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UMASS / Art / ART 115 / What signifies the Early Renaissance in Italy?

What signifies the Early Renaissance in Italy?

What signifies the Early Renaissance in Italy?

Description

School: University of Massachusetts
Department: Art
Course: Visual Art, Artists, & Cultures
Professor: Walter denny
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Art History
Cost: 25
Name: Art History 115
Description: These notes starts off after the mid-term, and may be on the exam. I am starting to upload the class notes as a means of review for the exam. Therefore, stay tuned for the upcoming days.
Uploaded: 12/04/2016
10 Pages 128 Views 1 Unlocks
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How would a rich town act, in terms of protection?




What’s so special about david sculptures during the Early Renaissance?




What signifies the Early Renaissance in Italy?



10/17/16 Art History 115 Professor W. Denny Early Renaissance (Rebirth) Beginning of 15th century  Involved new ways to look at things       What signifies the Early Renaissance in Italy?    ● Marcus Ornellas (made at the end of 15 century) ○ Roman Emperor on horseback (statue dug up in Rome) ○ We also discuss several other topics like david tonkyn
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People look back to time as golden place ● 14th century (Linear Perspective not figured out yet ○ Closely linked to rise of towers ■ Time of black plague (half of population dies) ■ People had more stuff after all the deaths ○ City-states (civic importance) ■ Associated with city ■ Towns grown at enormous pace ■ No national government → Ex. town leaders commissioned Lorenzetti to do a frescoe the effects of good and bad government ■ In Florence, cities had a lot of important buildings sticking up → Ex. Cathedral → Bell tower → Octogonal baptistry → Churches each corner of city → Police station → Downtown hall ■ Gothic cathedral in Florence, Italy → Paid for by guilds ■ City hall (little separation between church & state → Looks like a fortification → Located on a square → Rich people in Italy lived in Palazzo (elaborate houses) → Base of rusticated ashlar masonry in buildings indicated power and strength ○ Ground floor was the most important floor ○ Upper floor was where the servants live ● Renaissance was a period where old & new artistic styles○ Paid attention to Roman remains surrounding everybody in Italy while advancing in education/learning ○ Artist/Architects went to Rome to analyze and research ruins and brought ideas back to Italy ● Early Renaissance characteristics in painting ○ Hard modeling ○ Hair chiseled ○ Sharp edges What’s so special about david sculptures during the Early Renaissance? ● David became a symbol of Florence ( David overtakes powerful enemies with help of God ○ Artist took a careful look at classical anatomy ○ Also looking at psychological aspects of artists ○ Considered a Secular biblical story because there’s a king involved ○ Done by Donatello ○ Two main Northern sculptors of Italy ■ Donatello ■ Verrocchio How would a rich town act, in terms of protection? ● A rich town, would have a contract with mercenary soldiers in return for protection. ● Also included in the contract is a statue of the soldier to be the centerpiece of the town ○ Artist can convey immortality ■ Heroic figures/aggressive of masculinity (virtu) ■ Focus away from God and onto man What are some examples of artwork? ● Italian churches now have independent chapels to gain immortality ( one of hallmarks in Renaissance) ○ Painting of 13-14th century ○ Medici family (not particularly christian): ■ Cover chapel with Biblical stories ● Such as three kings meeting ● Members of Medici family were depicted instead of original figures in biblical stories ■ Biblical story in contemporary setting ○ The Baptistry (octagonal building)■ New born babies are baptized to wain away sin of adam of east ■ Around 14 century, originally needed new doors ■ Decided to hold a competition for the best design ■ 9 entries ■ Doors should have panels with relief sculpture about abraham and Isaac sacrifice & angel/ram ■ The two finalists were Brunelleschi and Ghiberti ● Used Roman architecture as setting for biblical stories ○ Ex. Arch of Titus ○ Ex. setting for life of christ and disciples ○ The royal Roman Arch - deals with perspective ○ Number of warrior saints ■ Warrior of saints are depicted to have the body of spear bearer ● Brunelleschi (Architect- filled notebooks with drawings) ○ Was commissioned to design private chapels (next to important church) ○ Around 1432, ○ Corinthian order ○ Pilaster ○ Trabeated with Colonnade ○ One single arch ○ Classical architecture ○ Serene stone is material ○ Roman in spirit ○ 1472 ■ New spirit in architecture, using old vocab in new way (painting has always changed ■ Works of one can be very controversial at times ■ Women’s body are considered weak ○ Christian humanism ■ Newly rich merchants and families commission portraits of themselves ○ Artists go beyond ideas that are so present ● Alberti ○ 1472 ■ Facade of Sant’Andrea ● Similar to Roman triumphal arch ● Roman tunnel vaults ● Coffered ● Pilasters ● Temple pediment ● Corinthian orderSummary: Christian Humanism: ● Man became the satisfaction of all things ● Gradual evolution of Romanesque and Gothic ○ In Romanesque, ■ very pessimistic ○ Gothic ■ Optimistic ○ Renaissance is a paradox of past and present *Hallmark use of old in new context ● Subjects matter in painting changed ● Tempera paint with brand new support (canvas) 10/19/16 Art History 115 Professor W. Denny The High Renaissance (in Italy)  Quarter of century or less    ● Culmination of everything taken place in Italy during previous century ● Gothic style emerged during second half of century in Northern French ● In 1500 Italy leads in the art world ( some of the greatest art personalities The concept of genius arises ○ Leonardo da vinci (1452-1519) ■ Not content in monastery in Milan, Italy around 1500 ■ Somebody who is good at a lot of different things ■ Unusual for his time ● Prototype of Renaissance man ○ Loner ○ Secretive ○ Paranoid ○ Homosexual ○ Military Engineer ○ painter ○ sculptor ○ Architect (did an amazing number of designs)○ Mind moved constantly (proof in his notebooks) ■ Almost never able to finished projects ■ Small number of finished projects ● Central plan church the trend in 1600 ○ Designed a church based on unity/oneness (prevailing philosophy) ○ embracing ● Whimsical drawings ○ Observing human emotions in human faces ○ Habits of cats ● Mona Lisa (archetype of High Renaissance portraiture) ○ Leon da Vinci (was experimenting with color) ○ Experimented with color ○ Papal sense of human flesh ○ Soft edges ○ Atmospheric perspective ○ Quiet painting ● Known also for Grandma, Mary, Jesus ● Most famous depiction of Jesus at last supper ● Leonardo was commissioned to do statue for soldiers or Duke of Milan ● Frowned upon by public for dissecting corpses ○ Dissected to understand human body ■ Fetus in the womb ■ Circulatory system ■ Very accurate ○ Raphael sanzio ■ 1483-1520 ● Lived to 37 years old ● Very handsome ● Friendly ● Well-spoken ● Ladies man ■ Deseno: ● Must be mastered draftsmen to be a good painter ● Time of male nude (became more prevalent) ● Not a sculptor ● Best known for quiet grandeur and noble simplicity ● Culmination of all the Madonna’s ( the way of conceptualizing Mary in western thought ○ Raphael’s Madonna ■ Atmospheric perspective■ Outdoor setting ■ No need for linear perspective ○ Painting used on altarpiece ■ By the high Renaissance the virgin mary was still more important than any saint ■ Alba Madonna is the most beautiful of all the Madonnas ● Soft human body ● Beautiful pose ● Serine sad quietness ■ People value immortality ● As a result go to Raphael for a portrait ○ The signature (16th century) ■ Name of artist ● Connected to the work of art ● Gives artwork value ○ Balthazar Castiglione (Raphael did his Portrait) ■ Came up with a guide for how gentleman should act ● Must be well educated ● Should be versatile in everything ○ Stanza ■ Series of scenes of classical myth ● School of athens ■ Raphael creating full drawings on tapestries ● In chapel in Vatican ● Full sized drawings ● Colored drawings 10/21/16 Art History 115 Professor W. Denny Michelangelo   Who was he? First half of 16th century ( not yet independent of patronage) ● One of big three in high Renaissance ○ During the time artist weren’t independent of patronage ○ The relationship with Patron ● Early○ Michelangelo Buonarroti ■ 1475-1564 ● Considered himself as sculptor ● Named after Michael, the archangel ○ Not a pleasant person ○ Extremely difficult person ○ Hard to get along ○ Inspired by God ■ High esteem artist ■ Greatest architect ■ “ “ sculptor ■ “ “ painter ■ “ “ poet ( was into philosophical thought) ○ Good at large projects ○ Supporter of democratic government ○ Genius ● Late 15th Century ○ He was focused on art( not like leonardo) ○ Something new ■ Medici family started an art school ■ Michelangelo was given a free ride into this school ● Shown some ability ■ Came up with a impressive sculpture in early teens ● 1501 (archetype of high Renaissance ○ In twenties ■ Madonna of the stairs 1489 (relief sculpture) ■ Madonna 1501 ● Lesser well done ● In belgium ● In cathedral of Rogue ● Mary looks calm/sorrowful ● Noble simplicity ● Quiet grandeur ● 1498 ○ A Cardinal from the Vatican from France saw Michelangelo's work ○ He then commissioned him to create a sculpture for Vatican ● 1498-1504 ○ Michael’s best work 9-7 in textbook ○ Piata (could be found in Rome) 9-8 in textbook ■ Most famous of all time ■ Signed name on ribbons ■ Seen in at St.Peters● City of Florence ○ Had a large block of stone, went to the wrong artist at first ■ 1501 ● As a result they gave the task to Michael ○ Sculpted David ○ Shown in moments before Goliath ○ In Florence academy ■ Michael was into poetry ● Reflection of people of thought and action ● Neoplateness dichantomy ○ Contemplation of doing things ● 1504 ○ As a result of astounding work, received an offer he couldn’t refuse ○ Julius II (was a soldier) ■ Teared down Old st. Peters and designed the larges church ● Had an enormous central dome ● Larges marble tomb ● Started making a series of sculptures not completed ○ Element of struggle ■ Subject trapped in stone-- sculptors job to set figure free ○ Designed a large tomb Found in louvre in Paris ( Iconic example of Michelangelo’s work) {rebellious slave {dying slave ● 1515 ○ Moses of ten commandments (horns on his head) *St.Jerome made a mistake ○ Small change of St. Peters ■ Figures: masses of muscles/ expressions of anger ● Color painting of engraving was found in Germany during 15th century ● Julius decided there was plenty of time to complete the tomb ● 1508 ○ Julius told Michelangelo to stop, to work on chapel project in vatican ■ Shows creation of world ■ Did it without assistance except for paint mixing ■ Largest of all painting projects ● Wet plaster ● Paper cartoon ● Needle ● Had to paint for 4 years ○ Finished in 1512○ Reputation shot even higher ○ Still bounded to Julius/Command, until Julius’ death ■ The way we envisage the bible/GOD is through Michelangelo’s art ○ New Pope came along ■ Name of Pope under the Medici family, changed democratic to aristocratic ● New Pope told Michael to stop work on Julius II projects ● He then said work on a favorite for medici church...It wasn’t finished ■ Lorenzo & Juliano ● Pope said stop, and told him to work on tombs of prince ● He developed a style so unique/creative that was different from time of era ○ Other things that are happening during this time ■ Raphael dies ■ France takes over Rome ■ Syphilis came along from new world ■ Pope now wants Michelangelo to paint the last judgement. ● After completed members of vatican analyze with scrutiny and criticism ● Vatican went to the Pope to make a complaint concerning the amount of naked bodies. ● 1520 ○ Raphael dies ○ France takes over Italy and sacked Rome (art was destroyed) ○ Syphilis came along from new world ○ Sistine Chapel completed (wall above altar was unornamented) ● 1534 ○ Pope now want Michelangelo to paint the last judgement ○ More completed ○ After completed ■ Members of Vatican Hierarchy went to the pope to complain about the many naked bodies ■ Another painter was recruited to paint wisp of clothes on body parts ■ The chief critic’s face was the face of the devil ■ Artist got last word ● 1546 ○ Architect of St. Peters (church been through several architects) ■ Architects works from wooden scale model ■ Central plan church ■ Brunelleschi dome 8 ribs at top ( no buttressing )■ Around the base, inside the masonry, are three gigantic chains that are tight (inside dome) ■ He built a dome within a dome ● End of life ○ Worked as a sculptor ○ In Florence Cathedral, did a sculpture of dead christ ■ Sculpted his own face as Nicodemus ○ His last piata is different from his first

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