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AU / Geography / GEO 1100 / What is a glacier?

What is a glacier?

What is a glacier?

Description

School: Auburn University
Department: Geography
Course: Intro Geology
Professor: Hawkins
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Geology, Hawkins, geologyfinal, Glaciers, and groundwater
Cost: 50
Name: Geology 1100 Final Study Guide
Description: The first half of the study guide contains notes on glaciers and ground water. The second half contains the old test questions posted along with the answers for all 3 test.
Uploaded: 12/04/2016
54 Pages 11 Views 23 Unlocks
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Final Exam Study Guide


What is a glacier?



Glaciers 

Glacier: the existence of year-round ice on the landscape

• Form whenever snowfall exceeds snowmelt year after year. The snow  accumulates incrementally, pressure increase, and it is changed into  never and then ice by this pressure

• Take a long time to form

o Over a lifetime, not just from one winter

o Sea ice does not mean anything

• What can a glacier do

o Re-advance

o Retreat  

• Maximum extent of Pleistocene Glaciation

o 1/3 of land surface

• Most recent glacial maximum peaked

o 18,000 years ago and is considered to have ended 10,000 B.P. accumulation zone

• all parts of glacier above equilibrium line (high up)

• where the snow comes from

• beginning of glacier

equilibrium line

• measure glacier health

o past accumulation zone: healthy

o in ablation zone: not healthy


What are the types of moraine?



ablation zone

• all parts of glacier below equilibrium line (lower)

• end of glacier Don't forget about the age old question of what are the two main principles in antropology?
We also discuss several other topics like what is Proximal Stimulus?

• unhealthy

o melting

why is a glacier the only thing that is ever coming and going at the same time • gravity pulls it down as ice is melting

Erosion by Glaciers

• Volume and speed determines amount of erosion

• Erodes slightly more effectively than water

• Plucking and abrasion (rock-tipped blade)

o Plucking: pressure drops a little

▪ Stones picked up and carried

???? Creating groves

• Polishing and striations

• alpine glaciers change V-shaped valleys to U-shaped

Transportation by Glaciers

• Will move material of all sizes, from glacial flour to massive boulders

• Slow transport

• Water in, on, and under glaciers (pluvial processes) moves much  sediment as well


What is a ground water?



drift: is any material deposited by glaciers of their melt water till: is that unsorted material that is directly deposited by ice • not sorted

moraines: are linear features deposited at bottom or along sides of glaciers gridding along the sides, both sides meet where rocks were deposited • moraines in the middle

o medial moraine: 2 or more glaciers come together

glacial erratic: enormous boulders transported and deposited by glaciers, often  far from their source region

alpine glaciers

• v-shaped valley: most rivers

• u-shaped

o maximum glaciation

• postglacial topography If you want to learn more check out Used to determine how well observed data falls in with expected values.

o glacial tough

▪ melting  

o hanging valley

▪ water fall created

o arête

▪ ridged spikes between bowls

o horn

▪ peeks

o cirques

▪ bowl, hallow impression

▪ a lot of them

o due to gravity

▪ glacier is always moving down

o ice flow advances in the middle

▪ less friction

o moraines (at the end)

▪ glacier scoops everything (like a bulldozer) and when it  

begins to melt the material that was left is the moraines

???? it can repeat over and over again resulting in  

multiple moraines  

???? if a huge moraine comes along it can combine them  

all

▪ types of moraine

???? lateral

• on the side

???? recessional

• inside

???? terminal  

• farthest away We also discuss several other topics like what are Kinds of Media Production?

▪ lakes can be formed in between pulses of moraines

Periglacial environment: near an ice sheet

• Deal with frost wedging weathering  

• Glacier had covered the area earlier

Surface water carries a higher volume of water

2 true ice shapes

• Greenland  

• Antarctica

Fjords

• The base is below sea level

o Salt water

• If fresh water

o Glacial valley

• Do we have any fjords in the lower 48 states

▪ Yes, mostly in Washington

Ground water Don't forget about the age old question of What was the "ladder of civilization"?

Ground water: Lies beneath the ground surface, filling pores in sediments and  sedimentary rocks and fractures in other rock types

Porosity: percentage of rock or sediment that consist of voids or openings • Measurement of a rock’s ability to hold water

Permeability: capacity of a rock to transmit fluid through pores and fractures • Interconnectedness of pore spaces

o Mostly sandstone and conglomerate

Unsaturated zone

• Water in pendulum

• Vadose zone

Saturated Zone

• Where all pores are completely filled with water Don't forget about the age old question of What is a pastiche?

Capillary Fringe

• Water is pulled above the water table by capillary suction The water table

• Water level at surface of most lakes and rivers corresponds to local  water table

• Perched water table: above and separated from main water table by  an unsaturated zone

o Commonly produced by thins lenses of impermeable rock (shale  or clay) within permeable ones

• Unsaturated Region

o Above the water table

Springs

• A place where water flows naturally from rock or sediment onto the  ground surface

Relatively slow

• Movement of ground water through pores and fracture compared to  flow of water in surface streams

o Flow velocities in cavernous limestone can be much higher Flow velocity depends upon

• slope of water table

• Permeability of the rock or sediment

Well: a deep hole dug or drilled into the ground to obtain water from an aquifer • For wells in unconfined aquifers, water level before pumping is the  water table

• Water table can be lowered by pumping, a process known as  drawdown

o Drawdown: pump too much water

• Water may rise to level above the top of a confined aquifer, producing  an artesian well

• Perched aquifers: no pressure

Pumping wells

• Accelerates flow near well

• May reverse ground-water flow

• Cause water table draw down

• Forms a cone of depression

• May dry up springs and wells

o If a certain farmer goes crazy pumping water it causes the  region to become drained including river but their well remains  full

Streams

• Gaining streams

o Humid regions

o Wet season

• Loosing streams

o Humid regions

o smaller streams

o dry season

o Arid regions

• Dry steam bed

Aquifers: body of saturated rock or sediment through which water can move  easily

• Store water inside rocks

• Can extent of over large areas

• Forms in fractured igneous rock

• Porosity and permeability are low

• Wells are difficult to locate

• Limits development

• Unconfined

o Has a water table, only partly filled with water

o Recharges quickly by precipitation  

• Confined

o Completely filled with water under pressure

▪ Hydrostatic head

o Separated from surface by impermeable confining layer/  Aquitard

o Very slowly recharged

Aquitard: rock/sediment that retards ground water flow due to low porosity  and/or permeability

• Holds contamination

• Not fractured

Ground water contamination

• Infiltrating water may bring contaminants down to the water table • Can not drink water in Montgomery

• Effects of pumping

o Accelerates ground water flow toward well

o Captures contamination within cone of depression

o May reverse ground water flow

o Can draw contamination up hill

o Will cause salt water intrusion

▪ Can not drink water once salt water has entered

Dropping water table can lead to ground subsidence

• Surface of the ground drops as buoyancy from ground water is  removed, allowing rock or sediment to compact and sink

Subsidence can crack foundations, roads and pipelines

Why does water come out of sink or shower?

• Hydraulic head

o The higher the better pressure

o Must live below the water tower

▪ Each skyscraper has their own

▪ Might not work on cruise ships

???? Use compressed air

Ground water chemically weathers bedrock

• Slightly acidic ground water dissolves limestone

• Caves are formed

• Permeability is increased

• Caves drain

• Spelothems form

Caves: naturally-formed underground chambers

• Acidic ground water dissolves limestone

Hot springs: springs in which the water is warmer than human body  temperature

• Ground water is heated by nearby magma bodies or circulation to  usually deep (or warm) levels within the crust

• Hot water is less dense than cool water and thus rises back to the  surface on its own

Geysers- hot springs that periodically erupt hot water and steam • Minerals often precipitate around geysers as hot water cools rapidly in  the air

Geothermal energy: produced using natural steam or superheated water

Exam 1-3

test 1 fall 2016

____ 1. Minerals are all naturally occurring solid substances with a definable chemical composition. They  must also possess ____________.

a. an ability to be synthesized in the laboratory as well as being found in nature

b. metallic elements, such as iron, calcium, or magnesium

c. metallic luster

d. a fixed crystalline structure (spatial arrangement of atoms and ions)

____ 2. Two different minerals may have the same chemical formula.

a. true b. false

____ 3. Which of the following is NOT a mineral?

a. petroleum (oil), which is a liquid

b. cubic zirconia, which is a synthetic diamond substitute that is not found in nature c. ice, which is water in the solid state

d. Neither a nor b is a mineral; however, c is a mineral.

____ 4. Minerals in geodes (see below) form spectacular euhedral crystals because ____________.

a. all of the elements incorporated in the crystals are in plentiful supply

b. the crystals have abundant room to grow in their hollow surroundings

c. minerals within geodes are always framework silicates

d. minerals within geodes always contain iron

____ 5. If you were to drop a piece of calcite on the ground and a perfect cube broke off, this would be  displaying calcite breaking ______________.

a. along already formed cracks c. in a fracture pattern

b. coincidentally as a perfect cube d. along weak bonds

____ 6. The color of a mineral in powdered form is termed ____________.

a. color c. luster

b. specific gravity d. streak

____ 7. The shininess of a mineral is a helpful diagnostic property termed ____________.

a. color c. luster

b. specific gravity d. streak

____ 8. Minerals that do not possess cleavage are said to possess ____________. a. invulnerability c. solidity

b. fracture d. massiveness

____ 9. Trace amounts of impurity in a mineral can commonly produce significant differences in  ____________ among individual crystals of this mineral.

a. color c. luster

b. specific gravity d. streak

____ 10. The silicate tetrahedron that forms the backbone of all the silicate minerals is composed of silicon  and what other element?

a. magnesium c. iron

b. oxygen d. carbon

____ 11. The difference between magma and lava is ____________.

a. that magma cools more rapidly than lava

b. that magma is found at the surface, whereas lava is found below the surface

c. that magma is found beneath the surface, whereas lava is found at the surface d. There is no difference; the two terms mean the same thing.

____ 12. Igneous rocks ____________.

a. are formed through the freezing of melt

b. can be produced at the surface of the Earth as well as deep below the surface

c. are the most common type of rocks within Earth

d. All of the above are correct.

____ 13. All other factors being equal, intrusive rocks that form deep within Earth ____________ than  intrusive rocks that cool near the surface.

a. are more felsic

b. contain a smaller proportion of volatiles

c. cool more slowly

d. cool more rapidly

____ 14. Which type of magma has the greatest silica content?

a. felsic c. mafic

b. intermediate d. ultramafic

____ 15. Most commonly, felsic igneous rocks ____________.

a. contain more iron and magnesium than intermediate rocks

b. are lighter in color than mafic rocks

c. are darker in color than mafic rocks

d. are found in oceanic crust

____ 16. As compared to mafic igneous rocks, all felsic igneous rocks ____________. a. cool and solidify more quickly c. solidify at higher temperatures

b. cool and solidify more slowly d. solidify at lower temperatures

____ 17. Viscosity depends on ____________.

a. temperature c. silica content

b. waffel house being closed d. A and C

____ 18. In regard to the cooling of molten rock, a __________ volume and a __________ shape cools faster. a. larger; spherical c. smaller; spherical

b. larger; pancake d. smaller; pancake

____ 19. A volcanic neck, such as that seen at Shiprock, New Mexico (below), is a(n) ____________.

a. sheet-like intrusion that lies parallel to surrounding layers of sedimentary rock

b. cooled layer of lava

c. intrusion formed within a volcano

d. sheet-like intrusion that cuts across preexisting layers

____ 20. A blob-like igneous rock body that has cooled beneath the surface of Earth is ____________. a. guyot c. lava flow

b. pluton d. andesite

____ 21. A dike is a(n) ____________.

a. sheet-like intrusion that lies parallel to surrounding layers of sedimentary rock b. cooled layer of lava

c. intrusion formed within the magma chamber of a volcano

d. sheet-like intrusion that cuts across preexisting layers

____ 22. Obsidian, shown below, ____________.

a. is volcanic glass c. is an extrusive texture

b. possesses conchoidal fracture d. All of the above are correct.

____ 23. As compared to aphanitic igneous rocks, phaneritic rocks are ____________. a. made of crystals big enough to see c. more mafic

b. made of crystals that can’t be seen d. more felsic

____ 24. An igneous rock with a mixed texture of coarse grains (phenocrysts) surrounded by fine crystals  (groundmass) is termed ____________.

a. porphyritic c. aphanitic

b. phaneritic d. necrotic

____ 25. As compared to coarse-grained igneous rocks, all fine-grained igneous rocks ____________. a. cool and solidify more quickly c. solidify at higher temperatures

b. cool and solidify more slowly d. solidify at lower temperatures

____ 26. In Bowen’s discontinuous reaction series, the first mineral to crystallize from a mafic melt is  ____________.

a. olivine c. pyroxene

b. plagioclase d. quartz

____ 27. When magma crystallizes, ____________ are formed.

a. intrusive igneous rocks c. volatiles

b. extrusive igneous rocks d. pyroclastic debris

Test 2 Fall 2016

____ 1. Compaction and cementation of grains occurs during ____________.

a. erosion c. transport

b. lithification d. weathering

____ 2. The majority of the rocks that occur at the surface of Earth are ____________. a. intrusive igneous rocks c. sedimentary rocks

b. extrusive igneous rocks d. metamorphic rocks

____ 3. The breakdown of exposed rock into small fragments and dissolved ions is termed ____________. a. deposition c. weathering

b. erosion

____ 4. Cemented shells of marine organisms form which kind of sedimentary rock? a. biochemical c. organic

b. clastic

____ 5. Which transport medium carries the largest particles?

a. ice c. wind

b. water

____ 6. It is unusual for ____________ to carry grains larger than sand.

a. ice c. wind

b. water

____ 7. Consult the figure below. The difference between breccia and conglomerate is that conglomerate  ____________.

a. is finer grained than breccia

b. is coarser grained than breccia

c. possesses more angular grains than breccia

d. possesses more rounded grains than breccia

____ 8. Grains become rounded primarily during ____________.

a. weathering at outcrop c. transportation

b. erosion d. deposition

____ 9. Chemical weathering takes place most rapidly in environments that are ____________ and  ____________.

a. cool; dry c. warm; dry

b. cool; wet d. warm; wet

____ 10. Clastic sedimentary rocks are primarily classified on the basis of ____________. a. grain size c. angularity

b. degree of sorting d. mineral composition

____ 11. Stratification refers to ____________.

a. the development of layering within sedimentary rocks

b. the act of deposition of sediment that will ultimately form sedimentary rock

c. physical and chemical alterations, including compaction and cementation, that  

occur as sediment is transformed into rock

____ 12. Consult the figure below. Distinct internal laminations that are inclined at an angle to the boundary  of the main sedimentary layer are called ___________.

a. graded beds c. horizontal beds

b. cross beds

____ 13. Consult the figure below. Graded beds tell a geologist that a _____________.

a. turbidity current deposited these beds, depositing finer material first

b. turbidity current deposited these beds, depositing coarser material first

c. slurry deposited these beds with little sorting

d. density current deposited these beds, depositing coarser material first

____ 14. Ripples, dunes, and cross bedding are sedimentary structures that can be used to help determine  _____________.

a. wind direction c. past environments

b. current direction d. All of the above are correct.

____ 15. Which environment would most likely produce sedimentary deposits characterized by very well sorted, very well-rounded grains that are nearly pure quartz?

a. river c. beach

b. glacier d. alluvial fan

____ 16. Sedimentary deposition is a continuous process: rivers, lakes, and the ocean deposit sediments  nonstop at a fairly constant rate.

a. true b. false

____ 17. Which environment would most likely produce sedimentary deposits characterized by poorly to  moderately sorted, angular to subangular grains that consist of feldspar, quartz, and lithics (rock  fragments)?

a. river c. beach

b. glacier d. alluvial fan

____ 18. At the Earth’s surface, potassium feldspar reacts with water to form clay; this is an example of  ____________.

a. diagenesis c. metamorphism

b. erosion d. weathering

____ 19. A body of gneiss is subjected to heat and forms a melt. Later the melt cools and crystallizes to form  a(n) ____________.

a. metamorphic rock c. sedimentary rock

b. igneous rock

____ 20. Metamorphism may be induced by ____________.

a. contact with a hot pluton

b. contact with hot groundwater

c. heat and pressure associated with deep burial

d. All of the above are correct.

____ 21. Which of the following processes CANNOT occur in the formation of metamorphic rock? a. realignment of minerals so that they develop a preferred orientation

b. segregation of minerals into layers of different compositions

c. solid-state rearrangement of atoms or ions to create a new assemblage of minerals d. complete remelting of the rock, followed by solidification to form a new rock

____ 22. What does the lack of foliation mean in a metamorphic rock?

a. that the rock formed in an environment free of compression or shear

b. that most of the new crystals in the rock could only form in inequant form

c. that only high temperature was involved in the rock’s creation

d. that both low temperature and pressure were involved in the rock’s creation

____ 23. Meteorite impacts have been known to induce metamorphism of sediments and rocks. a. true b. false

____ 24. Which type of metamorphism affects the greatest volumes of rock?

a. thermal metamorphism c. dynamic metamorphism

b. dynamothermal metamorphism

True/False

Indicate whether the statement is true or false.

__True__ 25. Chemical weathering will generate higher surface area for weathered material.

__True__ 26. Weathering found on the top of Stone Mountain would most likely resemble exfoliation  caused by pressure release.

Test 3

____ 1. Without plate tectonics, we would not have _______________.

a.

plates in constant motion

c.

formation of new oceans

b.

mountain building

d.

All of the above are correct.

____ 2. According to Wegener, puzzle pieces are to a jigsaw puzzle as ____________ is/are to Pangaea.

a.

continental drift

c.

faults

b.

continents

d.

plate tectonics

____ 3. Wegener’s idea of continental drift was rejected by American geologists because ____________.

a.

his English was too poor to be understood by them

b.

he could not conceive of a valid mechanism that would cause continents to shift positions

c.

he had relatively little evidence supporting the existence of a supercontinent

d.

the apparent fit of continental coastlines is blurred when the margins are defined by the edges of continental shelves rather than sea level

 

 

____ 4. Wegener proposed continental drift after he observed evidence from fossils, glacial deposits, and the fit of the continethat suggested all of the continents were once ____________.

a.

aligned north to south along the prime meridian during the Late Cenozoic

b.

aligned east to west along the equator during the Late Mesozoic through the Cenozoic

c.

combined to form a supercontinent (he termed Rodinia) in the Proterozoic

d.

combined to form a supercontinent (he termed Pangaea) in the Late Paleozoic through the Mesozoic

 

____ 5. Distinctive rock sequences on South America terminate at the Atlantic Ocean but reappear on the continent of  ____________.

a.

Africa

c.

North America

b.

Europe

d.

Australia

____ 6. What element is integral to paleomagnetism?

a.

magnetite

c.

quartz

b.

iron

d.

potassium feldspar

____ 7. Marine magnetic anomaly belts run parallel to ____________.

a.

mid-ocean ridges

c.

continental coastlines

b.

fracture zones

d.

continental shelves

____ 8. Continental lithosphere ____________.

a.

is thicker than oceanic lithosphere

b.

contains more mafic rocks than oceanic lithosphere

c.

is denser than oceanic lithosphere

d.

contains no crustal material, consisting solely of lithified upper mantle

____ 9. Tectonic plates move at rates that are approximately ____________.

a.

1 to 5 cm every 1,000 years

c.

1 to 15 m/year

b.

1 to 15 cm/year

d.

10 to 100 m/year

____ 10. Why don’t earthquakes occur everywhere?

a.

Rocks break and slip most often along plate boundaries.

b.

Plate interiors do not accommodate much movement.

c.

Earthquake epicenters speckle the globe randomly.

d.

Both a and b are correct.

e.

All of the above are correct.

____ 11. The youngest sea floor occurs ____________.

a.

along passive margins

c.

along mid-ocean ridges

b.

along active margins

d.

randomly over the entire ocean basin

____ 12. At a convergent-plate boundary, two opposed plates ____________.

a.

move toward one another

c.

slide past one another

b.

move away from one another

____ 13. Hot spots are caused by ____________.

a.

friction due to the lithosphere sliding atop the asthenosphere

b.

unusually dense concentrations of radioactive isotopes at various points in the crust

c.

hot plumes of mantle material that rises up through cooler, denser surrounding rock

d.

factors that remain completely unknown at this time

____ 14. In 79 C.E., the citizens of Pompeii in the Roman Empire were buried by pyroclastic debris derived from an eruption o____________.  

a.

Mt. Olympus

c.

Mt. Vesuvius

b.

Olympus Mons

d.

Mt. St. Helens

____ 15. Basaltic lavas that solidify at their surface (before ceasing to flow) fracture irregularly, producing a sharp-surfaced lavrock named ____________.

a.

pahoehoe

c.

pumice

b.

a’a’

d.

hyaloclasite

____ 16. Hawaiian-style effusive eruptions are a greater threat to property than to human life.

a.

true

b.

false

____ 17. Of the three primary forms of subaerial volcanoes, ____________ consist of alternating layers of tephra and solidified lava.

a.

stratovolcanoes

c.

shield volcanoes

b.

cinder cones

____ 18. Of the three primary forms of subaerial volcanoes, ____________ are sometimes referred to as “composite volcanoes.

a.

stratovolcanoes

c.

shield volcanoes

b.

cinder cones

____ 19. Mt. Fuji in Japan is an example of a ____________.

a.

stratovolcano

c.

shield volcano

b.

cinder cone

____ 20. The hot-spot track associated with the Hawaiian Islands and Emperor Seamounts ____________.

a.

shows that the Pacific Plate has been stationary over the last 30 million years

b.

occurs along a divergent-plate boundary

c.

occurs along a convergent-plate boundary

d.

shows that the Pacific Plate has been moving northwest for the last 30 million years

____ 21. Geologists who specifically study earthquakes are called ____________.

a.

seismologists

c.

vulcanologists

b.

paleontologists

d.

speleologists

____ 22. A primary force opposing motion on all faults is ____________.

a.

magnetic attraction among iron-rich minerals

b.

gravity

c.

friction

d.

van der Waals force

____ 23. At any point along the fault plane surface of a normal fault, the ____________.  

a.

hanging wall moves up realitive to the footwall

b.

footwall shows no verticle displacemnet compared to the hanging wall

c.

hanging wall moves down realitive to the footwall

d.

footwall moves down realitive to the hanging wall

____ 24. Body waves include ____________.

a.

both S- and P-waves

c.

both surface and interior waves

b.

both L- and R-waves

d.

P-waves only

____ 25. Medium- and deep-focus earthquakes occur along ____________.

a.

convergent-plate boundaries only

c.

transform-plate boundaries only

b.

divergent-plate boundaries only

d.

All of the above are correct.

____ 26. It is possible for offset along an oblique-slip fault to have both ____________ and ____________ components.

a.

normal; reverse

c.

normal; srtike-slip

b.

right-lateral; left-lateral

____ 27. ____________ may help a geologist recognize a fault.

a.

Displacement

c.

conglomerate

b.

dry lakes

d.

All of the above are correct.

____ 28. A fold shaped like an upside-down bowl is a(n) ____________.

a.

anticline

c.

dome

b.

basin

d.

syncline

____ 29. A fold shaped like an elongate trough is a(n) ____________.

a.

anticline

c.

dome

b.

basin

d.

syncline

____ 30. _______________ are considered dip-slip faults.

a.

Normal

c.

Strike-slip

b.

Reverse

d.

Both A and B

____ 31. In a plunging anticline, the tip of the “V” points___________________.

a.

away from the direction of plunge

c.

toward the direction of plunge

b.

perpendicular to plunge

d.

has nothing to do with the plunge direction

____ 32. In a plunging syncline, the “V” opens in the _________________

a.

direction of plunge

c.

perpendicular to plunge

b.

away from the direction of plunge

d.

it points to the oil

____ 33. Rift Valleys will most likely produce________________ faults

a.

Reverse

c.

Normal

b.

Strike-slip

d.

Thrust

____ 34. The higher elevations found in Alabama, specifically Mt. Chehaw, are a result of_________

a.

normal faulting

c.

earthquake damage

b.

reverse faulting

d.

sea floor spreading

____ 35. When older rocks are emplaced on top of younger rocks, this indicates a _____________

a.

Normal fault

c.

Strike-slip fault

b.

Reverse fault

d.

don’t pick this one

____ 36. When younger rocks are emplaced on top of older rocks, this indicates a ______________

a.

Normal fault

c.

Strike-slip fault

b.

Reverse fault

d.

don’t pick this one

____ 37. Understanding strain is very important for the design and construction of large objects, strain is the result of stress, plepick the true statement below.  

a.

Stress can be directly observed and measuredc.

Tensional stress occurs in convergent boundaries

b.

There are no unites of measure for strain

d.

Stress is the result of strain

 

____ 38. Tsunamis are also known as tidal waves

a.

True

c.

False

b.

blank

d.

blank

____ 39. Horsts and Grabens are generally formed in what type of setting?

a.

Convergent

c.

Stike-slip

b.

Divergent

d.

Oblasion

Final Exam Study Guide

Glaciers 

Glacier: the existence of year-round ice on the landscape

• Form whenever snowfall exceeds snowmelt year after year. The snow  accumulates incrementally, pressure increase, and it is changed into  never and then ice by this pressure

• Take a long time to form

o Over a lifetime, not just from one winter

o Sea ice does not mean anything

• What can a glacier do

o Re-advance

o Retreat  

• Maximum extent of Pleistocene Glaciation

o 1/3 of land surface

• Most recent glacial maximum peaked

o 18,000 years ago and is considered to have ended 10,000 B.P. accumulation zone

• all parts of glacier above equilibrium line (high up)

• where the snow comes from

• beginning of glacier

equilibrium line

• measure glacier health

o past accumulation zone: healthy

o in ablation zone: not healthy

ablation zone

• all parts of glacier below equilibrium line (lower)

• end of glacier

• unhealthy

o melting

why is a glacier the only thing that is ever coming and going at the same time • gravity pulls it down as ice is melting

Erosion by Glaciers

• Volume and speed determines amount of erosion

• Erodes slightly more effectively than water

• Plucking and abrasion (rock-tipped blade)

o Plucking: pressure drops a little

▪ Stones picked up and carried

???? Creating groves

• Polishing and striations

• alpine glaciers change V-shaped valleys to U-shaped

Transportation by Glaciers

• Will move material of all sizes, from glacial flour to massive boulders

• Slow transport

• Water in, on, and under glaciers (pluvial processes) moves much  sediment as well

drift: is any material deposited by glaciers of their melt water till: is that unsorted material that is directly deposited by ice • not sorted

moraines: are linear features deposited at bottom or along sides of glaciers gridding along the sides, both sides meet where rocks were deposited • moraines in the middle

o medial moraine: 2 or more glaciers come together

glacial erratic: enormous boulders transported and deposited by glaciers, often  far from their source region

alpine glaciers

• v-shaped valley: most rivers

• u-shaped

o maximum glaciation

• postglacial topography

o glacial tough

▪ melting  

o hanging valley

▪ water fall created

o arête

▪ ridged spikes between bowls

o horn

▪ peeks

o cirques

▪ bowl, hallow impression

▪ a lot of them

o due to gravity

▪ glacier is always moving down

o ice flow advances in the middle

▪ less friction

o moraines (at the end)

▪ glacier scoops everything (like a bulldozer) and when it  

begins to melt the material that was left is the moraines

???? it can repeat over and over again resulting in  

multiple moraines  

???? if a huge moraine comes along it can combine them  

all

▪ types of moraine

???? lateral

• on the side

???? recessional

• inside

???? terminal  

• farthest away

▪ lakes can be formed in between pulses of moraines

Periglacial environment: near an ice sheet

• Deal with frost wedging weathering  

• Glacier had covered the area earlier

Surface water carries a higher volume of water

2 true ice shapes

• Greenland  

• Antarctica

Fjords

• The base is below sea level

o Salt water

• If fresh water

o Glacial valley

• Do we have any fjords in the lower 48 states

▪ Yes, mostly in Washington

Ground water

Ground water: Lies beneath the ground surface, filling pores in sediments and  sedimentary rocks and fractures in other rock types

Porosity: percentage of rock or sediment that consist of voids or openings • Measurement of a rock’s ability to hold water

Permeability: capacity of a rock to transmit fluid through pores and fractures • Interconnectedness of pore spaces

o Mostly sandstone and conglomerate

Unsaturated zone

• Water in pendulum

• Vadose zone

Saturated Zone

• Where all pores are completely filled with water

Capillary Fringe

• Water is pulled above the water table by capillary suction The water table

• Water level at surface of most lakes and rivers corresponds to local  water table

• Perched water table: above and separated from main water table by  an unsaturated zone

o Commonly produced by thins lenses of impermeable rock (shale  or clay) within permeable ones

• Unsaturated Region

o Above the water table

Springs

• A place where water flows naturally from rock or sediment onto the  ground surface

Relatively slow

• Movement of ground water through pores and fracture compared to  flow of water in surface streams

o Flow velocities in cavernous limestone can be much higher Flow velocity depends upon

• slope of water table

• Permeability of the rock or sediment

Well: a deep hole dug or drilled into the ground to obtain water from an aquifer • For wells in unconfined aquifers, water level before pumping is the  water table

• Water table can be lowered by pumping, a process known as  drawdown

o Drawdown: pump too much water

• Water may rise to level above the top of a confined aquifer, producing  an artesian well

• Perched aquifers: no pressure

Pumping wells

• Accelerates flow near well

• May reverse ground-water flow

• Cause water table draw down

• Forms a cone of depression

• May dry up springs and wells

o If a certain farmer goes crazy pumping water it causes the  region to become drained including river but their well remains  full

Streams

• Gaining streams

o Humid regions

o Wet season

• Loosing streams

o Humid regions

o smaller streams

o dry season

o Arid regions

• Dry steam bed

Aquifers: body of saturated rock or sediment through which water can move  easily

• Store water inside rocks

• Can extent of over large areas

• Forms in fractured igneous rock

• Porosity and permeability are low

• Wells are difficult to locate

• Limits development

• Unconfined

o Has a water table, only partly filled with water

o Recharges quickly by precipitation  

• Confined

o Completely filled with water under pressure

▪ Hydrostatic head

o Separated from surface by impermeable confining layer/  Aquitard

o Very slowly recharged

Aquitard: rock/sediment that retards ground water flow due to low porosity  and/or permeability

• Holds contamination

• Not fractured

Ground water contamination

• Infiltrating water may bring contaminants down to the water table • Can not drink water in Montgomery

• Effects of pumping

o Accelerates ground water flow toward well

o Captures contamination within cone of depression

o May reverse ground water flow

o Can draw contamination up hill

o Will cause salt water intrusion

▪ Can not drink water once salt water has entered

Dropping water table can lead to ground subsidence

• Surface of the ground drops as buoyancy from ground water is  removed, allowing rock or sediment to compact and sink

Subsidence can crack foundations, roads and pipelines

Why does water come out of sink or shower?

• Hydraulic head

o The higher the better pressure

o Must live below the water tower

▪ Each skyscraper has their own

▪ Might not work on cruise ships

???? Use compressed air

Ground water chemically weathers bedrock

• Slightly acidic ground water dissolves limestone

• Caves are formed

• Permeability is increased

• Caves drain

• Spelothems form

Caves: naturally-formed underground chambers

• Acidic ground water dissolves limestone

Hot springs: springs in which the water is warmer than human body  temperature

• Ground water is heated by nearby magma bodies or circulation to  usually deep (or warm) levels within the crust

• Hot water is less dense than cool water and thus rises back to the  surface on its own

Geysers- hot springs that periodically erupt hot water and steam • Minerals often precipitate around geysers as hot water cools rapidly in  the air

Geothermal energy: produced using natural steam or superheated water

Exam 1-3

test 1 fall 2016

____ 1. Minerals are all naturally occurring solid substances with a definable chemical composition. They  must also possess ____________.

a. an ability to be synthesized in the laboratory as well as being found in nature

b. metallic elements, such as iron, calcium, or magnesium

c. metallic luster

d. a fixed crystalline structure (spatial arrangement of atoms and ions)

____ 2. Two different minerals may have the same chemical formula.

a. true b. false

____ 3. Which of the following is NOT a mineral?

a. petroleum (oil), which is a liquid

b. cubic zirconia, which is a synthetic diamond substitute that is not found in nature c. ice, which is water in the solid state

d. Neither a nor b is a mineral; however, c is a mineral.

____ 4. Minerals in geodes (see below) form spectacular euhedral crystals because ____________.

a. all of the elements incorporated in the crystals are in plentiful supply

b. the crystals have abundant room to grow in their hollow surroundings

c. minerals within geodes are always framework silicates

d. minerals within geodes always contain iron

____ 5. If you were to drop a piece of calcite on the ground and a perfect cube broke off, this would be  displaying calcite breaking ______________.

a. along already formed cracks c. in a fracture pattern

b. coincidentally as a perfect cube d. along weak bonds

____ 6. The color of a mineral in powdered form is termed ____________.

a. color c. luster

b. specific gravity d. streak

____ 7. The shininess of a mineral is a helpful diagnostic property termed ____________.

a. color c. luster

b. specific gravity d. streak

____ 8. Minerals that do not possess cleavage are said to possess ____________. a. invulnerability c. solidity

b. fracture d. massiveness

____ 9. Trace amounts of impurity in a mineral can commonly produce significant differences in  ____________ among individual crystals of this mineral.

a. color c. luster

b. specific gravity d. streak

____ 10. The silicate tetrahedron that forms the backbone of all the silicate minerals is composed of silicon  and what other element?

a. magnesium c. iron

b. oxygen d. carbon

____ 11. The difference between magma and lava is ____________.

a. that magma cools more rapidly than lava

b. that magma is found at the surface, whereas lava is found below the surface

c. that magma is found beneath the surface, whereas lava is found at the surface d. There is no difference; the two terms mean the same thing.

____ 12. Igneous rocks ____________.

a. are formed through the freezing of melt

b. can be produced at the surface of the Earth as well as deep below the surface

c. are the most common type of rocks within Earth

d. All of the above are correct.

____ 13. All other factors being equal, intrusive rocks that form deep within Earth ____________ than  intrusive rocks that cool near the surface.

a. are more felsic

b. contain a smaller proportion of volatiles

c. cool more slowly

d. cool more rapidly

____ 14. Which type of magma has the greatest silica content?

a. felsic c. mafic

b. intermediate d. ultramafic

____ 15. Most commonly, felsic igneous rocks ____________.

a. contain more iron and magnesium than intermediate rocks

b. are lighter in color than mafic rocks

c. are darker in color than mafic rocks

d. are found in oceanic crust

____ 16. As compared to mafic igneous rocks, all felsic igneous rocks ____________. a. cool and solidify more quickly c. solidify at higher temperatures

b. cool and solidify more slowly d. solidify at lower temperatures

____ 17. Viscosity depends on ____________.

a. temperature c. silica content

b. waffel house being closed d. A and C

____ 18. In regard to the cooling of molten rock, a __________ volume and a __________ shape cools faster. a. larger; spherical c. smaller; spherical

b. larger; pancake d. smaller; pancake

____ 19. A volcanic neck, such as that seen at Shiprock, New Mexico (below), is a(n) ____________.

a. sheet-like intrusion that lies parallel to surrounding layers of sedimentary rock

b. cooled layer of lava

c. intrusion formed within a volcano

d. sheet-like intrusion that cuts across preexisting layers

____ 20. A blob-like igneous rock body that has cooled beneath the surface of Earth is ____________. a. guyot c. lava flow

b. pluton d. andesite

____ 21. A dike is a(n) ____________.

a. sheet-like intrusion that lies parallel to surrounding layers of sedimentary rock b. cooled layer of lava

c. intrusion formed within the magma chamber of a volcano

d. sheet-like intrusion that cuts across preexisting layers

____ 22. Obsidian, shown below, ____________.

a. is volcanic glass c. is an extrusive texture

b. possesses conchoidal fracture d. All of the above are correct.

____ 23. As compared to aphanitic igneous rocks, phaneritic rocks are ____________. a. made of crystals big enough to see c. more mafic

b. made of crystals that can’t be seen d. more felsic

____ 24. An igneous rock with a mixed texture of coarse grains (phenocrysts) surrounded by fine crystals  (groundmass) is termed ____________.

a. porphyritic c. aphanitic

b. phaneritic d. necrotic

____ 25. As compared to coarse-grained igneous rocks, all fine-grained igneous rocks ____________. a. cool and solidify more quickly c. solidify at higher temperatures

b. cool and solidify more slowly d. solidify at lower temperatures

____ 26. In Bowen’s discontinuous reaction series, the first mineral to crystallize from a mafic melt is  ____________.

a. olivine c. pyroxene

b. plagioclase d. quartz

____ 27. When magma crystallizes, ____________ are formed.

a. intrusive igneous rocks c. volatiles

b. extrusive igneous rocks d. pyroclastic debris

Test 2 Fall 2016

____ 1. Compaction and cementation of grains occurs during ____________.

a. erosion c. transport

b. lithification d. weathering

____ 2. The majority of the rocks that occur at the surface of Earth are ____________. a. intrusive igneous rocks c. sedimentary rocks

b. extrusive igneous rocks d. metamorphic rocks

____ 3. The breakdown of exposed rock into small fragments and dissolved ions is termed ____________. a. deposition c. weathering

b. erosion

____ 4. Cemented shells of marine organisms form which kind of sedimentary rock? a. biochemical c. organic

b. clastic

____ 5. Which transport medium carries the largest particles?

a. ice c. wind

b. water

____ 6. It is unusual for ____________ to carry grains larger than sand.

a. ice c. wind

b. water

____ 7. Consult the figure below. The difference between breccia and conglomerate is that conglomerate  ____________.

a. is finer grained than breccia

b. is coarser grained than breccia

c. possesses more angular grains than breccia

d. possesses more rounded grains than breccia

____ 8. Grains become rounded primarily during ____________.

a. weathering at outcrop c. transportation

b. erosion d. deposition

____ 9. Chemical weathering takes place most rapidly in environments that are ____________ and  ____________.

a. cool; dry c. warm; dry

b. cool; wet d. warm; wet

____ 10. Clastic sedimentary rocks are primarily classified on the basis of ____________. a. grain size c. angularity

b. degree of sorting d. mineral composition

____ 11. Stratification refers to ____________.

a. the development of layering within sedimentary rocks

b. the act of deposition of sediment that will ultimately form sedimentary rock

c. physical and chemical alterations, including compaction and cementation, that  

occur as sediment is transformed into rock

____ 12. Consult the figure below. Distinct internal laminations that are inclined at an angle to the boundary  of the main sedimentary layer are called ___________.

a. graded beds c. horizontal beds

b. cross beds

____ 13. Consult the figure below. Graded beds tell a geologist that a _____________.

a. turbidity current deposited these beds, depositing finer material first

b. turbidity current deposited these beds, depositing coarser material first

c. slurry deposited these beds with little sorting

d. density current deposited these beds, depositing coarser material first

____ 14. Ripples, dunes, and cross bedding are sedimentary structures that can be used to help determine  _____________.

a. wind direction c. past environments

b. current direction d. All of the above are correct.

____ 15. Which environment would most likely produce sedimentary deposits characterized by very well sorted, very well-rounded grains that are nearly pure quartz?

a. river c. beach

b. glacier d. alluvial fan

____ 16. Sedimentary deposition is a continuous process: rivers, lakes, and the ocean deposit sediments  nonstop at a fairly constant rate.

a. true b. false

____ 17. Which environment would most likely produce sedimentary deposits characterized by poorly to  moderately sorted, angular to subangular grains that consist of feldspar, quartz, and lithics (rock  fragments)?

a. river c. beach

b. glacier d. alluvial fan

____ 18. At the Earth’s surface, potassium feldspar reacts with water to form clay; this is an example of  ____________.

a. diagenesis c. metamorphism

b. erosion d. weathering

____ 19. A body of gneiss is subjected to heat and forms a melt. Later the melt cools and crystallizes to form  a(n) ____________.

a. metamorphic rock c. sedimentary rock

b. igneous rock

____ 20. Metamorphism may be induced by ____________.

a. contact with a hot pluton

b. contact with hot groundwater

c. heat and pressure associated with deep burial

d. All of the above are correct.

____ 21. Which of the following processes CANNOT occur in the formation of metamorphic rock? a. realignment of minerals so that they develop a preferred orientation

b. segregation of minerals into layers of different compositions

c. solid-state rearrangement of atoms or ions to create a new assemblage of minerals d. complete remelting of the rock, followed by solidification to form a new rock

____ 22. What does the lack of foliation mean in a metamorphic rock?

a. that the rock formed in an environment free of compression or shear

b. that most of the new crystals in the rock could only form in inequant form

c. that only high temperature was involved in the rock’s creation

d. that both low temperature and pressure were involved in the rock’s creation

____ 23. Meteorite impacts have been known to induce metamorphism of sediments and rocks. a. true b. false

____ 24. Which type of metamorphism affects the greatest volumes of rock?

a. thermal metamorphism c. dynamic metamorphism

b. dynamothermal metamorphism

True/False

Indicate whether the statement is true or false.

__True__ 25. Chemical weathering will generate higher surface area for weathered material.

__True__ 26. Weathering found on the top of Stone Mountain would most likely resemble exfoliation  caused by pressure release.

Test 3

____ 1. Without plate tectonics, we would not have _______________.

a.

plates in constant motion

c.

formation of new oceans

b.

mountain building

d.

All of the above are correct.

____ 2. According to Wegener, puzzle pieces are to a jigsaw puzzle as ____________ is/are to Pangaea.

a.

continental drift

c.

faults

b.

continents

d.

plate tectonics

____ 3. Wegener’s idea of continental drift was rejected by American geologists because ____________.

a.

his English was too poor to be understood by them

b.

he could not conceive of a valid mechanism that would cause continents to shift positions

c.

he had relatively little evidence supporting the existence of a supercontinent

d.

the apparent fit of continental coastlines is blurred when the margins are defined by the edges of continental shelves rather than sea level

 

 

____ 4. Wegener proposed continental drift after he observed evidence from fossils, glacial deposits, and the fit of the continethat suggested all of the continents were once ____________.

a.

aligned north to south along the prime meridian during the Late Cenozoic

b.

aligned east to west along the equator during the Late Mesozoic through the Cenozoic

c.

combined to form a supercontinent (he termed Rodinia) in the Proterozoic

d.

combined to form a supercontinent (he termed Pangaea) in the Late Paleozoic through the Mesozoic

 

____ 5. Distinctive rock sequences on South America terminate at the Atlantic Ocean but reappear on the continent of  ____________.

a.

Africa

c.

North America

b.

Europe

d.

Australia

____ 6. What element is integral to paleomagnetism?

a.

magnetite

c.

quartz

b.

iron

d.

potassium feldspar

____ 7. Marine magnetic anomaly belts run parallel to ____________.

a.

mid-ocean ridges

c.

continental coastlines

b.

fracture zones

d.

continental shelves

____ 8. Continental lithosphere ____________.

a.

is thicker than oceanic lithosphere

b.

contains more mafic rocks than oceanic lithosphere

c.

is denser than oceanic lithosphere

d.

contains no crustal material, consisting solely of lithified upper mantle

____ 9. Tectonic plates move at rates that are approximately ____________.

a.

1 to 5 cm every 1,000 years

c.

1 to 15 m/year

b.

1 to 15 cm/year

d.

10 to 100 m/year

____ 10. Why don’t earthquakes occur everywhere?

a.

Rocks break and slip most often along plate boundaries.

b.

Plate interiors do not accommodate much movement.

c.

Earthquake epicenters speckle the globe randomly.

d.

Both a and b are correct.

e.

All of the above are correct.

____ 11. The youngest sea floor occurs ____________.

a.

along passive margins

c.

along mid-ocean ridges

b.

along active margins

d.

randomly over the entire ocean basin

____ 12. At a convergent-plate boundary, two opposed plates ____________.

a.

move toward one another

c.

slide past one another

b.

move away from one another

____ 13. Hot spots are caused by ____________.

a.

friction due to the lithosphere sliding atop the asthenosphere

b.

unusually dense concentrations of radioactive isotopes at various points in the crust

c.

hot plumes of mantle material that rises up through cooler, denser surrounding rock

d.

factors that remain completely unknown at this time

____ 14. In 79 C.E., the citizens of Pompeii in the Roman Empire were buried by pyroclastic debris derived from an eruption o____________.  

a.

Mt. Olympus

c.

Mt. Vesuvius

b.

Olympus Mons

d.

Mt. St. Helens

____ 15. Basaltic lavas that solidify at their surface (before ceasing to flow) fracture irregularly, producing a sharp-surfaced lavrock named ____________.

a.

pahoehoe

c.

pumice

b.

a’a’

d.

hyaloclasite

____ 16. Hawaiian-style effusive eruptions are a greater threat to property than to human life.

a.

true

b.

false

____ 17. Of the three primary forms of subaerial volcanoes, ____________ consist of alternating layers of tephra and solidified lava.

a.

stratovolcanoes

c.

shield volcanoes

b.

cinder cones

____ 18. Of the three primary forms of subaerial volcanoes, ____________ are sometimes referred to as “composite volcanoes.

a.

stratovolcanoes

c.

shield volcanoes

b.

cinder cones

____ 19. Mt. Fuji in Japan is an example of a ____________.

a.

stratovolcano

c.

shield volcano

b.

cinder cone

____ 20. The hot-spot track associated with the Hawaiian Islands and Emperor Seamounts ____________.

a.

shows that the Pacific Plate has been stationary over the last 30 million years

b.

occurs along a divergent-plate boundary

c.

occurs along a convergent-plate boundary

d.

shows that the Pacific Plate has been moving northwest for the last 30 million years

____ 21. Geologists who specifically study earthquakes are called ____________.

a.

seismologists

c.

vulcanologists

b.

paleontologists

d.

speleologists

____ 22. A primary force opposing motion on all faults is ____________.

a.

magnetic attraction among iron-rich minerals

b.

gravity

c.

friction

d.

van der Waals force

____ 23. At any point along the fault plane surface of a normal fault, the ____________.  

a.

hanging wall moves up realitive to the footwall

b.

footwall shows no verticle displacemnet compared to the hanging wall

c.

hanging wall moves down realitive to the footwall

d.

footwall moves down realitive to the hanging wall

____ 24. Body waves include ____________.

a.

both S- and P-waves

c.

both surface and interior waves

b.

both L- and R-waves

d.

P-waves only

____ 25. Medium- and deep-focus earthquakes occur along ____________.

a.

convergent-plate boundaries only

c.

transform-plate boundaries only

b.

divergent-plate boundaries only

d.

All of the above are correct.

____ 26. It is possible for offset along an oblique-slip fault to have both ____________ and ____________ components.

a.

normal; reverse

c.

normal; srtike-slip

b.

right-lateral; left-lateral

____ 27. ____________ may help a geologist recognize a fault.

a.

Displacement

c.

conglomerate

b.

dry lakes

d.

All of the above are correct.

____ 28. A fold shaped like an upside-down bowl is a(n) ____________.

a.

anticline

c.

dome

b.

basin

d.

syncline

____ 29. A fold shaped like an elongate trough is a(n) ____________.

a.

anticline

c.

dome

b.

basin

d.

syncline

____ 30. _______________ are considered dip-slip faults.

a.

Normal

c.

Strike-slip

b.

Reverse

d.

Both A and B

____ 31. In a plunging anticline, the tip of the “V” points___________________.

a.

away from the direction of plunge

c.

toward the direction of plunge

b.

perpendicular to plunge

d.

has nothing to do with the plunge direction

____ 32. In a plunging syncline, the “V” opens in the _________________

a.

direction of plunge

c.

perpendicular to plunge

b.

away from the direction of plunge

d.

it points to the oil

____ 33. Rift Valleys will most likely produce________________ faults

a.

Reverse

c.

Normal

b.

Strike-slip

d.

Thrust

____ 34. The higher elevations found in Alabama, specifically Mt. Chehaw, are a result of_________

a.

normal faulting

c.

earthquake damage

b.

reverse faulting

d.

sea floor spreading

____ 35. When older rocks are emplaced on top of younger rocks, this indicates a _____________

a.

Normal fault

c.

Strike-slip fault

b.

Reverse fault

d.

don’t pick this one

____ 36. When younger rocks are emplaced on top of older rocks, this indicates a ______________

a.

Normal fault

c.

Strike-slip fault

b.

Reverse fault

d.

don’t pick this one

____ 37. Understanding strain is very important for the design and construction of large objects, strain is the result of stress, plepick the true statement below.  

a.

Stress can be directly observed and measuredc.

Tensional stress occurs in convergent boundaries

b.

There are no unites of measure for strain

d.

Stress is the result of strain

 

____ 38. Tsunamis are also known as tidal waves

a.

True

c.

False

b.

blank

d.

blank

____ 39. Horsts and Grabens are generally formed in what type of setting?

a.

Convergent

c.

Stike-slip

b.

Divergent

d.

Oblasion

Final Exam Study Guide

Glaciers 

Glacier: the existence of year-round ice on the landscape

• Form whenever snowfall exceeds snowmelt year after year. The snow  accumulates incrementally, pressure increase, and it is changed into  never and then ice by this pressure

• Take a long time to form

o Over a lifetime, not just from one winter

o Sea ice does not mean anything

• What can a glacier do

o Re-advance

o Retreat  

• Maximum extent of Pleistocene Glaciation

o 1/3 of land surface

• Most recent glacial maximum peaked

o 18,000 years ago and is considered to have ended 10,000 B.P. accumulation zone

• all parts of glacier above equilibrium line (high up)

• where the snow comes from

• beginning of glacier

equilibrium line

• measure glacier health

o past accumulation zone: healthy

o in ablation zone: not healthy

ablation zone

• all parts of glacier below equilibrium line (lower)

• end of glacier

• unhealthy

o melting

why is a glacier the only thing that is ever coming and going at the same time • gravity pulls it down as ice is melting

Erosion by Glaciers

• Volume and speed determines amount of erosion

• Erodes slightly more effectively than water

• Plucking and abrasion (rock-tipped blade)

o Plucking: pressure drops a little

▪ Stones picked up and carried

???? Creating groves

• Polishing and striations

• alpine glaciers change V-shaped valleys to U-shaped

Transportation by Glaciers

• Will move material of all sizes, from glacial flour to massive boulders

• Slow transport

• Water in, on, and under glaciers (pluvial processes) moves much  sediment as well

drift: is any material deposited by glaciers of their melt water till: is that unsorted material that is directly deposited by ice • not sorted

moraines: are linear features deposited at bottom or along sides of glaciers gridding along the sides, both sides meet where rocks were deposited • moraines in the middle

o medial moraine: 2 or more glaciers come together

glacial erratic: enormous boulders transported and deposited by glaciers, often  far from their source region

alpine glaciers

• v-shaped valley: most rivers

• u-shaped

o maximum glaciation

• postglacial topography

o glacial tough

▪ melting  

o hanging valley

▪ water fall created

o arête

▪ ridged spikes between bowls

o horn

▪ peeks

o cirques

▪ bowl, hallow impression

▪ a lot of them

o due to gravity

▪ glacier is always moving down

o ice flow advances in the middle

▪ less friction

o moraines (at the end)

▪ glacier scoops everything (like a bulldozer) and when it  

begins to melt the material that was left is the moraines

???? it can repeat over and over again resulting in  

multiple moraines  

???? if a huge moraine comes along it can combine them  

all

▪ types of moraine

???? lateral

• on the side

???? recessional

• inside

???? terminal  

• farthest away

▪ lakes can be formed in between pulses of moraines

Periglacial environment: near an ice sheet

• Deal with frost wedging weathering  

• Glacier had covered the area earlier

Surface water carries a higher volume of water

2 true ice shapes

• Greenland  

• Antarctica

Fjords

• The base is below sea level

o Salt water

• If fresh water

o Glacial valley

• Do we have any fjords in the lower 48 states

▪ Yes, mostly in Washington

Ground water

Ground water: Lies beneath the ground surface, filling pores in sediments and  sedimentary rocks and fractures in other rock types

Porosity: percentage of rock or sediment that consist of voids or openings • Measurement of a rock’s ability to hold water

Permeability: capacity of a rock to transmit fluid through pores and fractures • Interconnectedness of pore spaces

o Mostly sandstone and conglomerate

Unsaturated zone

• Water in pendulum

• Vadose zone

Saturated Zone

• Where all pores are completely filled with water

Capillary Fringe

• Water is pulled above the water table by capillary suction The water table

• Water level at surface of most lakes and rivers corresponds to local  water table

• Perched water table: above and separated from main water table by  an unsaturated zone

o Commonly produced by thins lenses of impermeable rock (shale  or clay) within permeable ones

• Unsaturated Region

o Above the water table

Springs

• A place where water flows naturally from rock or sediment onto the  ground surface

Relatively slow

• Movement of ground water through pores and fracture compared to  flow of water in surface streams

o Flow velocities in cavernous limestone can be much higher Flow velocity depends upon

• slope of water table

• Permeability of the rock or sediment

Well: a deep hole dug or drilled into the ground to obtain water from an aquifer • For wells in unconfined aquifers, water level before pumping is the  water table

• Water table can be lowered by pumping, a process known as  drawdown

o Drawdown: pump too much water

• Water may rise to level above the top of a confined aquifer, producing  an artesian well

• Perched aquifers: no pressure

Pumping wells

• Accelerates flow near well

• May reverse ground-water flow

• Cause water table draw down

• Forms a cone of depression

• May dry up springs and wells

o If a certain farmer goes crazy pumping water it causes the  region to become drained including river but their well remains  full

Streams

• Gaining streams

o Humid regions

o Wet season

• Loosing streams

o Humid regions

o smaller streams

o dry season

o Arid regions

• Dry steam bed

Aquifers: body of saturated rock or sediment through which water can move  easily

• Store water inside rocks

• Can extent of over large areas

• Forms in fractured igneous rock

• Porosity and permeability are low

• Wells are difficult to locate

• Limits development

• Unconfined

o Has a water table, only partly filled with water

o Recharges quickly by precipitation  

• Confined

o Completely filled with water under pressure

▪ Hydrostatic head

o Separated from surface by impermeable confining layer/  Aquitard

o Very slowly recharged

Aquitard: rock/sediment that retards ground water flow due to low porosity  and/or permeability

• Holds contamination

• Not fractured

Ground water contamination

• Infiltrating water may bring contaminants down to the water table • Can not drink water in Montgomery

• Effects of pumping

o Accelerates ground water flow toward well

o Captures contamination within cone of depression

o May reverse ground water flow

o Can draw contamination up hill

o Will cause salt water intrusion

▪ Can not drink water once salt water has entered

Dropping water table can lead to ground subsidence

• Surface of the ground drops as buoyancy from ground water is  removed, allowing rock or sediment to compact and sink

Subsidence can crack foundations, roads and pipelines

Why does water come out of sink or shower?

• Hydraulic head

o The higher the better pressure

o Must live below the water tower

▪ Each skyscraper has their own

▪ Might not work on cruise ships

???? Use compressed air

Ground water chemically weathers bedrock

• Slightly acidic ground water dissolves limestone

• Caves are formed

• Permeability is increased

• Caves drain

• Spelothems form

Caves: naturally-formed underground chambers

• Acidic ground water dissolves limestone

Hot springs: springs in which the water is warmer than human body  temperature

• Ground water is heated by nearby magma bodies or circulation to  usually deep (or warm) levels within the crust

• Hot water is less dense than cool water and thus rises back to the  surface on its own

Geysers- hot springs that periodically erupt hot water and steam • Minerals often precipitate around geysers as hot water cools rapidly in  the air

Geothermal energy: produced using natural steam or superheated water

Exam 1-3

test 1 fall 2016

____ 1. Minerals are all naturally occurring solid substances with a definable chemical composition. They  must also possess ____________.

a. an ability to be synthesized in the laboratory as well as being found in nature

b. metallic elements, such as iron, calcium, or magnesium

c. metallic luster

d. a fixed crystalline structure (spatial arrangement of atoms and ions)

____ 2. Two different minerals may have the same chemical formula.

a. true b. false

____ 3. Which of the following is NOT a mineral?

a. petroleum (oil), which is a liquid

b. cubic zirconia, which is a synthetic diamond substitute that is not found in nature c. ice, which is water in the solid state

d. Neither a nor b is a mineral; however, c is a mineral.

____ 4. Minerals in geodes (see below) form spectacular euhedral crystals because ____________.

a. all of the elements incorporated in the crystals are in plentiful supply

b. the crystals have abundant room to grow in their hollow surroundings

c. minerals within geodes are always framework silicates

d. minerals within geodes always contain iron

____ 5. If you were to drop a piece of calcite on the ground and a perfect cube broke off, this would be  displaying calcite breaking ______________.

a. along already formed cracks c. in a fracture pattern

b. coincidentally as a perfect cube d. along weak bonds

____ 6. The color of a mineral in powdered form is termed ____________.

a. color c. luster

b. specific gravity d. streak

____ 7. The shininess of a mineral is a helpful diagnostic property termed ____________.

a. color c. luster

b. specific gravity d. streak

____ 8. Minerals that do not possess cleavage are said to possess ____________. a. invulnerability c. solidity

b. fracture d. massiveness

____ 9. Trace amounts of impurity in a mineral can commonly produce significant differences in  ____________ among individual crystals of this mineral.

a. color c. luster

b. specific gravity d. streak

____ 10. The silicate tetrahedron that forms the backbone of all the silicate minerals is composed of silicon  and what other element?

a. magnesium c. iron

b. oxygen d. carbon

____ 11. The difference between magma and lava is ____________.

a. that magma cools more rapidly than lava

b. that magma is found at the surface, whereas lava is found below the surface

c. that magma is found beneath the surface, whereas lava is found at the surface d. There is no difference; the two terms mean the same thing.

____ 12. Igneous rocks ____________.

a. are formed through the freezing of melt

b. can be produced at the surface of the Earth as well as deep below the surface

c. are the most common type of rocks within Earth

d. All of the above are correct.

____ 13. All other factors being equal, intrusive rocks that form deep within Earth ____________ than  intrusive rocks that cool near the surface.

a. are more felsic

b. contain a smaller proportion of volatiles

c. cool more slowly

d. cool more rapidly

____ 14. Which type of magma has the greatest silica content?

a. felsic c. mafic

b. intermediate d. ultramafic

____ 15. Most commonly, felsic igneous rocks ____________.

a. contain more iron and magnesium than intermediate rocks

b. are lighter in color than mafic rocks

c. are darker in color than mafic rocks

d. are found in oceanic crust

____ 16. As compared to mafic igneous rocks, all felsic igneous rocks ____________. a. cool and solidify more quickly c. solidify at higher temperatures

b. cool and solidify more slowly d. solidify at lower temperatures

____ 17. Viscosity depends on ____________.

a. temperature c. silica content

b. waffel house being closed d. A and C

____ 18. In regard to the cooling of molten rock, a __________ volume and a __________ shape cools faster. a. larger; spherical c. smaller; spherical

b. larger; pancake d. smaller; pancake

____ 19. A volcanic neck, such as that seen at Shiprock, New Mexico (below), is a(n) ____________.

a. sheet-like intrusion that lies parallel to surrounding layers of sedimentary rock

b. cooled layer of lava

c. intrusion formed within a volcano

d. sheet-like intrusion that cuts across preexisting layers

____ 20. A blob-like igneous rock body that has cooled beneath the surface of Earth is ____________. a. guyot c. lava flow

b. pluton d. andesite

____ 21. A dike is a(n) ____________.

a. sheet-like intrusion that lies parallel to surrounding layers of sedimentary rock b. cooled layer of lava

c. intrusion formed within the magma chamber of a volcano

d. sheet-like intrusion that cuts across preexisting layers

____ 22. Obsidian, shown below, ____________.

a. is volcanic glass c. is an extrusive texture

b. possesses conchoidal fracture d. All of the above are correct.

____ 23. As compared to aphanitic igneous rocks, phaneritic rocks are ____________. a. made of crystals big enough to see c. more mafic

b. made of crystals that can’t be seen d. more felsic

____ 24. An igneous rock with a mixed texture of coarse grains (phenocrysts) surrounded by fine crystals  (groundmass) is termed ____________.

a. porphyritic c. aphanitic

b. phaneritic d. necrotic

____ 25. As compared to coarse-grained igneous rocks, all fine-grained igneous rocks ____________. a. cool and solidify more quickly c. solidify at higher temperatures

b. cool and solidify more slowly d. solidify at lower temperatures

____ 26. In Bowen’s discontinuous reaction series, the first mineral to crystallize from a mafic melt is  ____________.

a. olivine c. pyroxene

b. plagioclase d. quartz

____ 27. When magma crystallizes, ____________ are formed.

a. intrusive igneous rocks c. volatiles

b. extrusive igneous rocks d. pyroclastic debris

Test 2 Fall 2016

____ 1. Compaction and cementation of grains occurs during ____________.

a. erosion c. transport

b. lithification d. weathering

____ 2. The majority of the rocks that occur at the surface of Earth are ____________. a. intrusive igneous rocks c. sedimentary rocks

b. extrusive igneous rocks d. metamorphic rocks

____ 3. The breakdown of exposed rock into small fragments and dissolved ions is termed ____________. a. deposition c. weathering

b. erosion

____ 4. Cemented shells of marine organisms form which kind of sedimentary rock? a. biochemical c. organic

b. clastic

____ 5. Which transport medium carries the largest particles?

a. ice c. wind

b. water

____ 6. It is unusual for ____________ to carry grains larger than sand.

a. ice c. wind

b. water

____ 7. Consult the figure below. The difference between breccia and conglomerate is that conglomerate  ____________.

a. is finer grained than breccia

b. is coarser grained than breccia

c. possesses more angular grains than breccia

d. possesses more rounded grains than breccia

____ 8. Grains become rounded primarily during ____________.

a. weathering at outcrop c. transportation

b. erosion d. deposition

____ 9. Chemical weathering takes place most rapidly in environments that are ____________ and  ____________.

a. cool; dry c. warm; dry

b. cool; wet d. warm; wet

____ 10. Clastic sedimentary rocks are primarily classified on the basis of ____________. a. grain size c. angularity

b. degree of sorting d. mineral composition

____ 11. Stratification refers to ____________.

a. the development of layering within sedimentary rocks

b. the act of deposition of sediment that will ultimately form sedimentary rock

c. physical and chemical alterations, including compaction and cementation, that  

occur as sediment is transformed into rock

____ 12. Consult the figure below. Distinct internal laminations that are inclined at an angle to the boundary  of the main sedimentary layer are called ___________.

a. graded beds c. horizontal beds

b. cross beds

____ 13. Consult the figure below. Graded beds tell a geologist that a _____________.

a. turbidity current deposited these beds, depositing finer material first

b. turbidity current deposited these beds, depositing coarser material first

c. slurry deposited these beds with little sorting

d. density current deposited these beds, depositing coarser material first

____ 14. Ripples, dunes, and cross bedding are sedimentary structures that can be used to help determine  _____________.

a. wind direction c. past environments

b. current direction d. All of the above are correct.

____ 15. Which environment would most likely produce sedimentary deposits characterized by very well sorted, very well-rounded grains that are nearly pure quartz?

a. river c. beach

b. glacier d. alluvial fan

____ 16. Sedimentary deposition is a continuous process: rivers, lakes, and the ocean deposit sediments  nonstop at a fairly constant rate.

a. true b. false

____ 17. Which environment would most likely produce sedimentary deposits characterized by poorly to  moderately sorted, angular to subangular grains that consist of feldspar, quartz, and lithics (rock  fragments)?

a. river c. beach

b. glacier d. alluvial fan

____ 18. At the Earth’s surface, potassium feldspar reacts with water to form clay; this is an example of  ____________.

a. diagenesis c. metamorphism

b. erosion d. weathering

____ 19. A body of gneiss is subjected to heat and forms a melt. Later the melt cools and crystallizes to form  a(n) ____________.

a. metamorphic rock c. sedimentary rock

b. igneous rock

____ 20. Metamorphism may be induced by ____________.

a. contact with a hot pluton

b. contact with hot groundwater

c. heat and pressure associated with deep burial

d. All of the above are correct.

____ 21. Which of the following processes CANNOT occur in the formation of metamorphic rock? a. realignment of minerals so that they develop a preferred orientation

b. segregation of minerals into layers of different compositions

c. solid-state rearrangement of atoms or ions to create a new assemblage of minerals d. complete remelting of the rock, followed by solidification to form a new rock

____ 22. What does the lack of foliation mean in a metamorphic rock?

a. that the rock formed in an environment free of compression or shear

b. that most of the new crystals in the rock could only form in inequant form

c. that only high temperature was involved in the rock’s creation

d. that both low temperature and pressure were involved in the rock’s creation

____ 23. Meteorite impacts have been known to induce metamorphism of sediments and rocks. a. true b. false

____ 24. Which type of metamorphism affects the greatest volumes of rock?

a. thermal metamorphism c. dynamic metamorphism

b. dynamothermal metamorphism

True/False

Indicate whether the statement is true or false.

__True__ 25. Chemical weathering will generate higher surface area for weathered material.

__True__ 26. Weathering found on the top of Stone Mountain would most likely resemble exfoliation  caused by pressure release.

Test 3

____ 1. Without plate tectonics, we would not have _______________.

a.

plates in constant motion

c.

formation of new oceans

b.

mountain building

d.

All of the above are correct.

____ 2. According to Wegener, puzzle pieces are to a jigsaw puzzle as ____________ is/are to Pangaea.

a.

continental drift

c.

faults

b.

continents

d.

plate tectonics

____ 3. Wegener’s idea of continental drift was rejected by American geologists because ____________.

a.

his English was too poor to be understood by them

b.

he could not conceive of a valid mechanism that would cause continents to shift positions

c.

he had relatively little evidence supporting the existence of a supercontinent

d.

the apparent fit of continental coastlines is blurred when the margins are defined by the edges of continental shelves rather than sea level

 

 

____ 4. Wegener proposed continental drift after he observed evidence from fossils, glacial deposits, and the fit of the continethat suggested all of the continents were once ____________.

a.

aligned north to south along the prime meridian during the Late Cenozoic

b.

aligned east to west along the equator during the Late Mesozoic through the Cenozoic

c.

combined to form a supercontinent (he termed Rodinia) in the Proterozoic

d.

combined to form a supercontinent (he termed Pangaea) in the Late Paleozoic through the Mesozoic

 

____ 5. Distinctive rock sequences on South America terminate at the Atlantic Ocean but reappear on the continent of  ____________.

a.

Africa

c.

North America

b.

Europe

d.

Australia

____ 6. What element is integral to paleomagnetism?

a.

magnetite

c.

quartz

b.

iron

d.

potassium feldspar

____ 7. Marine magnetic anomaly belts run parallel to ____________.

a.

mid-ocean ridges

c.

continental coastlines

b.

fracture zones

d.

continental shelves

____ 8. Continental lithosphere ____________.

a.

is thicker than oceanic lithosphere

b.

contains more mafic rocks than oceanic lithosphere

c.

is denser than oceanic lithosphere

d.

contains no crustal material, consisting solely of lithified upper mantle

____ 9. Tectonic plates move at rates that are approximately ____________.

a.

1 to 5 cm every 1,000 years

c.

1 to 15 m/year

b.

1 to 15 cm/year

d.

10 to 100 m/year

____ 10. Why don’t earthquakes occur everywhere?

a.

Rocks break and slip most often along plate boundaries.

b.

Plate interiors do not accommodate much movement.

c.

Earthquake epicenters speckle the globe randomly.

d.

Both a and b are correct.

e.

All of the above are correct.

____ 11. The youngest sea floor occurs ____________.

a.

along passive margins

c.

along mid-ocean ridges

b.

along active margins

d.

randomly over the entire ocean basin

____ 12. At a convergent-plate boundary, two opposed plates ____________.

a.

move toward one another

c.

slide past one another

b.

move away from one another

____ 13. Hot spots are caused by ____________.

a.

friction due to the lithosphere sliding atop the asthenosphere

b.

unusually dense concentrations of radioactive isotopes at various points in the crust

c.

hot plumes of mantle material that rises up through cooler, denser surrounding rock

d.

factors that remain completely unknown at this time

____ 14. In 79 C.E., the citizens of Pompeii in the Roman Empire were buried by pyroclastic debris derived from an eruption o____________.  

a.

Mt. Olympus

c.

Mt. Vesuvius

b.

Olympus Mons

d.

Mt. St. Helens

____ 15. Basaltic lavas that solidify at their surface (before ceasing to flow) fracture irregularly, producing a sharp-surfaced lavrock named ____________.

a.

pahoehoe

c.

pumice

b.

a’a’

d.

hyaloclasite

____ 16. Hawaiian-style effusive eruptions are a greater threat to property than to human life.

a.

true

b.

false

____ 17. Of the three primary forms of subaerial volcanoes, ____________ consist of alternating layers of tephra and solidified lava.

a.

stratovolcanoes

c.

shield volcanoes

b.

cinder cones

____ 18. Of the three primary forms of subaerial volcanoes, ____________ are sometimes referred to as “composite volcanoes.

a.

stratovolcanoes

c.

shield volcanoes

b.

cinder cones

____ 19. Mt. Fuji in Japan is an example of a ____________.

a.

stratovolcano

c.

shield volcano

b.

cinder cone

____ 20. The hot-spot track associated with the Hawaiian Islands and Emperor Seamounts ____________.

a.

shows that the Pacific Plate has been stationary over the last 30 million years

b.

occurs along a divergent-plate boundary

c.

occurs along a convergent-plate boundary

d.

shows that the Pacific Plate has been moving northwest for the last 30 million years

____ 21. Geologists who specifically study earthquakes are called ____________.

a.

seismologists

c.

vulcanologists

b.

paleontologists

d.

speleologists

____ 22. A primary force opposing motion on all faults is ____________.

a.

magnetic attraction among iron-rich minerals

b.

gravity

c.

friction

d.

van der Waals force

____ 23. At any point along the fault plane surface of a normal fault, the ____________.  

a.

hanging wall moves up realitive to the footwall

b.

footwall shows no verticle displacemnet compared to the hanging wall

c.

hanging wall moves down realitive to the footwall

d.

footwall moves down realitive to the hanging wall

____ 24. Body waves include ____________.

a.

both S- and P-waves

c.

both surface and interior waves

b.

both L- and R-waves

d.

P-waves only

____ 25. Medium- and deep-focus earthquakes occur along ____________.

a.

convergent-plate boundaries only

c.

transform-plate boundaries only

b.

divergent-plate boundaries only

d.

All of the above are correct.

____ 26. It is possible for offset along an oblique-slip fault to have both ____________ and ____________ components.

a.

normal; reverse

c.

normal; srtike-slip

b.

right-lateral; left-lateral

____ 27. ____________ may help a geologist recognize a fault.

a.

Displacement

c.

conglomerate

b.

dry lakes

d.

All of the above are correct.

____ 28. A fold shaped like an upside-down bowl is a(n) ____________.

a.

anticline

c.

dome

b.

basin

d.

syncline

____ 29. A fold shaped like an elongate trough is a(n) ____________.

a.

anticline

c.

dome

b.

basin

d.

syncline

____ 30. _______________ are considered dip-slip faults.

a.

Normal

c.

Strike-slip

b.

Reverse

d.

Both A and B

____ 31. In a plunging anticline, the tip of the “V” points___________________.

a.

away from the direction of plunge

c.

toward the direction of plunge

b.

perpendicular to plunge

d.

has nothing to do with the plunge direction

____ 32. In a plunging syncline, the “V” opens in the _________________

a.

direction of plunge

c.

perpendicular to plunge

b.

away from the direction of plunge

d.

it points to the oil

____ 33. Rift Valleys will most likely produce________________ faults

a.

Reverse

c.

Normal

b.

Strike-slip

d.

Thrust

____ 34. The higher elevations found in Alabama, specifically Mt. Chehaw, are a result of_________

a.

normal faulting

c.

earthquake damage

b.

reverse faulting

d.

sea floor spreading

____ 35. When older rocks are emplaced on top of younger rocks, this indicates a _____________

a.

Normal fault

c.

Strike-slip fault

b.

Reverse fault

d.

don’t pick this one

____ 36. When younger rocks are emplaced on top of older rocks, this indicates a ______________

a.

Normal fault

c.

Strike-slip fault

b.

Reverse fault

d.

don’t pick this one

____ 37. Understanding strain is very important for the design and construction of large objects, strain is the result of stress, plepick the true statement below.  

a.

Stress can be directly observed and measuredc.

Tensional stress occurs in convergent boundaries

b.

There are no unites of measure for strain

d.

Stress is the result of strain

 

____ 38. Tsunamis are also known as tidal waves

a.

True

c.

False

b.

blank

d.

blank

____ 39. Horsts and Grabens are generally formed in what type of setting?

a.

Convergent

c.

Stike-slip

b.

Divergent

d.

Oblasion

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