This preview shows pages 1 - 3 of a 8 page document.
to view the rest of the content
Study Guide Exam 3 50 Multiple Choice Questions 1. Define each of the following: Prejudice, discrimination, and stereotypes. How are they different? Similar? Prejudice: An attitude that is negative and learned towards groups and types of people. Discrimination: The behavior and action towards a group of people due to a prejudice attitude. Stereotypes: generalizations about groups of people that are automatic and can be either negative or positive. Similarities: Prejudice and Stereotyping have to do with feelings and attitudes. Differences: Discrimination and Prejudice are both negative, while stereotyping could be positive or negative. Discrimination is an action. 2. What was done in the classic study by Clark and Clark (1947) on the beliefs African American Children have about their racial identity? What was involved in the Supreme Court decision in Brown vs. Board of Education? What role did the Clark and Clark (1947) study have in that decision? What is the Eugenics movement? Racial segregation was at large in the United States until the 1950s. The Supreme Court case of Brown vs. Boardof Education ruled that it was against the 14th amendment to segregate schools. The 1947 Clark and Clark study was used as evidence for Brown vs. Board was the dollexperiment. In it white and black children of the ages of 6 and 7 were asked to choose between a small black doll or a small
white doll and then use a crayon to draw the color of their skin on paper. The black children generally chose the white doll and chose crayons that were lighter than their natural skin shade. This is because at a young age (6 or 7) black children were already made to feel inferior due to their skin. The Eugenics movement occurred when the immigration act of 1924 was enacted in America. This greatly limited foreigners from making America their new home, especially Arabs and Asians. People were persuaded to believe that the white bloodline was being contaminated and diluted, and in order to purify it whites should be with whites. It is a major example of racial prejudice. 3. What are the cognitive processes involved in prejudice and discrimination? What is meant by social categorization, automatic versus effortful processing, outgroup homogeneity, social dominance orientation, ultimate attribution error, and just world hypothesis. (Note: The book chapter is helpful here if you get stuck). Cognitive Sources of prejudice: People think in categories and classify things into categories. It is more time efficient for us to use social categorization, rather than effortful thinking through each and every situation that is presented. An example would be talking loudly to all the elderly because you were not heard the first time you talked to them, instead of evaluating every single elderly person you ever encounter. Talking loudly to all elders would be automatic processing. Evaluating each individual would be effortful thinking. Outgroup Homogeneity: We see ourselves and our group (the ingroup) as being diverse individuals, but we see the outgroup as being all similar. If you are a teenager, you might think you and your friends are diverse, but every old person is traditional. Think of trying to recognize and distinguish faces of people from other races. It would be hard for me as a white person to distinguish Chinese faces, as it would be hard for a Chinese person to
distinguish white faces. This is due to the lack of familiarity we have with be surrounded by the outgroup. Ingroup Favoritism: You favor the group you are in versus the outgroup. This leads to discrimination. When the ingroup views itself as superior compared to other groups it is called the social dominance orientation. 3 factors that lead to ingroup favoritism and outgroup derogation: Being a part of a small minority ingroup. This causes feelings of uniqueness. Having marginal status within the group. Feeling inferior as a group. This way you are more likely to enjoy another groups failure. Ingroup favoritism leads to the ultimate attribution error which is when you take one case, such as a black man shooting someone, and then consider it a dispositional flaw or a personality trait of all black men, but if the ingroup has a flaw it is just the situation and not the person. The just-world hypothesis involves people believing that people in a misfortunate situation such as being homeless is a result of their actions as punishment. People think this way in order to make their world predictable and fair. “If I am not lazy and have a job I won’t become homeless.” Also, nothing bad will happen to good people because the world is fair. 4. How does one help prevent discrimination and prejudice? Name some ways from lecture and the book (again take a look at the book for some ideas here). Four techniques to combat stereotypes: Increased contact with minority groups or people different from us. The contact hypothesis is the belief that communication and contact in between different racial groups reduces prejudice and discrimination. Increased interdependence between groups. This is the cooperation when two groups are working towards a common goal together. A common method used is the Jigsaw classroom
This is the end of the preview. Please
to view the rest of the content
Join more than 18,000+ college students at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga who use StudySoup to get ahead
School: University of Tennessee - Chattanooga
Course: Social Psychology
Professor: David Ross
Term: Fall 2016
Name: Exam 3 Study Guide
Description: These are the answered questions to the review sent out over email.