikles's strategy to stay in the city during the  

Spartan seige

- accused Perikles of maladministration of public money;  

got him removed from office 

Brasidas - Spartan general 

- Takes Amphipolis 

- Is killed during the battle

Nikias - Politician 

who is Thucydides?

- Wealthy

- Moderate

- Arete (virtue): liturgical contribution at Delos If you want to learn more check out coaling station b

- Peace of Nikias (421 BCE) 

Euripides - poet of Attic Tragedy 

- Wrote 80 plays

- 17 survive

- died in exile at Pella, Macedonia

- Dies before the defeat of Athens in the Peloponnesian War

- Distinguishing features of his plays: 

- Heavily emotive 

- atypical plot structure 

- deus ex machina 

- use of mundane elements 

- use of everyday words 

- contrasts Aeschylus 

- uses often overlooked characters 

- servants/slaves 

- women 

- accused of making female characters too  


- uses trendy intellectual arguments 

- Sophists 

- strong arguments for morally weak causes 

Socrates - Philosopher 

- tutored many politicians and other philosophers

who is Cyrus (Cyrus the Younger)?

Don't forget about the age old question of ∙ What was Cythera and what work was it related to?

- sentenced to death in court for heresy and corrupting the  

 Midterm3StudGuide Pae 1

- sentenced to death in court for heresy and corrupting the  

minds of the youth of Athens 

- repeatedly claims that he actually knows nothing about  

the world 

Xenophon - Athenian writer and mercenary 

- Student of Socrates 

- Memorabilia

- Oeconomicus

- Cyropaedia

- Military/historical writings

- Anabasis, Hellenica, On Horsemanship, On hunting,  

The Spartan Politeia

- Part of the Ten Thousand (in campaign of Cyrus) 

Cyrus (Cyrus the Younger) - Persian prince and general 

- Gathers men; says they're only to fight encroaching  


- Dies very quickly while trying to oust brother from the  


- Battle of Cunaxa (401 BCE) 

Epaminondas - Theban general 

- 371: Leuctra

- Spartan invasion of Boeotia failed

- Messenia liberated from Sparta 

- 362: Mantineia

- is killed

Demosthenes- Athenian orator 

- under Philip II of Macedon

- convinces Athenian allies to back Athens 

- made his name early by suing his uncle for his father's  


- pro Athenian democracy and independence

- had a stutter; put pebbles in his mouth on the beach to  

practice speaking 

Philip II - Macedonian king 

- one of the first rulers to put his face on a coin instead of  

that of a god 

- Began the professionalization of the army 

- unit cohesion We also discuss several other topics like pentadactylism

- year-round fighting

- payment (small change in bronze; new)

- diplomacy through war and marriage 

- use of Panhellenic religion: 

- 3rd sacred war (Delphi)

- seen as savior of Greek religion

Alexander III - Alexander the Great of Macedon 

- student of Aristotle 

- King of Macedon in 336 BCE after Philip II is assassinated

- Subduing Greece: 

- 336: Battle of Chaeronea

- 385: Thebes sacked

- Sparta is payed to make trouble by the Macedonians  

and Persians

- Defeat of the Persians: If you want to learn more check out auguste comte saw societies as moving forward in their thinking from

- 334: Granicus

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- 334: Granicus

- 333: Issus

- 331: Gaugamela

- overthrows Darius III

- Siege of Tyre (332 BCE):

- Builds a mole (land bridge) to attack them 

- In Egypt:

- 331: founds Alexandria 

- Talks to the Oracle of Zeus Ammon at Siwa

- Is installed as Pharaoh 

Ptolemies- ruled Egypt 

- The library of Alexandria (founded by Ptolemy II) 

- gathering and editing of texts

- Homer

- archaic lyric poetry

- Attic tragedies

- Septuagint (Greek translation of the Old  


Seleucids - ruled Mesopotamia to India 

Antigonids - ruled Macedonia If you want to learn more check out sociology 1010

Attalids - ruled Asia Minor 


First Delian League - Athenian control 

- Methods:

- Garrisons 

- Cleruchies 

- Land grants for Athenian citizens in the  

territories of allies

- Tribute 

- funds, grain, equipment, harbors for navy,  


- No reliable venue for redress of abuses for non


- Tribute list is kept in the acropolis

- Bread discontent among "allies"; gave Sparta an  


- supposedly started to unite Greece against Persia

- met on the island of Delos until Perikles moved it to  


Second Delian League - 378 (Athenian control)

- more respectful 

- no tributes

- more autonomy for allies

Fifty - Year Peace - 479-432 BCE

- First Delian League growth 

- growth of Athens (territory and acropolis) 

- between the end of the Persian War and the beginning of  

the Peloponnesian Wars

Periklean Strategy - Recede into the city instead of attacking the  Don't forget about the age old question of reniasance


- caused the plague

- made many politicians mad

Long Walls - connect Athens and ports 

 Midterm3StudGuide Pae 3

Long Walls - connect Athens and ports 

- built so that sieges were ineffective (could just get supplies  

from the two ports)

- meant that effective siege had to be both land and sea

Mytilene Revolt - 428-427

- Ekklesia says to destroy all of them, enslave the women  

and children, and provide an example to all other subjects 

- Changes its mind next morning and quickly sends  

messenger to stop the generals 

Sphakteria - 424 battle

- Spartan hoplites lose 

- They are trapped on an island next to Pylos 

- land battle in the Peloponnesian War

- Athens vs. Sparta

Amphipolis - 422 battle

- Brasidas betas Thucydides 

- Spartans win

- Athenian colony founded in 437

Spartan Mirage - a misconception about Sparta

- Histories idealize the image of Sparta into a pristine, static  

political community to eulogize and exaggerate 

Old Comedy - Plays from 5th century BCE

- Aristophanes 

- satire of public persons and affairs 

- song, dance, personal invective

- performed for religious festivals of Dionysus

- Ex. The Clouds (play about Socrates)

- Ex. The Frogs (play about Euripides)

- ended with defeat of Athens in Peloponnesian War

Mutilation of the Herms - Statues

- Herms - statues of Hermes with erect penises (were good  


- overnight, someone knocked off all the penises of all the  

statues in the city

- seen as an omen of extremely bad luck 

Eleusinian Mysteries/Mystery Cults - for gods

- Demeter and Kore

- Orpheus

- Isis (Roman)

- Dionysos

- Cult - certain trend in a religion 

Mystes - initiates to mystery cults 

Sicilian Expedition - Athenian military

- during Peloponnesian War

- Alcibiades recalled from command to stand trial 

- Spartans supported Syracuse

- large failure to Athens

- almost all of the Athenians surrendered or were killed 

Thirty Tyrants - Installed in Athens by Sparta after defeat in  

Peloponnesian War 

- drastically reduced the rights of Athenian citizens

- reign of terror 

Eros vs. philia - love vs. friendship 

- eros

 Midterm3StudGuide Pae 4

- eros

- love (sexual)

- philia

- friendship

- dispassionate

- loyalty

Homosocial culture - nonromantic relationships with same sex Hetaira - high class prostitute (companion)

Sophists/sopistry - Group who challenged conventional thought - atheists 

- offered to teach youth how to make sound arguments 

- controversial, many people hated them

Parrhesia - when in the court defendant's would ask for  

forgiveness for being completely honest about their lack of  experience 

Xenos - guest-friend/stranger 

Third Sacred War - Phocians seized the Temple of Apollo at Delphi - Philip II beat them, thus earning "savior of Greek religion"




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Thucydides: Melian Dialogue - negotiations between Athenian invaders and rulers  of Melos 

 - Athens wanted tribute from Melos or promised destruction

- Athenians pointed out overwhelming odds

- Melians appealed to decency and fear of gods

- Negotiations failed: Athens conquered Melos 

Thucydides: Sicilian Expedition (Alcibiades' Speech) - convinces the Greeks to  

attack Sicily 

- Against Nikias, who argues for peace 

- claims that though he is young, he is the correct leader for the expedition

- claims that peace makes them weak

- says that when Sparta sees how they have scorned peace, they will be  

ashamed of themselves

Plato: Apology - legal self-defense of Socrates 

- Socrates is on trial for his life

- Socrates defends himself

- once sentenced to death, claims that death is better than life 

- might be like dreamless sleep

- might be afterlife

- in either case, he will be away from the jury and their corruption

 - it will also be eternal rest in either case

Plato: Symposium - purpose of love 

- contains speeches by philosophers on the nature of love and why it exists

- Aristophanes 

- suggests that men are made whole when they are in bed with their  


- people were cut in half by Zeus for being too upstart

- humans were given sexual love so that they could be whole again at  

night, and still function during the day 

- Alcibiades 

- mentions his sexual relationship with Socrates

Euripides: Trojan Women - Play focusing on what happened to the women of Troy  after the sack of the city 

- is sympathetic with them, which was controversial 

- was performed soon after the Sack of Melos 

- Cassandra

- priestess of Apollo

- daughter of Hecuba

- princess

- Polyxena

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- Polyxena

- youngest daughter of Hecuba

- princess

- sacrificed offstage to Apollo without Hecuba's knowledge

- Andromache 

- husband of Hector

- mother of Astyanax

- daughter-in-law of Hecuba

- Question: faith to old or new husband? 

- Talthybius

- messenger

- says Odysseus convinced the Greeks to kill Astyanax

- Helen 

- on trial

- example of defending weak moral cause with strong argument  

(Indefensible Defendant) 

- Gorgias defends Helen

- large moral ambiguity

- Hecuba prosecutes (women not allowed in court in reality) 

- defense speaks first (unusual) 

- Hecuba wins 

- Hecuba

- former queen of Troy

Euripides: Bacchae - Play about cult of Dionysus and faith in the gods 

- Cadmus (former king): hedges his bets and says that it won't hurt to  

worship Dionysus, even if he's not a true god

- Agave, Ino, and Autonoe: sisters (also with mother of Dionysus); cast  

doubt upon the divine parentage of Dionysus and told everyone that she  

lied about sleeping with Zeus

- Pentheus (son of Cadmus and Autonoe; current king of Thebes): tries to  

stop and profane the rites of Dionysus; tries to imprison Dionysus and  

refuses to worship him 

Aristophanes: Lysistrata - comedy about women of the cities trying to end the  

Peloponnesian War themselves 

- sex strike 

- battle between the sexes

- first shift from Old Comedy 

- early play that deals with gender relations in male-dominated society

Xenophon: Anabasis - The March of the Ten Thousand 

- large group of mercenaries hired by Cyrus the Younger to attack Persia

- Cyrus was killed early, which ended the purpose of the invasion 

- army is stranded in Persia

- story is that of the ten thousand that are left trying to march back to the  

Black Sea and the safety of Greek coastal cities 


Causes of the Peloponnesian War -

- Delian League 

- Athenian control

- began as a cold war

- Plataea: allied with Athens and attacked by Thebes (Sparta) 

- 431-421:

- Periklean Strategy

- Revolt of Mytilene (428-427)

 Midterm3StudGuide Pae 8

- Revolt of Mytilene (428-427)

- 424: Sphakteria

- 424-422: Amphipolis

- 421: Peace of Nikias

Later Events of the Peloponnesian War -

- Melos surrenders to Athens 

- Men are killed, women and children are enslaved 

- 500 colonists settle there

- Nikias and Alcibiades

- Statesmen

- both wealthy

- Nikias - moderate and virtuous; Alcibiades: sexual and gambling

- Trojan Women 

- About the sack of Troy, but performed very soon after Melos 

- Athenians would remember Melos while watching it 

- Lysistrata

- about women of Athens and Sparta forcing the men to negotiate a  

peace by going on a sex strike until it is done

- Execution of Socrates

- heresy

- corrupting the youth of Athens

Women in the Greek World -

- Sparta

- women had power because of childbearing of sons and warriors

- Athens

- women should be neither seen nor heard 

- women were not generally allowed out of the house

- Production

- children

- homemakers

- legality

- could not represent themselves in court 

- were generally seen as not at fault for their actions since "men  

could influence them so easily"

- in plays

- often overlooked or minor characters

- not seen as credible sources

- played by male actors

Coinage -

- Philip II of Macedon is first to put his own face on a coin 

- small change is invented and minted in bronze 

Greek sexuality -

- male

- symposiums 

- in charge of their own

- women

- don't have any of their own drives

- it is the man's fault if a women has an affair with him

- in plays

- women are often frivolous

- in comedies the actors go around with erect penises attached to  

their costumes

- women can be easily influenced

Moral Debates -

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Moral Debates -

- making strong arguments for morally weak causes is seen as shady 

- Powerful people and groups should be able to take what they want  

because they can

- the power of rhetoric was important in court and in philosophy

Rise of Thebes after Peloponnesian War -

- effect on Sparta

- lost control of many of their territories (Thebes liberated them) 

Alexander's Conquests -

- Persian empire before

- hard to control because of extent of territory 

- controlled by a feudal-like system

- Anabasis 

- The March of the Ten Thousand

- Philip the II's inspiration

- story meant that it was possible for a Greek army to defeat a  

Persian army many times its size 

- Macedonian phalanx

- used 20 ft long spears so that they reached their enemy before  

their enemy could reach them 

- Building to Hellenistic period

- accumulation of wealth

- establishment of soldier colonies

Hellenistic Period -

- larger empires and kingdoms than the classical world

- changes in warfare

- armies were seasoned instead of just hired mercenaries

- longer spears were used in phalanxes so that you could hit your  

enemy first

- soldiers were payed

- costs of warfare increased exponentially 

- soldier pay

- more men

- larger fortifications

- large weapons (catapults)

- transmission of Classical literature

- Library of Alexandria 

- collected and preserved many examples of classical literature

- some plays were still performed

- continuities from the Classical world

- Greek religion

- hero cults

- demigods

 Midterm3StudGuide Pae 10

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