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UTC / Psychology / PSY 3310 / define effortful processing

define effortful processing

define effortful processing


School: University of Tennessee - Chattanooga
Department: Psychology
Course: Social Psychology
Professor: David ross
Term: Fall 2016
Cost: 50
Name: Exam 3 Study Guide
Description: These are the answered questions to the review sent out over email.
Uploaded: 12/02/2016
8 Pages 342 Views 4 Unlocks

What role did the Clark and Clark (1947) study have in that decision?

What was done in the classic study by Clark and Clark (1947) on the beliefs African American Children have about their racial identity?

How are they different?

Study Guide  Exam 3 50 Multiple Choice Questions  1. Define each of the following: Prejudice, discrimination, and stereotypes. How  are they different? Similar? ∙ Prejudice: An attitude that is negative and learned towards groups Don't forget about the age old question of orbital motion is a combination of
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We also discuss several other topics like research methods in psychology final exam
and  types of people. ∙ Discrimination: The behavior and action towards a group of people due  to a prejudice attitude. ∙ Stereotypes: generalizations about groups of people that are automatic  and can be either negative or positive. ∙ Similarities: Prejudice and Stereotyping have to do with feelings and  attitudes. ∙ Differences: Discrimination and Prejudice are both negative, while  stereotyping could be positive or negative. Discrimination is an action. 2. What was done in the classic study by Clark and Clark (1947) on the beliefs  African American Children have about their racial identity? What was involved  in the Supreme Court decision in Brown vs. Board of Education? What role did  the Clark and Clark (1947) study have in that decision? What is the Eugenics  movement?  ∙ Racial segregation was at large in the United States until the 1950s. The  Supreme Court case of Brown vs. Board of Education ruled that it was  against the 14th amendment to segregate schools. ∙ The 1947 Clark and Clark study was used as evidence for Brown vs.  Board was the doll experiment. In it white and black children of the ages  of 6 and 7 were asked to choose between a small black doll or a small white doll and then use a crayon to draw the color of their skin on  paper. The black children generally chose the white doll and chose  crayons that were lighter than their natural skin shade. This is because  at a young age (6 or 7) black children were already made to feel inferior  due to their skin. ∙ The Eugenics movement occurred when the immigration act of 1924  was enacted in America. This greatly limited foreigners from making  America their new home, especially Arabs and Asians. People were  persuaded to believe that the white bloodline was being contaminated and diluted, and in order to purify it whites should be with whites. It is a  major example of racial prejudice. 3. What are the cognitive processes involved in prejudice and discrimination?  What is meant by social categorization, automatic versus effortful processing,  outgroup homogeneity, social dominance orientation, ultimate attribution  error, and just world hypothesis. (Note: The book chapter is helpful here if you  get stuck). ∙ Cognitive Sources of prejudice: People think in categories and classify  things into categories. It is more time efficient for us to use social  categorization, rather than effortful thinking through each and every  situation that is presented. An example would be talking loudly to all the  elderly because you were not heard the first time you talked to them,  instead of evaluating every single elderly person you ever encounter. Talking loudly to all elders would be automatic processing. Evaluating  each individual would be effortful thinking. ∙ Outgroup Homogeneity: We see ourselves and our group (the  ingroup) as being diverse individuals, but we see the outgroup as  being all similar. If you are a teenager, you might think you and  your friends are diverse, but every old person is traditional. Think of  trying to recognize and distinguish faces of people from other  races. It would be hard for me as a white person to distinguish  Chinese faces, as it would be hard for a Chinese person to distinguish white faces. This is due to the lack of familiarity we have  with be surrounded by the outgroup. ∙ Ingroup Favoritism: You favor the group you are in versus the  outgroup. This leads to discrimination. When the ingroup views  itself as superior compared to other groups it is called the social  dominance orientation. 3 factors that lead to ingroup favoritism  and outgroup derogation: ∙ Being a part of a small minority ingroup. This causes  feelings of uniqueness. ∙ Having marginal status within the group. ∙ Feeling inferior as a group. This way you are more likely to  enjoy another groups failure. ∙ Ingroup favoritism leads to the ultimate attribution error which is  when you take one case, such as a black man shooting someone,  and then consider it a dispositional flaw or a personality trait of all  black men, but if the ingroup has a flaw it is just the situation and  not the person. The just-world hypothesis involves people  believing that people in a misfortunate situation such as being  homeless is a result of their actions as punishment. People think  this way in order to make their world predictable and fair. “If I am  not lazy and have a job I won’t become homeless.” Also, nothing  bad will happen to good people because the world is fair. 4. How does one help prevent discrimination and prejudice? Name some ways  from lecture and the book (again take a look at the book for some ideas here). ∙ Four techniques to combat stereotypes: ∙ Increased contact with minority groups or people different from us.  The contact hypothesis is the belief that communication and  contact in between different racial groups reduces prejudice and  discrimination. ∙ Increased interdependence between groups. This is the  cooperation when two groups are working towards a common goal  together. A common method used is the Jigsaw classroom technique. This is where individuals are divided into small groups  and each person is given a task. At the end they all come back  together. It encourages cooperation and reduces prejudice. ∙ Better Education: This could involve participating in a racial  demonstration where you personally are discriminated against, or it  could involve virtual reality games where you are put to the test  and you can see your own flaws. ∙ Improved personal motivation. Become aware of your own  personal prejudices and change them. 5. What is persuasion? What are the two basic routes to persuasion? Specifically,  what is meant by central versus peripheral routes to persuasion?  ∙ Persuasion: How people communicate in order to influence other  people’s attitudes and behaviors.  o The dual process model routes of persuasion: ▪ Central Route: This route is the analytical one that is most  likely to last through time. The individual will thoroughly  evaluate and listen to the options and the facts before being  persuaded, but once they are persuaded it is harder to turn  back due to the time spent thinking about the decision. An  example would be choosing a hotel to book for a vacation.  Using the central route the person will study different options  online and use reliable sources to find the best rate and  reviews. Another example could be PSA commercials that  make you think. It is about the strength of the argument and  the individual’s motivation to put forth effort to learn. ▪ Peripheral Route: This is the opposite of the central route. The  individual will not evaluate the options or find the facts, but  rather they will use external cues to decide. Using the same  example above, the individual would not study online reviews  but rather just go with the first flashy picture that pops up on  their screen regardless of price or review, or choose the cutest  name of hotel. This is persuasion based off of superficial  means like what is pleasing to the eye. This is how people get taken advantage of when purchasing cars, or agreeing with the  first argument they hear because they are not concerned with  the credibility of the source. Another example would be a  perfume commercial with attractive models. 6. What is the Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion? Explain the role of  each of the following in understanding persuasion: Source, Message, and  Audience. ∙ Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM): This proposes that an individual  can either take the central or peripheral route to processing a message.  But this is impacted by of the cognitive ability and individual differences  of the perceiver of the message. ∙ The Communicator/Source of the message. ∙ The person or organization who delivers the message is  known as the source. Attractiveness of the individual has a  persuasive impact on people, but so does similarity. If the  source is someone you can relate to you will be more likely  to purchase. The credibility of the source is an important  factor, too, and can be even more important than  attractiveness. People have to believe the source holds  authority. There is something called the sleeper effect which is when an initially non-credible source gains  credibility in the individual’s eye over time. This can be  related to the peripheral route of persuasion in that things  about the source that are persuasive are typically  superficial. ∙ The Content of the message. ∙ This can be visual or verbal. The first step is to decide  whether to attract or repel an audience. In psychology this  is termed valence (the attraction or aversion a person has  toward an idea). If the message is going to be negative, it  will probably be fear-based appeal. This is basically giving a  threat to modify behavior. Smoking is a huge example.  Commercials depict miserable conditions in old age due to cigarettes. This is supposed to stop younger people from  smoking. When using this tactic, it is best to use mild  threats because if the threat is too extreme people will  have the “It won’t happen to me” mentality. It also helps if  the fear-based appeal includes not just a threat, but also a  solution so people are not overwhelmed. ∙ Messages can also have positive valence that modifies  behavior. An example would be an image of a group of  friends laughing and having fun getting into a cab, verses a  mangled car to promote no drinking and driving. Positive  valence techniques have better effect in western cultures,  while fear-based has a better effect in non-western cultures  like Japan. ∙ How the message is presented matters, the length of the  message matters, and the strength of the message matters.  A message that includes both sides of the issue are more  successful than a message with just the reasons to get the  product.  ∙ The Audience receiving the message.  ∙ Audiences can be determined by demographic factors such  as gender, age, or education. For example, older adults are  more perceptible to emotional messages, or women are  more likely to be persuaded in face to face contact.  ∙ People with a higher need for cognition, who enjoy  effortful thinking, are less likely to be persuaded without  strong argument. People who do not enjoy pursuing deep  thinking are easier and more gullible to persuade.  ∙ Self-monitoring also effects the person being persuaded. If  the person is a high self-monitor, meaning that they adjust  their behavior to fit the situation, then they are more likely  to take the popular and superficial route that is accepted by  society so as to fit in.∙ The audiences focus matters. If the person is distracted,  they might not have time to analyze the argument and just  accept it, as in watching a short T.V. commercial.  ∙ The mood of the person matters. If people are in a good  mood, they want to stay in a good mood. This is why  commercials for laundry supplies use sunsets and beaches  to promote their product even though it is not relevant. ∙ Physical movements such as nodding your head up and  down can enhance the persuasion of an argument. ∙ Cultural perceptions influence it as well. A thumbs up  means a good thing in America, but a bad thing in the  Middle East. Language is another factor. 7. What are some ways that one can prevent being influenced by persuasive  messages? What is meant by forewarning? Reactance, and inoculation? o 3 factors to Resist Persuasion: ▪ Forewarning: Being made aware that an attitude of yours  might be changed. Knowing that when you pull up to a car lot  the salesmen will bombard you is being forewarned against  their persuasive tactics. This is to prepare you to say no so that  you can foresee what is coming. ▪ Reactance: This is the boomerang effect. When your mom or  dad tells you no, you are more likely to want to do it, maybe  even more than you did at first. It is when individuals feel that  their freedoms are being threatened, they stubbornly want to  restore their freedoms. Example: Anti-drug campaigns  backfire, or the warning labels of PG-13 on movies makes kids  younger than that want to watch the movie. ▪ Inoculation: This is defined as building up resistance for  unwanted persuasion. The methods begin with attacking the  favored position or attitude with weak arguments, weak  enough to not change the attitude. The person then defends  the weak arguments and gradually builds up to defending the stronger ones. This is used by lawyers to downplay the  defense, or used to prevent captured soldiers from siding with  the enemy. Children are not likely to be inoculated.

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