GEO 101 – Final Exam Study Guide for NEW information (cumulative study guide was presented in class – it is not available on Blackboard)
THIS IS NOT ALL INCLUSIVE – especially if you don’t fill it out fully. 1. You are expected to know basic terminology in order to answer the questions. Be sure to study your definition sheet from the streams and rivers lecture.
2. What is the hydrologic cycle?
- The circulation of Earth’s water supply
3. How do streams erode, transport, and deposit sediment? - Erosion:
- Gravity makes water move
- Types of erosion: Souring, breaking and lifting, abrasion, and dissolution
- Sediment load:
- Dissolved load
- Suspended load
- Bed load
- Depends on competence (maximum particle size) and capacity (total amount of particles)
4. What are the characteristic landforms of stream systems, and how do they form and change?
- Valleys and canyons:
- Land cut by stream
* Canyon: Steep slope
* Valley: Gentle slope
- Rapids and waterfalls
- Rapids: Rough water
* Large debris
* Narrow channel
* Gradient change
- Alluvial fans
- Abrupt change in velocity
- Stream overflows bank
- Running water hits standing water
5. What are the different types of floods, their causes, the results and how do we measure them?
- Seasonal flood
- Gradually covers floodplain
- Rainy season; spring melting
- Flash flood
- Quick rise in stream water level
- Unusually intense rainfall; dam break
- Recurrence interval and annual probability used to measure
6. What effect do humans have on rivers and vice versa? - Human effects on rivers include urbanization and agriculture, and rivers could be said to have the same effect on humans
7. What are the major features of the ocean floor? - Continental shelf
- Continental crust underwater
- Abyssal plain
- Flat ocean floor If you want to learn more check out in facilitated diffusion, what is the role of the transport protein? see concept 7.3 (page)
- Underwater mountain
- Rivers cut into sediment
- Continental margins
- Passive: not on a tectonic boundary
- Active: on a tectonic boundary
8. What are the salinity patterns in the ocean (both surface and deep)?
- At the surface, the water is saltier due to water evaporation leaving behind salt
- Deep in the ocean, water is less salty
9. What are the types and underlying causes of ocean currents?
- Surface currents:
- Driven by wind
- Affected by Coriolis Effect
- Deep currents:
- Downwelling: water going down into the ocean - Upwelling: water coming up from the deep ocean - Caused by: density (temperature and salinity)
10.What causes tides?
- Gravitational pull by the moon
11. Know the different types of waves and wave actions that we covered.
- Open ocean waves: We also discuss several other topics like douglas jackson uga
- Energy moves forward, while water stays put - Breaker: Friction between a wave and the ocean floor
- Longshore current: waves hitting the shore at slightly less than a 90 degree angle
12.What are the different kinds of coastlines and why do they form where they do?
- Beach: sediment deposition
- Tidal flat: form due to tides changing
- Rocky coast: ocean eroded rocks away
- Fjord: formed from glacier
- Coastal wetland: no wave action
- Coral reefs: shallow, warm water
- Estuaries: mix of fresh and salt water
13.What do humans do to try and stabilize the coastline? - Groin: barrier built to keep sand from eroding
- Jetty: protect harbor entrance
- Breakwater: decreases wave energy
- Riprap: decreases wave energy
- Beach nourishment: bring in new sand
14.What hazards are associated with living near the ocean? - Wind
- Storm surge
- Waves and surge
15.What are the characteristics of a good aquifer? - High permeability
- High porosity
16.How does groundwater move, and how is movement affected by different sediments and rocks?
- Groundwater flows in an arc, moved by pressure
- If sediment or rocks are more permeable, it will move faster - If water is going down a slope, it will move faster
17.How do humans access groundwater?
* Ordinary: get water any time of year
* Seasonal: only has water at certain times * Artisan well: works like a water tower
* Hot spring: hot water comes to surface
18.What are the components of a geyser?
- Water supply Don't forget about the age old question of in advertising, products that want to create a situation that generates stress, energy or visual tension use this.
Don't forget about the age old question of what are the moral theories
- Heat source
- Plumbing system
19.How can groundwater resources be depleted? - Lowered water table
- Saline intrusion
- Flow reversal
- Land subsidence If you want to learn more check out paul sharp fiu
20.What factors influence groundwater quality? - Septic tanks
- Farm runoff
- Mine runoff
- Storage tanks
21.What geologic features are created by groundwater and how do they form?
- Springs: ground surface intersects the water table
- Hot springs: places where faults of fractures provide a high permeability conduit for deep water
- Geysers: a vent in the ground formed over fractures in very hot rock
22.What are the five types of deserts and why do they form where they do?
- Subtropical: 30th parallel north and south due to global winds
- Rain shadow: rains on one side of the mountain, leaving the other side dry
- Costal: cold places; the cool air doesn’t hold water
- Continent interior: far from the ocean; all rain is gone before making it there
- Polar: cold air is dry
23.What is the main agent of erosion in the desert and what types of weathering and erosion are specific to the desert? - Physical weathering
- Chemical weathering
- Desert varnish: microbal action on clay
- Water (main agent of erosion in desert)
- Flash floods
- High competency and capacity
- High turbulence
- Erodes like water
- Energy level determines grain size
24.How is sediment transported and deposited in the desert? - Weathering and erosion
25.What kinds of geological formations and landscapes are associated with deserts?
- Rock formations:
- Desert pavement
- Natural stone mosaic with soil underneath If you want to learn more check out transistors khan academy
- Soil crust
- Organisms on surface
- Tiny plants/animals/microbes
26.How is desertification caused?
- Water mismanagement
27.What are the types of glaciers, how do they form, and how do they move?
- Mountain or continental AS WELL AS polar or temperate - Formation:
- Large amount of snow
- Most does not melt
- Gentle slope
- Compact over time
- Gravity is prime mover
- Each moves at different rate
- Two main types: Basal sliding (sliding on base) and plastic deformation (solid changing shape; moves out from center)
28.What causes glacier advance and retreat?
- Amount of snow
- Summer temperature
29.How do glaciers erode and deposit sediment? - Erosion:
- Incorporation: rocks become part of glacier
- Plucking: water freezes in rock cracks; breaks and pulls along - Bulldozing
- Till: sediment pile dropped by glacier; unsorted - Erratics: random large debris
- Loess: wind-blown clay
30.What global consequences result from glaciers? - Ice loading and glacial rebound (isostasy)
- Sea level change
31.How do geologists know about the history of glaciation events?
- Till deposits
32.Why is New Orleans sinking? (covered in multiple classes) - The giant glacier that was once on northern North America had weighed the land down; now that it is gone, that land is rebounding up, causing the southern US to sink
I announced in class when we deviated from the textbook. Please remember, as stated in the syllabus, that when the lecture and textbook deviate from each other, the lecture is where you should get your information.
My office hours during exam week: Tuesday 2:15-4:00 pm (this spans the time period between exams.) I have an 11:30 am exam and so will not be in my office earlier than 2:15pm. Email me for an appointment if you can’t make this time. The only times I have left are before 11:30am on Monday and Tuesday.