Study Guide Exam 3 50 Multiple Choice Questions 1. Define each of the following: Prejudice, discrimination, and stereotypes. How are they different? Similar? ∙ Prejudice: An attitude that is negative and learned towards groups Don't forget about the age old question of orbital motion is a combination of
Don't forget about the age old question of non cumulative exam
Don't forget about the age old question of chem 101 exam 3
We also discuss several other topics like the hollow space in the center of the gray commissure of the spinal cord that helps to circulate csf is called the
We also discuss several other topics like transcribeo
We also discuss several other topics like research methods in psychology final exam
and types of people. ∙ Discrimination: The behavior and action towards a group of people due to a prejudice attitude. ∙ Stereotypes: generalizations about groups of people that are automatic and can be either negative or positive. ∙ Similarities: Prejudice and Stereotyping have to do with feelings and attitudes. ∙ Differences: Discrimination and Prejudice are both negative, while stereotyping could be positive or negative. Discrimination is an action. 2. What was done in the classic study by Clark and Clark (1947) on the beliefs African American Children have about their racial identity? What was involved in the Supreme Court decision in Brown vs. Board of Education? What role did the Clark and Clark (1947) study have in that decision? What is the Eugenics movement? ∙ Racial segregation was at large in the United States until the 1950s. The Supreme Court case of Brown vs. Board of Education ruled that it was against the 14th amendment to segregate schools. ∙ The 1947 Clark and Clark study was used as evidence for Brown vs. Board was the doll experiment. In it white and black children of the ages of 6 and 7 were asked to choose between a small black doll or a small white doll and then use a crayon to draw the color of their skin on paper. The black children generally chose the white doll and chose crayons that were lighter than their natural skin shade. This is because at a young age (6 or 7) black children were already made to feel inferior due to their skin. ∙ The Eugenics movement occurred when the immigration act of 1924 was enacted in America. This greatly limited foreigners from making America their new home, especially Arabs and Asians. People were persuaded to believe that the white bloodline was being contaminated and diluted, and in order to purify it whites should be with whites. It is a major example of racial prejudice. 3. What are the cognitive processes involved in prejudice and discrimination? What is meant by social categorization, automatic versus effortful processing, outgroup homogeneity, social dominance orientation, ultimate attribution error, and just world hypothesis. (Note: The book chapter is helpful here if you get stuck). ∙ Cognitive Sources of prejudice: People think in categories and classify things into categories. It is more time efficient for us to use social categorization, rather than effortful thinking through each and every situation that is presented. An example would be talking loudly to all the elderly because you were not heard the first time you talked to them, instead of evaluating every single elderly person you ever encounter. Talking loudly to all elders would be automatic processing. Evaluating each individual would be effortful thinking. ∙ Outgroup Homogeneity: We see ourselves and our group (the ingroup) as being diverse individuals, but we see the outgroup as being all similar. If you are a teenager, you might think you and your friends are diverse, but every old person is traditional. Think of trying to recognize and distinguish faces of people from other races. It would be hard for me as a white person to distinguish Chinese faces, as it would be hard for a Chinese person to distinguish white faces. This is due to the lack of familiarity we have with be surrounded by the outgroup. ∙ Ingroup Favoritism: You favor the group you are in versus the outgroup. This leads to discrimination. When the ingroup views itself as superior compared to other groups it is called the social dominance orientation. 3 factors that lead to ingroup favoritism and outgroup derogation: ∙ Being a part of a small minority ingroup. This causes feelings of uniqueness. ∙ Having marginal status within the group. ∙ Feeling inferior as a group. This way you are more likely to enjoy another groups failure. ∙ Ingroup favoritism leads to the ultimate attribution error which is when you take one case, such as a black man shooting someone, and then consider it a dispositional flaw or a personality trait of all black men, but if the ingroup has a flaw it is just the situation and not the person. The just-world hypothesis involves people believing that people in a misfortunate situation such as being homeless is a result of their actions as punishment. People think this way in order to make their world predictable and fair. “If I am not lazy and have a job I won’t become homeless.” Also, nothing bad will happen to good people because the world is fair. 4. How does one help prevent discrimination and prejudice? Name some ways from lecture and the book (again take a look at the book for some ideas here). ∙ Four techniques to combat stereotypes: ∙ Increased contact with minority groups or people different from us. The contact hypothesis is the belief that communication and contact in between different racial groups reduces prejudice and discrimination. ∙ Increased interdependence between groups. This is the cooperation when two groups are working towards a common goal together. A common method used is the Jigsaw classroom technique. This is where individuals are divided into small groups and each person is given a task. At the end they all come back together. It encourages cooperation and reduces prejudice. ∙ Better Education: This could involve participating in a racial demonstration where you personally are discriminated against, or it could involve virtual reality games where you are put to the test and you can see your own flaws. ∙ Improved personal motivation. Become aware of your own personal prejudices and change them. 5. What is persuasion? What are the two basic routes to persuasion? Specifically, what is meant by central versus peripheral routes to persuasion? ∙ Persuasion: How people communicate in order to influence other people’s attitudes and behaviors. o The dual process model routes of persuasion: ▪ Central Route: This route is the analytical one that is most likely to last through time. The individual will thoroughly evaluate and listen to the options and the facts before being persuaded, but once they are persuaded it is harder to turn back due to the time spent thinking about the decision. An example would be choosing a hotel to book for a vacation. Using the central route the person will study different options online and use reliable sources to find the best rate and reviews. Another example could be PSA commercials that make you think. It is about the strength of the argument and the individual’s motivation to put forth effort to learn. ▪ Peripheral Route: This is the opposite of the central route. The individual will not evaluate the options or find the facts, but rather they will use external cues to decide. Using the same example above, the individual would not study online reviews but rather just go with the first flashy picture that pops up on their screen regardless of price or review, or choose the cutest name of hotel. This is persuasion based off of superficial means like what is pleasing to the eye. This is how people get taken advantage of when purchasing cars, or agreeing with the first argument they hear because they are not concerned with the credibility of the source. Another example would be a perfume commercial with attractive models. 6. What is the Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion? Explain the role of each of the following in understanding persuasion: Source, Message, and Audience. ∙ Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM): This proposes that an individual can either take the central or peripheral route to processing a message. But this is impacted by of the cognitive ability and individual differences of the perceiver of the message. ∙ The Communicator/Source of the message. ∙ The person or organization who delivers the message is known as the source. Attractiveness of the individual has a persuasive impact on people, but so does similarity. If the source is someone you can relate to you will be more likely to purchase. The credibility of the source is an important factor, too, and can be even more important than attractiveness. People have to believe the source holds authority. There is something called the sleeper effect which is when an initially non-credible source gains credibility in the individual’s eye over time. This can be related to the peripheral route of persuasion in that things about the source that are persuasive are typically superficial. ∙ The Content of the message. ∙ This can be visual or verbal. The first step is to decide whether to attract or repel an audience. In psychology this is termed valence (the attraction or aversion a person has toward an idea). If the message is going to be negative, it will probably be fear-based appeal. This is basically giving a threat to modify behavior. Smoking is a huge example. Commercials depict miserable conditions in old age due to cigarettes. This is supposed to stop younger people from smoking. When using this tactic, it is best to use mild threats because if the threat is too extreme people will have the “It won’t happen to me” mentality. It also helps if the fear-based appeal includes not just a threat, but also a solution so people are not overwhelmed. ∙ Messages can also have positive valence that modifies behavior. An example would be an image of a group of friends laughing and having fun getting into a cab, verses a mangled car to promote no drinking and driving. Positive valence techniques have better effect in western cultures, while fear-based has a better effect in non-western cultures like Japan. ∙ How the message is presented matters, the length of the message matters, and the strength of the message matters. A message that includes both sides of the issue are more successful than a message with just the reasons to get the product. ∙ The Audience receiving the message. ∙ Audiences can be determined by demographic factors such as gender, age, or education. For example, older adults are more perceptible to emotional messages, or women are more likely to be persuaded in face to face contact. ∙ People with a higher need for cognition, who enjoy effortful thinking, are less likely to be persuaded without strong argument. People who do not enjoy pursuing deep thinking are easier and more gullible to persuade. ∙ Self-monitoring also effects the person being persuaded. If the person is a high self-monitor, meaning that they adjust their behavior to fit the situation, then they are more likely to take the popular and superficial route that is accepted by society so as to fit in.∙ The audiences focus matters. If the person is distracted, they might not have time to analyze the argument and just accept it, as in watching a short T.V. commercial. ∙ The mood of the person matters. If people are in a good mood, they want to stay in a good mood. This is why commercials for laundry supplies use sunsets and beaches to promote their product even though it is not relevant. ∙ Physical movements such as nodding your head up and down can enhance the persuasion of an argument. ∙ Cultural perceptions influence it as well. A thumbs up means a good thing in America, but a bad thing in the Middle East. Language is another factor. 7. What are some ways that one can prevent being influenced by persuasive messages? What is meant by forewarning? Reactance, and inoculation? o 3 factors to Resist Persuasion: ▪ Forewarning: Being made aware that an attitude of yours might be changed. Knowing that when you pull up to a car lot the salesmen will bombard you is being forewarned against their persuasive tactics. This is to prepare you to say no so that you can foresee what is coming. ▪ Reactance: This is the boomerang effect. When your mom or dad tells you no, you are more likely to want to do it, maybe even more than you did at first. It is when individuals feel that their freedoms are being threatened, they stubbornly want to restore their freedoms. Example: Anti-drug campaigns backfire, or the warning labels of PG-13 on movies makes kids younger than that want to watch the movie. ▪ Inoculation: This is defined as building up resistance for unwanted persuasion. The methods begin with attacking the favored position or attitude with weak arguments, weak enough to not change the attitude. The person then defends the weak arguments and gradually builds up to defending the stronger ones. This is used by lawyers to downplay the defense, or used to prevent captured soldiers from siding with the enemy. Children are not likely to be inoculated.