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GSU / Speech and Communications / SCOM 2050 / Who are the important people in the early years of pr?

Who are the important people in the early years of pr?

Who are the important people in the early years of pr?


School: Georgia State University
Department: Speech and Communications
Course: Media, Culture and Society
Professor: Melanie chambers
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Media and Society
Cost: 50
Name: Final Exam Study Guide
Description: Study Guide covering Chapters 2, 12, 13, 15 and the Articles.
Uploaded: 12/02/2016
14 Pages 153 Views 4 Unlocks

Thursday, December 1, 2016

Who are the important people in the early years of pr?

Final Exam Study Guide

Chapter 12

- Important people in the early years of PR

• P.T. Barnum

- Notorious press agent of 19th century

- Used gross exaggeration  

- Used fake stories

- Staged Events

- Greatest show on Earth

• Ivy Lee

- Father of PR

- Former reporter Journalist  

- Had a New York office

- Mailed “Declaration of Principles” to newspaper editors to counter fake stories • Edward Bernays

Who is the father of pr?

- Sigmund Freud’s Nephew

- Former reporter

- Inherited the PR mantle from Ivy Lee

- Also one of the fathers of PR

- Worked for committee on public information during WW 1- US propaganda  machine

- Interest in mass psychology: how to influence large groups of people - Credited with originating the term “Public Relations Council”

- Wrote first book on PR “Public Relations”

- Taught first class on PR


Thursday, December 1, 2016

- The 1960’s saw proliferation of PR agencies

- 1990’s saw consolidation and globalization

Who is sigmund freud’s nephew?

- Crisis Management

• A crisis is a major occurrence with a potentially negative outcome affecting the  organization, company or industry as well as its publics, products, services or good  name

• Also referred to as disaster management Don't forget about the age old question of What is the study of economics of media industries?

- Helps corporation or individual handle crisis or tragedy

• BP Oil Disaster (2010)

- Event

Oil rig exploded April 10, 2010

Oil spill covered vast geographic area

- Disaster Details

11 workers killed We also discuss several other topics like How much does ph change when an acid or a base is added to a buffer solution?

Wildlife killed Don't forget about the age old question of What did karl marx mean by mode of production?

Tar balls washed on to beaches

- BP’s Response

Mis-steps —> Perception that BP did not show enough compassion or remorse  for the people affected and the wildlife

Multiple underestimations of the amount of oil leaking

Chairman’s reference to the “small people” of the Gulf regon

The CEO’s attendance at an elite yacht race in England even as the oil leak  persisted If you want to learn more check out Which of the following periods of greek history came third?
If you want to learn more check out What is hypercapnia?

Reputation Salvaging Attempts by BP

Vowing to clean up damaged area

Establishing $20 million fund to reimburse those economically affected TV campaign of commercials to communicate its efforts


Thursday, December 1, 2016

- Online Parodies (making fun of through imitation)

- Online Satires (Use of humor or ridicule to expose and criticize)

- Results of Disaster

The disaster linked the company back to the hazards of its main business in oil • Tylenol Crisis Don't forget about the age old question of What is the most typical aspect of islamic courtyards?

- Event

Tampering of bottles of Tylenol and lacing the product with cyanide - Disaster Details

Seven people died in Chicago area

- Response

Deliberations regarding sending the message that one person could intimidate a  corporation

Full disclosure to media

Full recall of capsules nationally


Cost of recall was more than $100 million

Loss of half of Tylenol’s market share

- Steps to overcome negative publicity

Tracking of public opinion rightly through

telephone surveys

organized press conferences to debrief media

Set up emergency phone lines

Reintroduction of “improved packaging” 3 months later

Tamper resistant

- The practice of PR

• Research: formulating the message


Thursday, December 1, 2016

- First step

- Doing research

- Helps in focusing campaign

• Conveying the message

- Press releases

- Video News

- PSAs

• Media Relations

- Security publicity or favorable coverage in the news media

- In house Person who speaks on behalf of your company

• Special events and pseudo-events

- Raising profile of organization  

- Pseudo events are for sole purpose of gaining coverage in media • Community and consumer relations

• Government relations and lobbying

- PR Publics

• Internal

- Employees

- Shareholders/Stock holders

- Management including directors

• External

- Current costumers  

- Potential costumers  

- Financial

- Media

- Government


Thursday, December 1, 2016

- Contractors

Subject 13  

- Media Industry Structure

• Monopoly

- One company dominates production and distribution

- Example: AT&T, Edison, Microsoft, Comcast

• Oligopoly

- Most common

- Few firms dominate industry

- Examples: Advertising-WPP, Internet-Google

• Elements of Concern

- How media makes money

- How they set prices

- How they live up to society’s expectations

- Media Performance

• Making media available for all classes

• Facilitate free expression

• Monitoring society in crisis

• Playing positive role in education

• Maintaining quality of culture

- Media Finances (How media makes money)

• Direct Payments

- Consumers pay directly

- Consumers communicate preferences immediately

- Examples: books, movie, music downloads


Thursday, December 1, 2016

• Indirect Payments

- Products supported by advertisers

- Client is advertised

- Example: Radio TV Broadcast

- Media Economics

• How the media sets prices:

• Considered

- Program costs

- Marketing Strategies

- Regulations

- How high can the cost go before a consumer won’t buy it?

- How long can ads be used before consumers stop tolerating it?

- How much data can be mined by companies before public thinks it’s an  invasion of privacy?

Chapter 2  

- Origin and Early History of Internet

• Military-government project (1960s)

- Computer time sharing goal

• Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) developed solution so  researchers could share processing time

• Irony of the creation of the Internet

- The national defense Industry

• One of the MOST hierarchically structured and centrally structured institutions  in our culture

- The Internet


Thursday, December 1, 2016

• Possibly the LEAST hierarchical and most decentralized social network ever  conceived.

- Social Media

• Effective tool for democracy

• Effective for undermining repressive regimes

• Help call attention to issues that may not, otherwise, receive media attention • Example

- Occupy Wall Street (NY) - via Twitter, YouTube, Facebook

• Brought attention to inequities in the economy and income disparities between  wealthiest 1% and the remaining 99% of the US population

• Types of Social Media

• Blogs

- Contain articles or posts in chronological, journal-like form, often with reader comments and links to other sites

- May be personal or corporate

- Sometimes include

• Photos

• Podcasts

• Graphics

• Videos

- Example:

• Huffington Post

• Collaborative Projects

- Users build something together, often using wiki (meaning quick in Hawaiian)  technology

- Wiki Websites allow anyone to edit and contribute to them

- Example:


Thursday, December 1, 2016

• Wikitravel

• Content communities

- Exist for the sharing of all types of content many to many

- Include

• Text (fanfiction.net) 

• Photos (Flickr)

• Videos (YouTube)

• Social Networking sites

- Users create content, share ideas, and interact with friends and colleagues - Example

• Facebook

• Virtual game worlds and Virtual Social worlds

- Invite role-play among users

- 3-D environment

- Real time

- Players throughout the world

• Example

- Second Life

Chapter 15  

- Media Effects Theories

• Hypodermic-Needle Model

- There were worries that popular media had strong hold over vulnerable  audiences

i.e., powerful media affect weak audiences  

- Hypodermic-needle model=magic bullet theory= direct-effects model 8

Thursday, December 1, 2016

- Media shoot their potent effects directly into unsuspecting victims - Hypodermic-Needle Theory challenged the Study in Psychology of Panic: Contrary to expectations based on the Hypodermic-Needle model Not all listeners thought radio programs was a real news report

• Minimal Effects Model (Limited Model)

- Media Research

People generally engage in selective exposure

People generally engage in selective retention

- People expose themselves to the media that is most familiar to them and retain  messages that confirm the values and attitudes they already hold

- Mass media reinforce existing behaviors and attitudes, rather than change them - Assumes that people are passive (acted upon by the media)

• Uses and Gratification Model

- Response to minimal effects theory

- Contested the notion of a passive audience  

- Asked the question “Why do we use media”

- Some individuals use media to:

See authority figures get elevated or toppled

See a sense of community and connectedness

Fulfill a need for drama and stories

To confirm moral or spiritual values

- Addressed FUNCTIONS of mass media for individuals


- Media Theories

• Five of the most influential media effects theories

• Agenda-setting theory


Thursday, December 1, 2016

- Addresses how the media affect behavior

- The idea that when the mass media focus their attention on particular events and  issues they determine (meaning they set the agenda for) the major topics of  discussion for individuals and society

- Agenda setting researchers have argued

mass media do not so much tell us what to think as what to think about - The more stories the news carry on a particular topic, the more importance the  audience attached to the topic

- Example: After the Jaws movie in 1975, the media started carrying more features  about shark attacks. The public, even those in land locked areas started ranking  sharks as a major problem

• The Cultivation Effect

- Heavy viewing of television leads individuals to perceive the world in ways that  are consistent with television portrayals

- Moves past how the media affects individual behavior toward the impact on  perception  

- Suggests that the more time individuals spend watching television and absorbing  its viewpoints, the more likely their views of social reality will “cultivate” by  images and portrayals they see on television.

• The Spiral of Silence

• The third Person Effect

• According to Gerber, although fewer than 1% of Americans are victim of crime in  any single year, people who watch a lot of television tend to overestimate this  percentage. Creating the “mean-world syndrome”

Article Readings  

- Media and Violence

Overarching Question

• Is television violence really the reason for no less than 10,000 homicide cases in  the USA alone—as suggested by renowned criminologist?


Thursday, December 1, 2016

What does the public think?

• Three out of four Americans think that there is a relationship between violence on  television and the national crime rate.

• A majority of the America public feel that television crime shows, violent films and  television news items about crime contribute a lot to the seemingly high US murder  rate.

• Many voices from within the academic community along with politicians have been  treating the appearance of violent crime of television broadcasts as a serious  problem

What is research showing?

• Murder is one-thousand times more present on the small screen than actually  happen in the real world

• In reality—convicted criminals ever-represent people under the age of 25 and in  particular young blacks

• On television the vast majority of criminals are white males aged 30 to 40 years  old.

• TV criminals tend to be rich people. From boss Hogg in Dukes of Hazard in the  1970s to Toni Soprano in The Sopranos in the 2000s.

• This contradicts real world statistics according to which most of the criminals are of  the lowest economic tires.

• There is some evidence that shows that violent behavior can be learned through  observational imitation, especially when the learners are young children.

• Bandura is responsible for social-psychology theory.

• The overall pattern of results from natural settings is mostly inconsistent Lessons Learned

• It is possible to establish some relationship between being exposed to violence on  television to disposition towards violence, which then may translate to some  increase in the level of violent crime.

• Very early in the history of commercial broadcasting, American politicians have  expressed concern over TV portrayal of crime and commented that something  ought to be done about this.


Thursday, December 1, 2016

• “The suggestions that there is no discernible relationship between these programs  and the recent appalling increase in juvenile delinquency flout common sense”

• In the 1960s and 1970s the US Surgeon General appointed tie committees to  scientifically investigate the relationship between TV violence and violence in  American society.

• Both of the committees reached the conclusion that  

- There is probably a connection between the two

- The relationship is not very strong and is heavily mitigated

Limitations of the Study

• The studies reviewed here took place mostly in the United States.

• Even though American TV shows are broadcast worldwide, we cannot  automatically generalize the findings to other cultures.

- Is The Media Improving Us

• How and Why our country’s youth are not living up to the standards of their elders - Rise in social networking

- Downfall in reading

• Technology has led to

- Reduced book reading time

- Intensified social contact and peer pressure

- No reprieve from tribal dynamics of school

- Intense awareness of one another and unawareness of much else - More narcissistic tendencies

Hundreds of photos of self in pocket at all times

Ability to talk about self at all times

• Social Networking is the hub of life for younger Americans

- Could be used to form book clubs, to trade opinions about current events, to be a  watchdog on government but instead  


Thursday, December 1, 2016

Used to keep up with friends

Teen idioms in texting

Composition of paragraph for college papers is poor.

• Information age and socialization among younger Americans

- Socialization among selves good

- Socialization outside of age group is not good

Another Perspective

• The dumbest generation

- Those born in late 1950s to mid 1960s

- Those born in their 40s

• Reasoning:

- Compared to other birth cohorts, they:

Have performed the worst on standardized exams

Acquired the fewest educational degrees

Americans born 1958-1962 highest share that have not completed high school Lowest in graduate degrees

Have been the least attracted to professional degrees

Share of young adults entering medicine and law and accounting began to drop  in 1980s

Today-economic stagnation of Americans in their 40s

• Deficit attribution

- Born into large families

- Crowded out in competition for parental attention, good teachers and good  colleges

- In the 1980s most lucrative professions already saturated  

- Xers alternative: free-agent, low credentialed lifestyle


Thursday, December 1, 2016

- They were children at a time when divorce rate accelerated

- Latch-key kids; self-reliance

- Assigned less homework, watched more TV, took more drugs

Xers Strengths

• Practicality

• Resilience

• Ability to handle risk well

• Ability to improvise

• They get the job done


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