1 POLS 1101 Exam 4 Study Guide Government POLS 1101 Introduction to American Government Dr. Holloway Sparks Fall 2016 Exam 4 Study Guide (Chapters 12, 13, 14) This exam will include between 25 and 50 multiple choice questions that resemble the questions on Exams 2 and 3. Please study the textbook, the glossary terms for both Chapters, the powerpoints,If you want to learn more check out a candidate key must satisfy all of the following conditions except:
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and the guiding questions below. Chapter 12 Congress 1. How good are the chances that an incumbent will win reelection to Congress? ● Incumbents have a 90% probability of winning reelection. ○ BUT, safe incumbency reduces Congress’ responsiveness to change in public opinion. 2. Why are incumbents so often reelected? ● Incumbents use “the service strategy” to take care of constituents’ individual needs and requests ● Campaign fundraising is easier because PACS contribute >85% of their money to incumbents ● Redistricting usually favors incumbents. Gerrymandering: process by which the party in power draws election district boundaries in a way that advantages its candidates. 3. What are PACs? Why are they important for Congress people? ● Political Action Committees are the fundraising arm of interest groups. They are important because they contribute more than 85% of their money to incumbents 4. What is gerrymandering? Why does it matter?2 POLS 1101 Exam 4 Study Guide ● It’s the process by which the party in power draws election district boundaries in a way that advantages its candidates. This process favors the incumbent. 5. Why are some political scientists and citizens concerned about “safe incumbency”? ● 6. What are the formal restrictions on who may run for the House and the Senate? ● House: at least 25 years old and citizen for 7+ years; must be resident of state from which elected ● Senate: at least 30 years old and citizen for 9+ years; must be resident of state from which elected 7. What are the informal restrictions? Who are the usual winners of House and Senate elections? Who has a difficult time getting elected to Congress? ● Informal restrictions on who wins congressional races: ○ Lawyers: <1% of population but >33% of Congress ○ Professionals: >90% of Congress ■ a few farmers, ranchers ■ Not: blue collar workers ■ Not: clerical employees ■ Not: homemakers ○ Whites ■ House: 80% white; 10% black; 7.8% Hispanic; and 2.3% Asian ■ Senate: 94% white; 2% black; 3% Hispanic; 1% Asian ○ Christians ■ 92% Christians 8. 8. Be able to name and explain the roles of the most important House and Senate leadership positions. ● House Leaders3 POLS 1101 Exam 4 Study Guide ○ Speaker of the House ■ elected by vote ■ perhaps the most powerful after the President ■ chooses who gets to speak on the floor of the House ■ chooses the chairs and members of the powerful House Rules Committee (controls the scheduling of bills) ○ House Majority Leader ■ the party’s floor leader. Organizes the debate on bills and lines up legislative support. ○ House Majority Whip ■ informs party members when critical votes are scheduled. Provides guidance on party positions ● Senate Leadership ○ Senate Majority Leader ■ formulates the majority party’s legislative agenda and encourages members to support it. (Less powerful than Speaker of the House) ○ Senate has a tradition of unlimited of unlimited debates ○ The Vice President only votes in case of tie 9. Why are the Standing Committees within Congress so important? What do they do? Be able to identify the ones mentioned in the textbook. ● Standing Committees handle most of the work in Congress. ○ Permanent committees with responsibility for particular areas of public policy. Can draft and rewrite proposed legislation. Recommends whether the bill should pass or be defeated. ■ Foreign policy4 POLS 1101 Exam 4 Study Guide ■ agriculture ■ commerce ■ interior (natural resources, public land) ■ defense ■ labor ■ judiciary ■ taxation 10. Be able to explain the steps involved in how a bill becomes a law. ● 1. Introduction of Bill (less than 10% will get to the floor) ● 2. Committee Action ● 3. Floor Action ● 4. Conference Action ● 5. Executive Action (President) 11. Why is the House Rules Committee so powerful? ● They decide if a bill gets a ○ “closed rule” (no amendments permitted) or ○ “open rule” (members can propose amendment to any section) ○ This is a very powerful decision ● In the Senate, all bills get unlimited debate unless a majority ⅗ (60/100 Senators) vote for “cloture” which limits debate to 30 hours. ● SEnators can also propose a “rider” (an amendment) to any bill 12. Be able to explain what a cloture vote is and why it is important? ● A cloture vote defeats a Senate filibuster ○ filibuster: a procedural tactic in the U.S. Senate whereby a minority of Senators prevents a bill from coming to a vote by holding the floor and talking until other Senators give in. 13. Be able to explain Congress’ role in lawmaking, representation, and oversight activities. ● 3 main functions of Congress ○ 1. Lawmaking though disagreement on large issues can be difficult to resolve5 POLS 1101 Exam 4 Study Guide ○ 2. Representation of the nation but also state and district interest e.g. agricultural interest vs. urban ○ 3. Oversight of the executive branch to make sure they carry out the laws faithfully 14. What does it mean to call Congress “fragmented”? Why does fragmentation matter? ● Many other legislatures are not nearly as divided or fragmented as the U.S ● The division and coequal status of the houses in the U.S. system, plus the district based electoral system, slows down legislation and other functions of Congress Chapter 13 The Presidency 1. Be able to name and explain the 7 key roles of the President in section 1.1. Then, make sure you understand the powers of the President discussed in section 3 and match them up with the roles identified in section 1. ● 1. Head of State the role of the president as the symbolic representative of the country in the eyes of the world ● 2. Chief Executive he is responsible for running the massive federal bureaucracy (putting together a team of people, called the administration, who occupy the top positions in the executive departments and agencies) ● 3. Crisis Manager must be able to act quickly and effectively when events around the world dictate an American response. ● 4. CommanderInChief one of the most important roles of the President, which refers to the fact that the President of the United States is the leader of the armed forces. 6 POLS 1101 Exam 4 Study Guide ● 5. Chief Diplomat and Chief Foreign Policy Maker the President serves as the top representative of the United States to foreign nations. This role is generally done through policy decisions and hosting of ambassadors from other countries. ● 6. Chief Legislature Congress looks to him to set the legislative agenda ● 7. Party Leader the president is the symbolic leader of his party 2. Which amendment established term limits for the President, and when was it passed? ● Term limits were added by the 22nd Amendment in 1951, after FDR broke tradition and ran for President 4 times. 3. Make sure you understand the rules regarding the order of presidential succession and some objections to them (see the link in your webtext). ● Currently, a 1947 law stipulates ○ Vice President ○ Speaker of the House ○ President ProTempore of the Senate (Usually the longest serving Senator) ○ Secretary of State ○ Secretary of Treasury ○ Secretary of Defense ○ Other Cabinet Members 4. Be able to explain how and when a sitting President can be removed from office. Who ● Impeachment is an action by the House of Representatives accusing a sitting President of “high crimes and misdemeanors.” ○ e.g. Andrew Jackson was impeached for political motives ○ e.g. Richard M. Nixon would have been but resigned7 POLS 1101 Exam 4 Study Guide ● If impeached, a President is then tried by the Senate. A vote is ⅔ necessary to remove the President from office 5. Be able to explain the stewardship and Constitutional theories of presidential power, and name the Founders and Presidents associated with each. ● 1.) The Stewardship Theory (Hamilton; Teddy Roosevelt): the president is a stewardhe is empowered to do anything deemed necessary, short of what is prohibited, in pursuit of the general welfare. ● 2.) The Constitutional Theory (Madison Test) The President’s powers are restricted to the powers listed in Article II of the Constitution. 6. Does the U.S. President have the line item veto? How does the veto process work? ● LineItemVeto: A veto that only rejects part of a proposed bill. Congree attepted to allow president to employ a lineitem beteo in the 1990s, but this effort was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court. Thus, presidents currently do not have lineitem veto power. ● Veto A power of the president to reject legislation sent by Congress 7. Be able to identify and explain the parts and key members of the President’s office (White House staff, Executive Office of the President, the Cabinet). ● White House Staff The president’s closest advisors; most important position in the White House Staff is the chief of staff who is viewed as the president’s righthand; controls the president’s calendar, limits access to the president, manages the staff, and helps the president in all aspects of domestic and foreign policy. ● Executive Office Of The President assists the president in evaluating economic trends and formulating economic policy.8 POLS 1101 Exam 4 Study Guide ● The Cabinet consists of the heads of major executive departments; they are often chosen for public relations reasons; the influence of a cabinet member ultimately depends on the president. Chapter 14 The Judiciary 1. According to your textbook, what are two of the most important powers that the Judicial branch has? ● 1. The Judiciary has the power to “say what the law is”: it has the authority to interpret the law (statutes, regulations, etc.) ● 2. The Judiciary also has the power of judicial review: the power to interpret the U.S. Constitution and to invalidate laws and policies found contrary to it. ○ This is a uniquely American invention ○ Emerged from Marbury vs. Madison in 1803 2. What was the name and date of the court case that established judicial review in the United States? Why was it so important? ● Marbury vs. Madison in 1803 ● More on this is question 1 3. Be able to define who the plaintiff and the defendant are in a court case. ● Plaintiff: the party who files a complaint alleging wrongdoing on part of a defendant ● Defendant: the party who must either admit to the wrong or defend against the accusation. 4. How do a civil case and a criminal case differ? ● Civil Case: when a plaintiff brings a lawsuit usually seeking monetary damages ● Criminal Case: when the government prosecutes someone for allegedly committing a crime. 5. What does it mean to say a court has jurisdiction over a case?9 POLS 1101 Exam 4 Study Guide ● Jurisdiction: the authority of a court of law to hear and decide a case. The court must have jurisdiction over both the subject matter and the parties 6. What is standing in a judicial context? ● Plaintiffs must have standing to file a case. The party must have suffered or be about to suffer an injury: ○ physical ○ economic ○ aesthetic 7. What is the “political questions doctrine”? ● The alleged wrong can’t be a “political question” something that should be decided legislatively or electorally. Courts can dismiss cases that seek to resolve political questions through judicial means. 8. What is the doctrine of stare decisis? ● courts should “stand by decided matters,” I.e. courts should follow precedents set by other courts in most cases. 9. Make sure you understand the hierarchy of federal courts (e.g., district, circuit, etc.) up to the Supreme Court. ● The Supreme Court ○ United States Court of Appeals ■ Circuit Courts ● 94 District Courts 10. What is the process through which federal judges are appointed? ● The President nominates judicial candidates ● Then the President must obtain the “advice and consent” of the Senate for his/her nominee. ○ E.g. President Obama nominated Merrick Farland to replace Antonin Scalia. But the Senate refused to hold hearing and take a vote. ● Federal Judges receive “life tenure” i.e. they are appointed for life10 POLS 1101 Exam 4 Study Guide ● They can only be impeached for improper conduct, not their decision. This is difficult, and rare. 11. Make sure you understand what the most important decisions of the Roberts Court have been. ● The Jay Court ● The Marshall Court ● The Civil War Era ● Age of Conservative Activism ● Battle Over the New Deal ● Warren Court ● Burger Court ● Rehnquist Court ● Robert Court 12. Make sure you can explain the Supreme Court’s internal procedures and put them in their proper order. ● The Supreme Court’s Procedures: ○ 1.) Granting Certiorari; 4 justices have to vote yes ○ 2.) Plaintiffs, Defendants, and “friends of the court” file Briefs ○ 3.) Oral Arguements ○ Justices meet in private conference to vote, and to decide who whill write the opinion ○ 5.) Supreme Court Opinions released ■ Majority Opinion ■ Concurring opinion (in support of the majority opinion but separate) ■ Dissenting Opinion (disagrees with the majority) 13. How many judges have to vote yes to grant certiorari for a case to go to the Supreme Court? ● Four 14. What are amicus curiae briefs? Who writes them?11 POLS 1101 Exam 4 Study Guide ● a process by which parties who lost in a lower court asks the Supreme Court to take up their case. 15. What are majority, concurring, and dissenting opinions? ● Concurring Opinion A written statement through which one or more justice offers a different justification for supporting the court’s decision than that which the Court offered through its majority opinion ● Dissenting Opinions A written statement through which one or more justice justifies his or her reasons for rejecting the Court’s decision on a case or controversy. 16. What is judicial activism? What is judicial restraint? ● Judicial Activism a way in which to view the philosophy of a justice in which activists are seen to be more likely to support the expansion of the Supreme Court’s jurisdiction and powers as well as to embrace innovative constitutional doctrines. ● Judicial Restraint a way in which to view the philosophy of a justice in which they prefer a showing of restraint by the Supreme Court in letting the political branches to decide most questions and to follow precedent more strictly.