Medicine in America
November 22, 2016
Notes Week 11
∙ Class Notes
o Tuskegee studies
Knowingly withheld treatment to syphilis patients
Made physicians also withhold treatments
Blatantly lied about the pretenses and information about the study
∙ Made patients sign an “informed consent,” when they weren’t
informed about the actual practices behind the study
∙ Set up the study based on the assumption that the blacks being
tested were too stupid to know any better
In 1974, wives, widows, and offspring of the deceased patients from this study were added to a benefits program to help with medical benefits and burials for the participants
o Peter Buxtun
Whistleblower in Tuskegee Syphilis Studies
Went to University of Oregon
Psychiatrist in Army
o Sickness and Health in America
∙ Brandt quotes Claude Bernard on human experimentation in 1865
o Says that principals of protecting human subjects are well
known and there are limits Don't forget about the age old question of Which immortal entity ate his children?
o We should conduct studies on people if their lives could be
saved from the studies We also discuss several other topics like Why is the qibla wall in mosques so heavily adorned?
If you want to learn more check out What is hypercapnia?
Black physicians were excluded from AMA, so NMA was started to allow them to be a part of their own group
National Medical Association
Restricted access to whites
Attempted to increase the number of African Americans who went to Medical School
o Margaret Heckler
Secretary of Health during the Regan administration
Set up a task force on minority health
o Life expectancy among African Americans and Whites
White death rates are going up and life expectancy is going down
∙ Obesity, which leads to diabetes
∙ Opioid addiction
o Virginia is currently under a public health emergency due
to the opioid crisis
o Nathan Francis Mossell (18561946)
Committed to education of himself and other blacks
Very well equipped physician We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of adjacent nodes?
Against hospitals exclusively for blacks
Help found Frederick Douglass hospital and training school in 1895 ∙ Able to secure state funding
o Daniel Hale Williams
Founded nation’s first black hospital If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of intragenerational?
Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of equality in economics?
∙ Goal was to train African American physicians and nurses