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UTC - PSY 3310 - Exam 3 Study Guide - Study Guide

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UTC - PSY 3310 - Exam 3 Study Guide - Study Guide

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background image Study Guide   Exam 3  50 Multiple Choice Questions     1.  Define each of the following: Prejudice, discrimination, and stereotypes. How  are they different? Similar?      Prejudice: An attitude that is negative and learned towards groups and  types of people. 
 
  Discrimination: The behavior and action towards a group of people due  to a prejudice attitude.      Stereotypesgeneralizations about groups of people that are automatic  and can be either negative or positive.   
  Similarities: Prejudice and Stereotyping have to do with feelings and 
attitudes.    Differences: Discrimination and Prejudice are both negative, while  stereotyping could be positive or negative. Discrimination is an action.     2.  What was done in the classic study by Clark and Clark (1947) on the beliefs  African American Children have about their racial identity? What was involved 
in the Supreme Court decision in Brown vs. Board of Education? What role did 
the Clark and Clark (1947) study have in that decision?  What is the Eugenics 
movement?  
  Racial segregation was at large in the United States until the 1950s. The  Supreme Court case of Brown vs. Board of Education ruled that it was 
against the 14
th  amendment to segregate schools.    The 1947 Clark and Clark study was used as evidence for Brown vs.  Board was the doll experiment. In it white and black children of the ages 
of 6 and 7 were asked to choose between a small black doll or a small 
background image white doll and then use a crayon to draw the color of their skin on 
paper. The black children generally chose the white doll and chose 
crayons that were lighter than their natural skin shade. This is because 
at a young age (6 or 7) black children were already made to feel inferior 
due to their skin. 
  The Eugenics movement occurred when the immigration act of 1924  was enacted in America. This greatly limited foreigners from making 
America their new home, especially Arabs and Asians. People were 
persuaded to believe that the white bloodline was being contaminated 
and diluted, and in order to purify it whites should be with whites. It is a 
major example of racial prejudice. 
    3.  What are the cognitive processes involved in prejudice and discrimination?  What is meant by social categorization, automatic versus effortful processing, 
outgroup homogeneity, social dominance orientation, ultimate attribution 
error, and just world hypothesis. (Note: The book chapter is helpful here if you 
get stuck). 
 
  Cognitive Sources of prejudice: People think in categories and classify  things into categories. It is more time efficient for us to use social 
categorization
, rather than effortful thinking through each and every 
situation that is presented. An example would be talking loudly to all the 
elderly because you were not heard the first time you talked to them, 
instead of evaluating every single elderly person you ever encounter. 
Talking loudly to all elders would be automatic processing. Evaluating 
each individual would be effortful thinking. 
 Outgroup Homogeneity: We see ourselves and our group (the  ingroup) as being diverse individuals, but we see the outgroup as 
being all similar. If you are a teenager, you might think you and 
your friends are diverse, but every old person is traditional. Think of 
trying to recognize and distinguish faces of people from other 
races. It would be hard for me as a white person to distinguish 
Chinese faces, as it would be hard for a Chinese person to 
background image distinguish white faces. This is due to the lack of familiarity we have 
with be surrounded by the outgroup. 
 Ingroup FavoritismYou favor the group you are in versus the  outgroup. This leads to discrimination. When the ingroup views 
itself as superior compared to other groups it is called the social 
dominance orientation
. 3 factors that lead to ingroup favoritism 
and outgroup derogation: 
  Being a part of a small minority ingroup. This causes  feelings of uniqueness.    Having marginal status within the group. 
  Feeling inferior as a group. This way you are more likely to 
enjoy another groups failure.   Ingroup favoritism leads to the ultimate attribution error which is  when you take one case, such as a black man shooting someone, 
and then consider it a dispositional flaw or a personality trait of all 
black men, but if the ingroup has a flaw it is just the situation and 
not the person. The just-world hypothesis involves people 
believing that people in a misfortunate situation such as being 
homeless is a result of their actions as punishment. People think 
this way in order to make their world predictable and fair. “If I am 
not lazy and have a job I won’t become homeless.” Also, nothing 
bad will happen to good people because the world is fair. 
    4.  How does one help prevent discrimination and prejudice? Name some ways  from lecture and the book (again take a look at the book for some ideas here).    Four techniques to combat stereotypes  Increased contact with minority groups or people different from us.  The contact hypothesis is the belief that communication and 
contact in between different racial groups reduces prejudice and 
discrimination. 
 Increased interdependence between groups. This is the  cooperation when two groups are working towards a common goal 
together. A common method used is the Jigsaw classroom 

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School: University of Tennessee - Chattanooga
Department: Psychology
Course: Social Psychology
Professor: David Ross
Term: Fall 2016
Tags:
Name: Exam 3 Study Guide
Description: These are the answered questions to the review sent out over email.
Uploaded: 12/02/2016
8 Pages 114 Views 91 Unlocks
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