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Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi - State and Local Government -

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Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi - State and Local Government -

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POLS 2306
Week 10

Voting (11/7/16)
v   Role of the states: determining who has the right to vote, nat’l gov’t gave states jurisdiction
Ø
  Restrictions: gradually moved to be less restrictive
§
  Property: all 13 colonies originally said you had to own a certain amount of “real property” (land
•  didn’t matter if you were educated or wealthy
•  land tied a person to the community, so landowners had an interest in politics
•  urbanites: substantially opposed these requirements
¨  people in the city were often well educated and wealthy, but there was not a lot of land they could own •  by the early 1800s, these laws were taken off the books §   race
•  slavery was legal and protected by the Constitution
¨  a growing part of the southern population was African American
¨  slaves could not vote
•  15 th amendment: “the right to vote shall not be denied on account of race” •  Reconstruction: large numbers of troops were stationed in the south to enforce the 15 th amendment
¨  for the first time, there were A.A. elected officials
¨  in the 1870’s, the troops and the barriers to minority voting went back up
•  barriers ¨  literacy tests: had to pass these to vote (reading, explaining the Constitution, writing answers to gov’t questions)
Ø
  all states had these at one time Ø   administered by gov’t officials, not many people passed Ø   grandfather clause: provision that said that if your grandfather was eligible to vote
before the 15
th amend, you were exempt from the test (ie, white people), meaning only minorities had to take these tests ¨  white primary Ø   primary: election in which a political party nominates its candidates Ø   following the Civil War, the only political party in the south was the Democratic party
(Lincoln was a Republican, and he defeated the Confederacy)
Ø   because there was only one party, the person who won the primary would be the next
governor
Ø   only whites could vote in this primary, even if a minority passed the literacy test Ø   Smith v. Alwright: TX case, Sup. Ct. said there could not be a racially based primary Ø   Poll taxes: ($7-$8 a year), paid these to vote, but minorities were the poorest citizens
and they couldn’t afford it’
§
  Disproportionately affected minorities §   In 1960, only 7% of eligible A.A. voters were registered to vote in Mississippi Ø   Voting Rights Act of 1965: “landmark law”, crossed party lines, designed to enforce the
15
th amendment
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POLS 2306
Week 10
§   Congress said that minority barriers had to stop (applied to all 50 states, but it
targeted the south)
§   Triggering requirements: VRA only applied if one of these were met:
•  (1) state used literacy tests for voting
•  (2) less than 50% of eligible population voted in presidential election of 1964
§   This took away those states’ ability to regulate voter regulation §   Sent thousands of gov’t employees to register minority voters §   Gender: only men were included in the 15 th amendment, took a lot longer for this to end •  Territories: first given the right to vote in the western territories ¨  Wyoming was first, followed by Utah à Western states did this to attract women to move there •  19 th amendment (1920): “The right to vote shall not be denied on account of sex” ¨  a shift in female voting this election
¨  traditionally, college educated females vote Republican, but Hillary Clinton is getting their
vote §   Age: originally, you had to be 21
•  the Vietnam war was unpopular, people said “old enough to fight, old enough to vote”
•  26
th amendment “forbids a state from setting a voting age above the age of 18” Class cancelled (11/9/16) Voting (11/11/16) v   Legitimate restrictions (can be imposed by states)
Ø
  Age: states can’t make the age above 18, but they could make it lower if they wanted (none have yet) Ø   Citizenship: all 50 states require US citizenship
§
  In the past, some states allowed non-citizens to vote to attract immigrants Ø   Residency: today, residence requirements (how long you’ve lived somewhere) are much shorter than
before because we want to encourage people to vote
v   Turnout
Ø
  #1 influence is education
§
  higher education level generally means you are more likely to vote Ø   other impacts: income (high $ à likely to vote), age (older à likely to vote, this is why threatening to
change/remove Social Security is very unpopular)
Ø   Presidential election is the highest turnout
§
  Many states group their governor’s election with the presidential to increase turnout §   In TX we run the gov race in off years (same year as H.O.R. election) à low turnout
•  In low turnout elections, voters are “party regulars”
§   TX has low turnout in Pres. races as well (either last or 2 nd to last every year, with Mississippi), even though we have the 2 nd most electoral votes (38, second only to CA) v   2016 Presidential election (side note) §   800,000 more voters in 2016 than in 2012 (assuming this was largely due to the increase in Hispanic
voters)

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School: Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi
Department: Political Science
Course: State and Local Government
Professor: Paula Arledge
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Government and political science
Name: POLS 2306 Week 10
Description: These notes cover 11/7 and 11/11 (class cancelled 11/9) Voting -Restrictions -2016 election -Nominations
Uploaded: 12/02/2016
3 Pages 47 Views 37 Unlocks
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