STUDY GUIDE: MODERNISM Chapter 20: Music and Modernism Modernism: reaction to Romanticism, creation of new languages in art, literature, and music Avantgarde composers from 18901920: Claude Debussy, Arnold Schoenberg, and Igor Stravinsky. Avantgarde definIf you want to learn more check out salp anatomy
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ition: “vanguard” was originally a military term. More so understood to mean in the most advanced style. Changes of the century: pace, ideas, technology, nationalist movements Music followed art movements: Impressionism, Expressionism, Les Fauves, Cubism Modern music transformations of melody, harmony, emancipation of dissonance, atonality music where there was no tonal center at all. Chapter 21: Early Modernism Impressionism: What characteristics do the art and music movements share? There was rapid development in all the arts and the basic tenets of art was challenged everywhere. Claude Debussy (18621918) What country was he from? France Clouds from Three Nocturnes (1899) – the titles suggest various scenes without attempting to illustrate them explicitly. Debussy’s use of motives vs melodies, use of exotic scales Les Fauves (Wild Beasts): experimented with distorted images bordering on grotesque, interested in “primitive” elements in music and art Cubism: Abstract and objective art/music Igor Stravinsky (18821971) Wrote ballet Rite of Spring – how is this piece an example of Les Fauves and Cubism When was it premiered? It was premiered in 1913. What happened at the premiere? It caused a riot. What rhythmic, melodic and harmonic elements created the disturbance? Violent, dissonant sounds and irregular rhythms. What is the subject of the ballet? It has no real story, but inscribed in the score is a series of ancient fertility rites, culminating in the ceremonial choice of a virgin for sacrifice. Expressionism: What characteristics do the art and music movements share? It was increasingly emotional and complex. Exploiting extreme states and extending to hysteria, nightmare, and insanity. Arnold Schoenberg (18741951) – know this composer’s contributions well!Regarded by musicians to be the most important composer of 20th century Leading experimentalist in expressionism and later serialism First to advocate emancipation of what? Dissonance How did this affect modern compositions? Developed what new type of singing/speaking? Sprechstimme Pierrot lunaire (1912) – How is this piece an example of Expressionism? Serialism. It follows Pierrot who is eternally sad and in poems we hear about his obsession with the moon, his amorous frustrations, his nightmarish hallucinations, his pranks, and adventures. Movement began by which composer? Albert Giraud Twelvetone method: What is it? Developed by Arnold Schoenberg where 12 pitches of the octave are ordered and strictly manipulated. How did the twelvetone method provide coherence/structure for largescale compositions? Inversion, Retrograde, Retrograde inversion, Transposition Charles Ives (18741954) What country was he from? Is he considered a nationalist composer? He was born in the United States and he was a nationalist composer. Know basic bio: son of band dir, insurance salesman, worked in isolation, etc. The Rockstrewn Hills Join in the People’s Outdoor Meeting (1909) Fragments of cakewalk, ragtime, march, hymn Chapter 22: Modernism between the Wars Maurice Ravel (18751937) Nationality: French Piano Concerto in G (1931) – heavily influenced by jazz Béla Bartók (18811945) Nationality: Hungarian Is he considered a nationalist composer? He is a nationalist composer Music for Strings, Percussion, and Celesta (1936) Ruth Crawford (19011953) Nationality: American Prelude for Piano No. 6 (1928) William Grant Still (18951978) Nationality: American Is he considered a nationalist composer? He is considered a nationalist composer. Incorporated styles derived from: Blues and jazz. AfroAmerican Symphony (1930) Aaron Copland (19001990) Nationality: AmericanCharacteristics of Copland’s music: first he turned to jazz in some pieces, included a period of avantgarde modernism, and afterwards grew traditional. He also adopted a nationalist agenda. Appalachian Spring (1945) Ballet choreographed by Martha Graham – 6 sections comprise orchestral suite What is the subject of the ballet? American pioneers celebrate after building a new house. Two people get married, and a preacher preaches to the congregation. Sergei Prokofiev (18911953) Nationality: Ukrainian Was he considered a nationalist composer? Yes Alexander Nevsky Cantata 5: “The Battle on Ice” Originally a film score for propaganda movie , rescored as a cantata in 1938 Chapter 23: The Late Twentieth Century Postwar avantgarde: Serialism the technique of composing with a series such as the twelvetone series. Chance music a great variety of music in which certain elements specified by the composer in more conventional music are left to chance. Purpose: question the most fundamental premises of music New instruments sought as well as ways to produce new sounds on traditional instruments Musique concrete: music recorded with natural sounds recorded electronically. Synthesizers: an electronic apparatus that generates sounds for music. Computer music: music that can be made from a laptop, using sequencer software to record, edit, and reproduce digital sounds in patterns and sequences. Fascination with time: Composers explored different ways time can be experienced. Anton Webern (18831945) “No. 4” of Five Orchestral Pieces (1913) How does time pass in this piece? The whole piece is six measures long. It is a very short time segment of very high intensity. Edgard Varèse (18831964) Leading experimentalist in electronic music in 1920s Poème électronique (1958) Do you feel this composition could be called music? Yes. György Ligeti (b. 19232006) Works with large, slowly moving “sound blocks” Lux aeterna (1966): How does time pass in this piece? It passes in terms of expansions and contractions. What Medieval musical techniques does Ligeti use? He used lyrics from Requiem Mass. What Modern musical techniques does he use? He adds so many pitches that all sense of consonance, dissonance, and the pitch quality seem lost. Chance/Aleatoric Music: John Cage (19121992) Father of chance music 4’33”: Consists of what sounds? It consists of silence. What is the statement Cage is making with this composition? Silence is an entity as well. Life is unpredicatable and full of suprsies.Minimalism: What characteristics do the art and music movements share? It is a sharp reaction to the complexities of the avantgarde. It uses little music and constantly repeating things. Steve Reich (b. 1936) Music for 18 Musicians (19746) – how is this piece an example of Minimalism? It has a regular, repeating pulse, has a single harmony, and makes us hear musical process in a new way. (For the sake of narrowing down the enormous amount of composers and works in this chapter, George Crumb and Tania Leon will not be included in the Final, but you are encouraged to learn about them and listen to their pieces) John Adams (b. 1947) Is he an important composer in America today? Yes. Doctor Atomic (2005), know the plot. It is set leading up to the first explosion of an atomic bom in the New Mexican desert in July 1945. Chapter 24: Music in America: Jazz and Beyond (Only the below info will be on the final.) Early American music: Native Americans, Puritans, African Americans Ragtime: Style of piano playing developed and heard in what venues? Bars, dives, and brothels. Left hand: played strictly on beat Right hand: syncopated the rhythm in a crisp, cheerful way Scott Joplin : leading rag composers, son of an exslave. Grew up in Texarkana. Played in the maple leaf club and was followed by The Entertainer. Jazz: developed by black musicians around 1910 What musical elements make jazz different from classical music? It isn’t written (improvisation). The second feature is special rhythmic beat syncopation. What does syncopation mean? It means some accents in the music are moved away from the main beats. Blues: Derived from black folk song about loneliness, trouble, depression from 1900s Sippie Wallace “If You Ever Been Down” New Orleans small jazz bands Rhythm section: Function? What instruments are in this section? Piano, banjo, string bass, or even tuba, along with drums and other percussion. Melody: Function? What instruments are in this section? Trumpet, clarinet, and trombone are featured for the “swinging” element of the music. Listening Exam (1 pt each) Claude Debussy’s Clouds Impressionism Igor Stravinsky’s Rite of Spring, “Dance of the Adolescents” (3:08) Les Fauves/Cubism Arnold Schoenberg’s Pierrot lunaire No. 18 “The Moonfleck” Expressionism Charles Ives The Rockstrewn Hills American Nationalism Aaron Copland’s Appalachian Spring Section 5 American Nationalism Traditional approach during modern era Sergei Prokofiev’s Alexander Nevsky Cantata, 5: “The Battle on Ice” Cantata refashioned from soundtrack of a propaganda film in 1938 György Ligeti’s Lux aeterna Slowly moving sounds blocks Steve Reich’s Music for 18 Musicians Minimalism Compositions Associated with Art Movements (1 pt each) Claude Debussy’s Clouds Impressionism Igor Stravinsky’s Rite of Spring, “Dance of the Adolescents” (Track 21, CD 5) Les Fauves/Cubism Arnold Schoenberg’s Pierrot lunaire No. 18 “The Moonfleck” Expressionism Steve Reich’s Music for 18 Musicians Minimalism Eras and Composers (1 pts each) Classical Joseph Haydn W.A. Mozart Romantic Ludwig van Beethoven Franz Schubert Robert Schumann Frédéric Chopin Hector Berlioz Giuseppe Verdi Richard Wagner Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Modest Musorgsky Johannes Brahms Gustav Mahler Modern Claude Debussy Arnold Schoenberg Charles Ives Maurice Ravel Béla Bartók Aaron Copland Sergei Prokofiev György Ligeti Edgard Varèse John Cage Steve Reich John Adams