PY 355001 Exam 4 Study Guide Chapter 12 Analyzing Complex Experimental Designs 12.1 Variance attributed to the independent If you want to learn more check out culhua
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variable is considered? All other sources of variance are considered? Systematic variance. Error variance. 12.2 What statistical analysis is used to analyze data from experimental designs that involve more than two conditions? An ANOVA. 12.3 Why do researchers not conduct several ttests to analyze experiments that have more than two conditions? When several ttests are conducted, the probability of making a Type I error becomes much higher than only 5%. 12.4 What happens to the overall likelihood of making a Type I error as the number of dependent variables increases? As the number of dependent variables increase the probability of making a Type I error becomes much higher. 12.5 How are Fcritical and Fobtained used to reject the null or failtoreject the null after performing an ANOVA? (think, > , < , or = ) If F obtained is greater than F critical you reject the null hypothesis. If F obtained is less than F critical you fail to reject the null hypothesis. 12.6 What is the calculated value of F based on? In other words, the obtained F value is a ratio of what two things? The obtained F value is the mean square between groups/ the mean square within groups. If the calculated value of F exceeds the critical value then you can conclude that at least one of the means differs significantly from one or more of the others. 12.7 Following a significant Ftest, what must a researcher do in order to identify which of the 3 or more groups produced the significant effect? What would follow a significant main effect? What is an interaction? What would follow a significant interaction? Follow up tests are conducted when a Ftest is significant to determine which means differ significantly. If a main effect is significant you would run a post hoc analyses. An interaction can arise when considering the relationship among three or more variables, and describes a situation in which the simultaneous influence of two variables on a third is not additive. A simple main effect would follow a significant interaction. 12.8 Multivariate analysis of variance is used to A MANOVA tests differences between the means of two or more conditions on two or more dependent variables. A MANOVA is used when the dependent variables are conceptually related to one another and to avoid increasing Type I error by conducting multiple ANOVAs on several dependent variables.Chapter 13 QuasiExperimental Designs 13.1 What is the primary difference between quasiexperiments and true experiments? How does internal validity differ between them? Quasiexperiments are not manipulating a variable like a true experiment does. Because the researcher has no control over the independent variable and/or the assignment of participants to conditions, the internal validity of quasiexperiments is always questionable. 13.2 What is a quasiindependent variable? A quasiindependent variable is not a true independent variable that is manipulated by the researcher but rather is an event that occurred for other reasons. 13.3 When might it be appropriate to apply inferential statistics for nonexperimental use? When the data is more simplistic. 13.4 What three criteria must be met to establish that a particular variable causes certain behavioral effects? Temporal precedence, covariation of the cause and effect, and no plausible alternative explanations. Chapter 14 SingleCase Research (SmallN Design) 14.1 How can researchers reduce intraparticipant variance in singlecase experiments? Intraparticipant variance can be controlled through experimental control. 14.2 What does an ABA design involve? What advantage is gained in an ABABA design not available in an ABA design? What is a multiple baseline design? What would be measured during the baseline phase of a multiple baseline design? An ABA design involves a baseline period (A), the independent variable is introduced (B), and the behavior is measured again (A). The ABABA design allows researchers to see if the independent variable makes any difference in behaviors. A multiple baseline design involves two or more behaviors studied simultaneously. It allows the researcher to show that the independent variable is causing the target behavior to change and is not affecting the other behaviors. During the baseline period of a multiple baseline design the behavior is measured. 14.3 What is the difference between idiographic and nomothetic research? An idiographic approach aims to describe, analyze, and explain the behavior of individuals. Nomothetic approach aims to establish general principles and broad generalizations that apply across individuals. 14.4 What is a case study? A case study is a detailed study of a single individual, group, or event. 14.5 The perspective that argues that researchers should rely on many diverse ways of obtaining evidence in a study is Critical multiplism. 14.6 In what cases might graphic analysis be superior to inferential statistics? In research designs that only of one individual participant. 14.7 Note: Review the relative advantages and disadvantages of group designs vs. singlecase experimental designs. 14.8 What are longitudinal and crosssectional designs? How are they similar? How do they differ? Longitudinal designs are an observational research method in which data is gathered for the same subjects repeatedly over a period of time. Crosssectional designs are observational studies that analyze data collected from a population at a specific point in time. They are both observational designs, however, longitudinal studies conduct several observations of the same subjects over a period of time. Crosssectional designs only conduct observations once. Chapter 15 Ethics (focus on material in these questions only) 15.1 Which 3 ethical codes were created in Europe and the US in the wake of several egregious examples of unethical biomedical science research? Nuremberg Code, The Declaration of Helsinki, and The Belmont Report. 15.2 What are the five basic ethical issues that behavioral researchers must face? Lack of adequate informed consent, invasion of privacy, coercion to participate, potential physical or mental harm, deception, or violation of confidentiality. 15.3 Distinguish between skepticism, deontology, and utilitarianism as approaches to making ethical decisions. Ethical skepticism is when concrete and inviolate moral codes cannot be formulated. Deontology is when ethics must be judged in light of a universal moral code. Utilitarian is when judgements regarding the ethics of a particular action depend on its consequences. Guidelines enforced by the APA and federal government are primarily utilitarian. 15.4 What is the purpose of the Institutional Review Board? Researchers must submit a written proposal describing the purpose, procedureds, and potential risks of the study to the IRB. The IRB must approve the proposal confirming that it is ethical before the study can be conducted.