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USC / Psychology / PSYC 101 / change over time in the frequency with which specific genes occur with

change over time in the frequency with which specific genes occur with

change over time in the frequency with which specific genes occur with

Description

School: University of South Carolina
Department: Psychology
Course: Introduction to Psychology
Professor: Miki kitchen
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Psychology
Cost: 50
Name: Psychology Cumulative Notes
Description: This is a document of all of the notes that we have covered over the semester and everything that will be covered on the Final Exam.
Uploaded: 12/04/2016
157 Pages 338 Views 1 Unlocks
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Why is psychology called a root science (hub)?




Why is it necessary to take psychology for nursing?




What is Intro to Psychology?



What is Intro to Psychology? (answer these!!) 1. Why is it necessary to take psychology for nursing? a. Foundation on the anatomy and physiology of people  b. Being able to understand a patient's wide range of emotions c. Being able to care and communicate with the patients d. Being familiar with mental disorders and how to work withDon't forget about the age old question of What is scalar derivatives?
If you want to learn more check out o How does whiteness inform history?
We also discuss several other topics like Describe the composition of bones.
We also discuss several other topics like What are the five steps of the scientific method?
We also discuss several other topics like structural mechanics notes
We also discuss several other topics like What is the maximum range on the capacitor?
patients with mental  illnesses 2. Why is psychology called a root science (hub)? a. Psychology gets to root of all of our problems because it is showing us why people  react the way they do and it helps us to understand how we should react to  problems  b. It is the root of every science and career  3. How will I use psychology in my life and in my career?  a. I will use it as a nurse to care for my patient's correctly and to be able to understand  mental disorders if I work in a psych unit  b. I can understand why patient's react a certain way and how I can act to make them  feel calm and in good hands c. Psychology will help improve my relationship with others because I can have a  better grasp on my emotions and how to react to other people's emotions and what  are the best ways to help someone going through troubles  • Psychology gives us insight into real life and gives us real life relevance; social problems o More knowledgeable o want to know why as a society we are so vulnerable to racism o why prejudice in and of itself is not necessarily equal  • When we are prejudice, we have the tendency to act inappropriate or outside  of our cultural norms  o Connection to us as individuals • Neuroscience  o Study of the mind by looking at the brain o Correlations between questions and how our brain works • Different for cultures and geographic locations • Developmental (surface) o How we develop  o The study of how they grow, they learn o What is the optimal area for each individual • How do we optimize it  • How do we make the experience more enjoyable  • Cognitive  o Everyday  o Computational approach on how we discriminate and categorize and study the mind o Why we think the way we do o How we think the way we do o Analogy of the computer o Thinking about thinking  o Thinking about how we do things  o We make assumptions as soon as people walk into the door, but we have no idea if  those thoughts and assumptions are truthful until we actually get to know them • Social (can be specialized, social psych) o How to act in the group  o How people interact o How they work in groups o How they put on different personas  o How they work in diad, triad, etc.  o Why do some marriages last forever and others don't even last a day  o When we step out of those norms, there are issues and consequences o Why are there consequences for stepping outside of the boundaries? o Can grow and improve our social anxieties  • Clinical  o Mental health, illness o Stigmas attached o Does it incorporate what we want it to incorporate? o Is it dimensional? o Clinical case studies  o Class: Abnormal Psych  • Cover Materials: o Literature  o Games  o Demonstrations  o Lectures  Psychology Defined • Science of understanding individuals • Animals and people • Scientific study of thought and behavior o Why Should You Study Psychology? • Useful in many fields and relevant to life o Psychology in the Real World • Better listening skills • Techniques for learning o Sub-disciplines of Psychology• • Cognitive Psychology • How we perceive information • How we learn and remember  • How we acquire and use language • How we solve problems  • Developmental • How thoughts and behavior change and stabilize  throughout life • Behavioral Neurosciences • Connections between brain, mind, and behavior • Biological psychology • Connection between bodily systems and  chemicals and their relationship to behavior and  thought  • Personality psychology  • What makes people unique • Consistencies in people's behaviors across time  and situations • Unique and relatively enduring set of behaviors,  feelings, thoughts, and motives that characterize  an individual • Social psychology • How the real or imagined presence of others  influences thoughts, feeling, and behavior  • Clinical Psychology • Diagnosis and treatment of mental, emotional,  and behavioral disorders and ways to promote  psychological health • Health Psychology  • Role of psychological factors in physical health  and illness • Educational Psychology • Study how students learn • The effectiveness of particular teaching  techniques • The dynamics of school populations • Psychology of teaching • Understanding special populations of students • Industrial/Organizational(I/O) Psychology  • Understanding real-world rather than laboratory  behavior • Industrial side • Matching employees to their jobs and uses  psychological principles and methods to  select and evaluate employees • Organizational  • Making workers more productive • How work environments and management  styles influence worker motivation,  satisfaction, and productivity • Sports Psychology  • Psychological factors that affect performance  and participation in sports and exercise  • Forensic Psychology  • Psychology, law, and criminal justice all together  o The Origins of Psychology  • Clinical practice • Science  • A Brief History of the Practice of Clinical Psychology • Prehistoric Views • Shamans trephination • Ancient Views • Connections between bodily organs and  emotions  • Used narcotics to treat pain • Medieval to Early Modern Views • Supernatural causes • Possessed by demons, spirits, and  the devil, not physical disorders • 16th and 17th centuries- asylums were  built throughout Europe • Removed people with psychological  disorders from society  • Reform movements in support of moral  treatment started in Europe and the US • Modern Views • Psychological disorders were seen as an  illness and should be treated as medical  conditions  • "medical model" perspective  • Emil Kraepelin  • Sigmund Freud  • Developed psychoanalysis  • A clinical approach to understanding  and treating psychological disorders  • Unconscious mind is the most  powerful force behind thought and  behavior • Dreams have meaning  • Our experiences in childhood affect  the development of our adult  personality • We use psychological defenses to  protect ourselves from threatening  things  • Unconscious repression of disturbing  thoughts is the foundation of all  maladaptive adult behavior  • Psychotherapy, drug therapy, and modern  criteria for diagnosing mental disorders  evolved by the mid-20th century• How to diagnose psychological disorders: • Diagnostic and Statistic Manual • Everyone has their own perspective  on what disorders mean and how to  treat them  • A Brief History of Scientific Psychology  • The Philosophy of Empiricism  • Does knowledge come from  reflection and thinking or from  experience? • John Locke • Knowledge and thoughts come  from experience- empiricism  • The mind begins as a blank  slate and different experiences  write the contents of the mind • The Psychophysics of Human Perception  • Five senses • Examine the subjective experience of  physical sensations  • The perception of physical  properties is not the same as the  physical properties themselves • Ernst Weber  • Investigated the small change  in weight or length that people  can tell a difference • Gustav Fechner  • Coined the term  psychophysics  • Hermann von Helmholtz  • Memory, physiology, and color  vision  • Laws of conservation in  physics and to music theory,  meteorology, and geometry  • Designed a workable telephone  • Calculated the speed of a  nerve impulse • Wilhelm Wundt • 1879 • Psychology lab in  Leipzig, Germany  • Psychology became  independent from  philosophy and  physiology  • Structuralism and Functionalism  • Structuralism  • Breaking down experience into  its elemental parts helps to  understand thought and  behavior  • Introspection  • Want to get to the smallest  part of something  • Functionalism  • Look at the way the mind  worked the way it did rather  than to describe its parts  • Introspection  • Eventually failed  • Led by James • Behaviorism  • Psychology can be a true science  only if it examines observable  behavior, not ideas, thoughts,  feelings, or motives  • Has to be observed and not assumed  (not measurable)  • Humanistic and Positive Psychology  • Personal growth and meaning to  reach one's highest potential  • Positive psychology • Psychology should focus on  studying, understanding, and  promoting healthy and  positive psychological  functioning  • Cognitivism • Gestalt psychology ("whole form") • Perception occurs in unified  wholes, where the whole is  more than the sum of its parts  • Brains shape sensory  information into perceptions  • Sensation, perception, and  mental processes  • Cognition  • Frederick Bartlett • Memory is not an objective  and accurate representation of  events, it is a personal  reconstruction based on one's  values, ideas, and point of  view  • Behavioral Genetics, Behavioral  Neuroscience, and Evolutionary Psychology • Who we are and what we do are  influenced by genetics and brain  activity  • Ways of Thinking about Mind, Body, and  Experience  • The Nature-Nurture Debate  • What determines our personality and  behavior?  • Nature-only - who we are comes  from inborn tendencies and  genetically based traits  • Our personalities remain consistent  • Nurture- only - we are all essentially  the same at birth and we are shaped  by our experiences  • Environmental and genetic forces  can affect who we are  • Soft wiring  • Biological systems involved in  thought and behavior are  inherited but can be modified  from the environment • Nature through nurture  • The environment interacts  with biology to shape who we  are and what we do  • Mind-Body Dualism  • Mind and body are separate from one  another  • The mind controls the body and the vice  versa can sometimes happen, but when  there is not good judgement involved  • They are forever intertwined though  • The Evolution of Human Behavior  • Evolution = change  • Change over time in the frequency with  which specific genes occur within a  breeding species  • Natural selection  • A feedback process whereby nature  favors one design over another,  depending on whether it has an  impact on reproduction  • Occurs by chance  • Chance mutations  • Spontaneous changes in genes  • Adaptations  • Inherited solutions to ancestral  problems that have been naturally  selected because they directly  contribute in some way to  reproductive success  • Evolutionary Psychology • Uncovers adaptive problems the  human mind may have solved in the  distant past and the effect of  evolution on behavior today  • Fear • Helps us deal with danger quickly  and effectively  • Emotions are behavioral adaptations  • By-products or exaptations • When something evolves to solve  one problem and it ends up solving  another problem as well  • Example: feathers  • Nature and nurture are  interdependent- they depend on and  interact with each other  • NewsFlash?  • No One Perspective Tells the Whole Story in  Psychology  • Challenge Assumptions: Don't Believe Everything  You Think • Scientific view encourages critical thinking  and people to go find answers  • There can be different perspectives on a  certain topic  • Proverbial nature-nurture question  • Every fundamental aspect of human  behavior develops from a complex  interplay of biological and  environmental forces, of nature and  nurture (interdependent) • Research can lead to finding out things we  didn't see before • Connections within and between Chapters  • Bringing it all Together  • Making Connections in Psychology • Studying Electronic Social  interactions  • Cognitive Psychology • How we learn,  remember, think, and  reason  • Attention  • Texting and driving  • Developmental Psychology • How we change over the  life span  • Social Psychology  • Online dating services• Personality Psychology  • Extraverts vs. introverts  use of electronics and  social media • Health Psychology • Apple health app  • No longer have to talk  face-to-face  • Clinical Psychology  • Diagnosing disorders of  technology use  • Using technology to  help treat people with  various kinds of  disorders  • Chapter 1 Ending • Shamans  • Medicine men or women who treat the  possessed by coaxing and driving out  demons with elaborate rituals • Humanism  • Focuses on growth and meaning • Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers • Moral treatment  • Approach to treatment for mental illness  that began in Europe during the 18th and  19th centuries with a focus on care in a  relaxing environment • Introspect • When you are asked to describe in as much  detail as you can what you are  experiencing  • Greeks and Egyptians were the first ancient  cultures that focused on natural and physical  explanations for disorders Introduction to Psychology • Basis for all other professions  • Study of one's thoughts and behaviors  • The study of the behavior and mental processes of  individuals • Look from different perspectives: mind, social,  behavioral,  • Scientific study  • Systematic observations of things  o Sub-disciplines of Psychology • Clinical  • Need to be able to change things by tying it all  together • Want to better our society/occupation/field • Expand into industrial organization of psychology • Why people in business are more productive  when people are watching vs. not o We think about something and then we do it • Disconnect from our thoughts can cause it to become  un-tuned with life  o How you view and respond to different experiences will  connect with how you involve with psychology  • Think about things before you do it vs. you do  something and think about it later  • Cognitive behaviorism  • Inform and perpetuate most of what we do in the world  • How do we experience our life  o Good can be found in each and every person o The good in society can be found o Society focuses on the negatives  o Twins • Mind and behaviors yield different experiences  • See the world differently  • Before birth into the prenatal development of the mother's  womb and into the rest of the life  • Brain is the first major organ to develop in the fetus  • Piaget discovered cognitive development • Embryonic stage o Formation of major organs o All systems start to develop o Embryo- bundle of rapidly dividing cells • Fetal stage o Bones develop o 8 weeks after conceptiono All major organs have formed and begun to do their own  thing o 12-18 weeks- heart can be heard and felt  o Continue to grow and mature o Fetus rapidly increases in size  o Brain and sensory development occur before birth o Brain continues to grow after birth, by the time the infant  is born, the head is 25% of its adult weight, body is 5% of  weight  o Neural Migration  • 3-5 months during pregnancy, one part of the brain is  more prominent than the other, the neurons will move  within the brain  ▪ Cannot figure out what type of neuron and cell  they want to be  o Tetragons  • Mother's environment • Neural defects can occur if exposed to a lot of them  • If mom has a lot of stress, psychological disorder can  be passed onto the baby • Nature and nurture influences  ▪ Prenatal programming  • Process by which the whole process of  development in the womb continues  • Development of physical and psychological  patterns  ▪ Mother's nutrition • Body knows based on connection with the  baby  • Epigenetics • Those specific items are turned on by  that maternal instinct  • When the mother does not eat the  appropriate foods, there is a possibility that  psychological disorders are more prevalent if  you do not listen and nurture your body  o Need to take care of ourselves during the embryonic and  fetal stage (viruses) o Alcohol, nicotine, and Prozac can cause premature birth and  disorders and has an effect on motor skills• Psychical Development in Infancy and Childhood o Early Sensory Development • Five major senses develop at different rates • Experience is critical • Depth perception ▪ Visual cliff experiment • Test of the depth perception  • Develops between the mom's voice  • Change develops until the age of 6  • After the age of 2, the synaptic processes  typically die off • Synaptic pruning  • Way of making the brain more efficient  • Occurs gradually  • If babies can learn multiple languages  before the age of 2, it is easier to turn  on the synapses for later in life  • The environment will create more or less  pruning • If we do not immerse our children from  the age of 2-6 in learning experiences,  the synaptic pruning is not as efficient  • More difficult to learn now if not  exposed earlier in childhood • Age 15-16, as early as 12-13, all of  the pruning that will occur has occurred  • Half of those synapses that have  existed are no longer evident  • Hearing is nearly developed fully at birth • Vision is 20/100, which is why we must get so close  to them • Distinguish voices instead of faces • 3-4 years old is when the vision normalizes  ▪ Black, white and red rooms stimulates the  neurons better ▪ Bright colors- moderate stimulation of neural  passages  ▪ Can we teach old dogs new tricks? • Critical periods is specific to the particular  child o Early Motor Development • 8-9 months ▪ Typically starts walking with assistance • After 12 months, the baby will take their first steps  • 17-24 months- able to walk fluently  o Jean Piaget • Early Cognitive Development  • Developed a series of stages to understand how we  actually understand our world  • Sensorimotor Stage  ▪ Ages 0-2 ▪ Understand that we are using our senses because  they are the most developed at this time to  explore our world  ▪ Object permanence • Peek- a -boo  • We put a ball or stuffed animal behind our  back and baby will try to find it from behind  you  • Should occur by the age of 9 months • Some are later or earlier, depends on the  experiences that the child has  • Those that don't make it until 9-10  months, didn't have people to interact  with in their environment • 4 months is earliest recorded,  typically had many caregivers and a lot  of noise in the house, set on grass  instead of blanket, can explore the  environment  ▪ How we remember, learn, and solve problems  ▪ Used as benchmarks  • Rene Baillargeon's research found object permanence  at half the age  • Personality Development During Infancy  o Found from the moment of conception and on because of  how the neurons fire o Personality always stays with us and endures throughout  our life o Fairly stable across our lives, we may change some of the  traits within the personality but the individual will usually  remain stable  o Each of us has an inconsistent way of interacting with the  world (introvert vs. extrovert)  o When we have a predictable way of looking at the world,  when we stop outside of that, we are talking about  temperament o Temperament • Biologically based tendency of how we react in certain  environments and experiences  o Thomas and Chess • Three Categories of Infant Temperament  ▪ Easy child (40%) • Eats everything • Smiles all the time  • Happy  • Example: Amelia  ▪ Difficult child (10%) • Unpredictable  • Two things to eat  • Example: Jake  ▪ Slow-to-warm up child (15%) • Tense  • Take it or leave it • Makes you prove why you are there • Going to make you work for their affection  and love  • Difficult to care for, often the ones that are  most stable when they become adults  • Example: Julia  ▪ 35% other (not classified) • Combination of all above  • Development of Moral Reasoning  o Lawrence Kohlberg  • "Heinz Dilemma" - a women was near death from a  special kind of cancer/illness, only drug that the  doctors thought would help but it was very expensive  so they only gave it to those who could afford it or  those who really needed it, druggist was selling it at 10x the amount, the sick woman's husband, Heinz,  told the druggist he would pay $200 for the drug and  then sold it for $2000, he didn't give it to the wife and  she died, what do you think?  • Break into lab to save the wife? • Why do we all cheat? In some way shape or  form  ▪ Preconventional level • Avoiding punishment or maximizing rewards ▪ Conventional level  • Relationships and lawfulness • Individualistic  ▪ Postconventional Level • Universal moral rules that may trump local  rules  ▪ How people develop their morals, understanding  of how the world works  ▪ Children tend to reason with Preconventional ▪ Adults are conventionally ▪ Very few hit the postconventional level because  based on personal moral code • Pick the furthest form of boundaries which  are usually societal boundaries  ▪ Japan- for the group, self-sacrifice,  • Early Cognitive Development o Lev Vygotsky  • Social basis of cognitive development  ▪ Learning through assistance  • Early Socioemotional Development o John Bowlby • Separation anxiety • Attachment theory o Mary Ainsworth • Strange situation • Insecure-avoidant • Insecure-resistant • Insecure-disorganized/organized o Attachment  • Imprinting • Attachment • Developing Relationships and Emotions o Harry Harlow • Monkey Study ▪ Wire "mother" v. cloth "mother" ▪ Warm and caring  ▪ Needed to only meet hunger, thirst, and  temperature regulation ▪ All the other items were left to the side ▪ Cloth monkey was a surrogate for the birth  mothers ▪ One with milk, the other without ▪ Spent more time with cloth mother, regardless of  milk • Need for physical contact ▪ Grew up to be negligent mothers  • Field tested it in counseling field and the hospital  ▪ Told as nurses and counselors and teachers that  they shouldn't touch those in their care  ▪ Touch therapy is more prevalent now, depressed  and anxious individuals, to calm down the  individuals and re duce infections and slow heart  rate  ▪ Example: Hug Fest • 96% felt better after giving bugs to others  • Of those 96%, 15 had considered suicide  that day, of that 15, 13 said that is the only  thing that would have helped them that day  • The Developing Adolescent  o Should continue education and learning • Neurons are never kept active, those that continue  cognitive aspect of their lives for the rest of their lives  will suffer less from all of the other aspects, if you  keep brain active, the rest will probably follow through o Social aspect will ebb and flow • Social interactions • Once you become an adult, you lose time for social  interactions  o All of these impact us on a daily schedule  o Frontal lobes continue to develop the more we have this  type of interaction with our environment • Highlight the idea of reasoning  • If we continue to use moral reasoning, we might make  it to postconventional thinking  Consciousness • What is consciousness? o Consciousness • Awareness of one's surroundings and of what is in one's  mind at a given moment • Experience of a moment as we move through it  • Involves the capacity to take in and process information  briefly before sending it to specialized areas for further use  or storage  • Can change quickly and dramatically  • Acts as a stage for the "main event" of your brain at a  given moment in time  o Global workspace  • Where various sensory elements are brought together  o Why do we need consciousness? • Required for any mental processes that involve imagining  situations  • Crucial for mental tasks that require working with sequences  of information  • Two Dimensions of Consciousness: Wakefulness and Awareness o The degree to which we are awake and the degree to which we  are aware o Wakefulness • Alertness • Extent to which a person is awake or asleep o Awareness • Monitoring of information from the environment and from  one's own thoughts  o Do not always work together  o Minimal Consciousness  • Coma ▪ Eyes are closed and the person is unresponsive  ▪ Damaged areas of the brain that control wakefulness reticular formation  • Glasgow Coma Scale  ▪ Degree of eye opening  ▪ Verbal responsiveness▪ Motor responsiveness  ▪ Most severe: • Eyes closer • Do not respond verbally or motorically  • 3-15 scale • Vegetative state ▪ The eyes might be open, but the person is otherwise  unresponsive  ▪ "wakefulness without awareness" ▪ Can receive and respond to stimuli from the  environment • Minimally conscious state ▪ Person is barely awake or aware but shows some  deliberate moments  ▪ Show signs of intentional behavior, but they cannot  communicate  o Moderate Consciousness • Preconscious ▪ Material that is potentially accessible but not currently  available to awareness  ▪ Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon  • We know what something it, but we can't come up  with it  • Moderate consciousness • Sleeping and dreaming  o Full Consciousness  • Flow  ▪ Exists when we thrive in our ability to rise to the  occasion of challenging tasks  ▪ When things "click" all at once  • Mindfulness  ▪ A heightened awareness of the present moment, of  events in one's environment and events in one's own  mind  • Attention: Focusing Consciousness  o Attention  • The limited capacity to process information that is under  conscious control  o Selective Attention • The ability to focus awareness on specific features in the  environment while ignoring others • Filtering out unwanted noise to focus on what you want to  hear (crowded party)  • Came from research on "dichotic listening task" ▪ Participant received one message in one ear and  another message in the other ear  ▪ Told to pay attention to just one ear  ▪ Measured recall for items presented to both ears  • Better for the attended ear  ▪ If the material presented to the unattended ear is  meaningful in some way, it can make its way into  consciousness  ▪ Cocktail party effect  • The ability to filter out auditory stimuli and then to  refocus attention when you hear your name  ▪ Focusing attention can create gapes in attention and  perception  ▪ In attentional blindness • Phenomenon by which we fail to notice  unexpected objects in our surroundings • Video where participants are asked to count  passes by players in a white shirt and they miss a  gorilla come onto the screen  ▪ Perceptual load model • We do not notice potential distracters when a  primary task consumes all of our attentional  capacity  • Low • Participants had to name the color of the arm • Less busy and more likely to see the square • High  • Participants had to say which arm was longer  ▪ Synchronization  • Conscious attention occurs when neurons from  many distinct brain regions work together • Revealed by fMRI o Sustained Attention  • Ability to maintain focused awareness on a target  • Continuous Performance Test ▪ Requires that the participant maintain attentional focus  for an extended period of time  ▪ Cannot for more than 15 minutes  ▪ Accuracy declines after 5-7 minutes  o Multitasking: The Implications of Shifting Attention  • People cannot typically do two things in parallel  • Switch between tasks or leave and return  • Truly concurrent, or parallel, task performance/engagement  rarely occurs  • Fast switching of one's attention from task to task  ▪ Loses time when making switches • Switching from a simple to a simple task loses a low amount  of time • Switching from a more substantial task to an SNS and bask  results in more time lost  • Switching compromises memory for the tasks at hand  • Psychology in the Real World ▪ Hazards of Using a Mobile Device or Texting While  Driving  • Multitasking compromises learning  ▪ Foerde  • Weather prediction task • Distraction group members were less able to  extrapolate what they had learned from the task  to another weather prediciton simulation  ▪ Salvucci and Taatgen  • Threaded cognition theory of multitasking behavior  • We can be involved in more than one task at a  time, a particular resource can only be used  by one task at a time  • A bottleneck or backup can develop in the  attempt to acess consciouness if a resource is  needed by more than one task  • Central control mechanism  • Decides when to allocate sources  • Bottlenecking with multitasking  • A place where tasks compete for access  to the workspace of consciousness or  where attention is focused at a give point  in time• Watson and Strayer  • "supertaskers" • 2.5% • Training Consciousness: Meditation o A wide variety of practices that people use to calm the mind,  stabilize concentration, focus attention, and enhance awareness  of the present moment  o Bringing focus to the breath  o Meditation and Conscious Experience  • Develop mindfulness, a fully conscious state of heightened  awareness of the present moment  • Encourages attention to the details of the momentary  experience  • Can improve attentional skills  • Improves response inhibition ▪ Ability to resist impulsive responding  o Meditation Training and the Brain • Significant increases in EEG activity in the left frontal cortex and decreased in negative mood  • Quicker performances in an attentional task  • Thicker brain tissue in the areas of the cortex associated  with attention, sensitivity to bodily sensations, and the  processing of external sensory information  • Sleeping and Dreaming  o Sleeping  • A very active process  • Brain is very active, but only partially processing information  from the outside world  • Two characteristics: ▪ Perceptual wall between the conscious mind and the  outside world  ▪ Can be immediately reversed  • Different from a coma  • Awareness of the outside world is greatly diminished, but  not completely  • Can filter relevant from irrelevant stimuli • Sleep and Circadian Rhythms  ▪ Circadian rhythms  • Variations in physiological processes that cycle  within approximately a 24-hour period • Body temperature, the hormone melatonin, and  alertness  • Body temperature  • Peaks a few hours before bed and soon after  waking, drops during sleep  • Reasons why we are sharper at some times of the  day than others, jet lag (throws the rhythm off)  • Eli, who just traveled from Nevada to Rhode Island,  has the biggest disruption to his circadian rhythm  ( biggest change in time zones) ▪ Internal timekeeper in the hypothalamus  • Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) • Regulates physiological activity on daily cycles ▪ Melatonin • Hormone that plays a role in relaxation and  drowsiness  • Evening: decreased activity in the SCN prompts  the secretion of melatonin- increases relaxation  • The Sleeping Brain  ▪ Nathaniel Kleitman and Eugene Aserinsky  • When children lost attention and fell asleep, their  eyes moved rapidly underneath their eyelids  • Rapid eye movements (REM)  • Brain is very active during sleep  • Sleep changes throughout the night • Beta waves • When we are awake, brain activity is  characterized by rapid, low-energy waves  • When we are awake but relaxed and  drowsy, our brain activity switches to  slow and slightly higher-energy waves  • Non-REM  • Relatively few eye movements  • Slow rather than father  • Stage 1 • Sensory curtain drops and we are no  longer responsive to the outside  world  • Brain waves change to theta waves • Slower and lower in energy than  alpha waves  • Light sleep • Not much stimulation is needed to  awaken us from it  • Stage 2 • After 5-7 minutes in Stage 1  • Theta waves now show short periods  of extremely fast and somewhat  higher-energy sleep spindles  • Sudden, high-energy K-complexes  • Stage 3  • Theta waves with some higher energy delta waves  • More and more delta waves appear  • Fewer and fewer sleep spindles  and K complexes  • Stage 4 • Deepest stage of sleep  • Latter disappear completely  • Shortly after entering Stage 4, we  go back through Stage 3, Stage 2,  and Stage 1  • Returning to Stage 1 • Our eyes begin to move rapidly  underneath the eyelids  • Now in REM sleep and are actively  dreaming  • Lasts for only about 8-10 minutes  before the whole process tarts over  • With each progressive cycle, the non-REM  periods are shorter and the REM periods are  longer  • Adults • 4-6 cycles of non-REM and REM sleep every night  • Cycle lasts roughly 90 minutes  • REM sleep declines rapidly across the life  span• Dreams are less common during non-REM than  REM sleep, occur regularly  • Up to 70% of non-REM periods may  involve dreaming  • Differ from REM dreams  • Less detailed, less active, and more  like regular thinkig  • The Development of Sleep over the Life Span  ▪ Newborns spend more time in REM sleep than in non REM sleep  • Total of 8 hours In REM and another 8 hours in  non-REM sleep per day  ▪ REM sleep declines rapidly over the life span  ▪ First 3 months  • Total sleep in REM is close to 50%  ▪ 8 months  • REM sleep is 33%  ▪ 1 year old • 28% REM sleep  ▪ Steadily decreases during adolescence and adulthood  ▪ Function of REM sleep:  • Assist in brain growth and development  • Corresponds to the degree of brain plasticity and  neural growth  • Brains are more plastic in infancy and childhood  and less in adulthood  • The Function of Sleep ▪ Neural growth ▪ Metabolic cleanup in the brain • Exchange of cerebrospinal fluid with intracellular  fluid ▪ Memory consolidation  ▪ Protection against cellular damage ▪ Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) • Cells that play an important role in myelin  production  • Doubles during sleep • Increases with the amount of time spent in REM  sleep  • Production decreases during wakefulness • Can lead to multiple sclerosis  ▪ Helps us learn and remember better  • Task learning is replayed in the brain during sleep • Helps performance on the next day  • Napping after learning a task may improve  performance as well ▪ Hours of sleep and when you sleep matters  ▪ Sleep fights cell damage  • Triggers the production of enzymes that fight cell  damage • Cells are damaged when we use energy to  metabolize oxygen  • Sleep slows metabolism itself, slows the rate of  cellular damage  ▪ More sleep is not always better  • Sleeping 6-8 hours a day makes people live longer  • Sleep Deprivation and Sleep Debt  ▪ Sleep is necessary for everyday functioning  ▪ Adults • 6 hours and 40 minutes on weekdays, 7 hours and  25 minutes on weekends  ▪ Sleep debt  • Represents the amount of sleep our brains owe our  bodies  • If you do not get your sleep back, you pay by  having daytime drowsiness, the use of stimulants,  a lack of focused attention, and impaired learning  and memory  ▪ Affects mental health  • Tips for better sleep  ▪ Go to bed and get up at the same time each day  ▪ Avoid caffeine, nicotine, beer, wine and liquor in the 4  to 6 hours before bedtime  ▪ Don't exercise within 2 hours of bedtime  ▪ Don't eat large meals within 2 hours of bedtime  ▪ Don't nap later than 3 PM  ▪ Sleep in a dark, quiet room that isn't too hot or cold  for you ▪ If you can't fall asleep within 20 minutes, get up and do  something quite ▪ Wind down in the 30 minutes before bedtime by doing  something relaxing  • Disorders of Sleep  ▪ Insomnia  • Taking more than 20 minutes to fall asleep, having  trouble staying asleep, not feeling rested after a  night's sleep for 2 or more consecutive weeks  • 15% to 20% of U.S. adults suffer from insomnia  • Causes for insomnia: • Restless leg syndrome  • Erratic hours  • Medical conditions  • Psychological disorders  • Excessive use of alcohol • Iron deficiency  • Treatments  • Ambien  • Increase the effects of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) • Neurotransmitter that decreases  CNS activity  • Produce a general feeling of relaxation  • Meditation  • Can imrpove sleep for anyone  • Cognitive- behavioral therapy  • Imagery rehearsal  • Rewrites out a nightmare and mentally  rehearses images from the newly  rescripted scenario while awake  ▪ Sleepwalking  • When a person gets out of bed during sleep,  usually during the first third of the sleep cycle, and  engages in activities that normally occur during  wakefulness  • Difficult to rouse and do not remember having  been up after waking in the morning  • Occurs during non-REM sleep  • 4%-15% of children • 1.5%- 2.5% of adults  ▪ Narcolepsy • Excessive daytime sleepiness  • Fall asleep at inopportune times throughout the  day, with little to no warning  • Cataplexy  • Weakness of facial muscles and the muscles in  limbs  • Disrupted nighttime sleep patterns  • Function of insomnia  • Abnormality in sleep spindles and disruption of  REM sleeping patterns  • Genetic basis  • Treatment: • Amphetamines  • Prevent daytime sleepiness • Antidepressants  • Help with cataplexy  ▪ Hypersomnia  • Person sleeps more than 10 hours a day for 2  weeks or more  • Strong urges to nap throughout the day, often at  inappropriate times  • Can be caused by other sleep disorders ▪ Night terrors  • A person, often a child, speaks incoherently and  ultimately awakens suddenly in a terrified state  from sleep  • May involve walking around in one's sleep  • Could scream, bolt upright from bed, and appear  confused and frightened  • May wake up sweating and breathing every fast  with dilated pupils  • Last 10-20 minutes and then returns to normal  sleep  • No recollection the next morning  • If adults suffer from night terrors, they have  higher levels of depression, anxiety, and OCD  • Do not occur during REM sleep and are not  associated with dreams • Nightmares • Frightening or distressing dreams • Huge problem for veterans with PTSD and  people dealing with ongoing severe stress or  trauma  • Dreaming  ▪ Dreams  • Succession of images, thoughts, and feelings we  experience while asleep  • Loosely connected by unusual associations and  not well recalled afterwards  • Always in REM sleep and somewhat regularly in  non-REM sleep • Psychoanalytic Theory  • Sigmund Freud  • Coined the term preconscious • Conflicting impulses, thoughts, feelings,  and drives that threaten the waking mind  are released as a visual compromise in  distorted and disguised form by the  sleeping mind  • Dreams are an attempt to fulfill  unacceptable desires or satisfy  unconscious wishes  • Manifest level  • Dream that we consciously recall  after waking up  • Latent level  • The deeper, unconscious level,  where the true meaning of a dream  lies • Biological Theory  • AIM theory  • Dreams are devoid of meaning,  result of random brain activity  • Activation • Amount of neural activation and  ranges from low to high  activation • Input • Whether stimulation is internal  or external• Mode • The mental state • Logical (wakeful) to loose illogical (dreaming) • Makes a cube  • Waking- highly active, external,  and logical mode of  consciousness, upper-back-right  portion of the cube • Non-REM sleep • Moderately active, external,  logical, middle of the cube  • REM sleep  • Highly active, internal, and  loose, lower-front-right  portion of the cube  • Cognitive Theory  • Dreams are not that different from everyday  thinking  • Lucid dreaming- ability to know when you are  dreaming  • Combined Theories  • Integration of cognitive and biological  perspectives on dreaming  • Dreams consolidate long-term memories first  by strengthening the neural traces of recent  events and then by integrating these traces  with already stored memories  • Keep existing memories stable  • Cortisol strengthens these neural connections  to consolidate memory  • Change throughout sleep stages  • Peaks of cortisol matching REM stages of  sleep  • Hypnosis o A state of mind that occurs in compliance with instructions  o Focused attention, suggestibility, absorption, lack of voluntary  control over behavior, and suspension of critical faculties of  mind  o 65%- mildly to moderately responsive to hypnotic suggestion o 15% are highly hypnotizable o Clinical tool  o Uses: • Pain relief  • Treating nicotine addiction, nausea, and vomiting and  anxiety  o Cortical areas activated during normal pain situations are not  activated at all  o A state in which one part of the brain operates independently  o Hilgard  • Under hypnosis one aspect of a person's mind can remain  aware and open to stimulation from the outside while other  parts are cut off from external input  o Hypnosis does not alter consciousness, nor do hypnotized  individuals give up control of their behavior  • Behave the way they think a hypnotized person would  behave  • Role-playing  o Hypnosis is not imitation but rather real brain activity o Amir Raz  • Studied whether hypnosis might help eliminate Stroop  effect  ▪ Delayed reaction when there is a mismatch between  font color and the meaning of the color word  ▪ Tests visual selective attention  ▪ Measures how people deal with conflicting verbal and  color information  • Altering Consciousness with Drugs o Psychoactive drugs • Naturally occurring or synthesized substances that, when  ingested or otherwise taken into the body, reliably produce  qualitative changes in conscious experience  • Uses: ▪ Aid in spiritual practice ▪ Improve health  ▪ Explore the self ▪ Regulate mood ▪ Escape boredom and despair  ▪ Enhance sensory experience  ▪ Stimulate artistic creativity and performance ▪ Promote social interaction  • Hallucinations ▪ Convincing sensory experiences that occur in the  abscense of an external stimulus • Psychological dependence  ▪ People compulsively use a substance to alleviate  boredom, regulate mood, or cope with the challenges  of everyday life  ▪ People who regularly take sleeping aids to help them  fall asleep at night may be unable to sleep without  them even though they may not be physically  dependent on them is illustrated by psychological  dependence • Addiction  ▪ Results from the habitual use or physical and  psychological dependence on a substance  • Depressants  ▪ Slow down central nervous system activity ▪ Alcohol, sedatives, and opioids (narcotics) • Increase the activity of GABA  • Main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain • Decrease activity of glutamate  • Main excitatory neurotransmitter  ▪ Alcohol  • Most widely used depressant  • Amount of food in stomach and person's body  mass influence absorption of alcohol into the  bloodstream • BAC  • Measured in mg of alcohol/100 mL of blood  • Amount of alcohol in bloodstream  • Suppresses the higher social regulatory functions  of the cerebral cortex, lowers inhibitions  • Liver damage  • Leads to fat accumulation and blocks blood flow in  the liver  • Cirrhosis  • Caused by chronic alcoholism  • Accumulation of nonfunctional scar tissue in  the liver • Heavy drinking can shrink the brain over time  • Binge drinking  • At least five drinks in a row for men and four  for women  • Having no more than 2 drinks a day  • Blood levels rise for the beneficial form of  cholesterol  ▪ Sedatives  • Create a feeling of stupor  • Barbiturates and Benzodiazepines  • Slow the HR, relax skeletal muscles, tranquilize  the mind  • Used before surgery to calm the mind  ▪ Opioids  • Applies to all drugs derives from opium or  chemicals similar to opium  • Derived from natural sources (morphine),  synthetic (heroin), or entirely synthetic (codeine)  • Depress CNS activity  • Slow HR, respiration, and digestion, and suppress  the cough center  • Used as pain relievers • Our own bodies produce endorphins • Opioid-like proteins that bind to opioid  receptors in the brain and act as natural  painkillers  • Stronger opioids produce feelings of overwhelming  bliss, euphoria, and bodily relaxation  • High potential for abuse  o Stimulants  • Activate the nervous system  • A drug that has an arousal effect on the CNS • Caffeine  ▪ Most commonly consumed psychoactive drug  ▪ Increased alterness, increased HR, loss of motor  coordination, insomnia, and nervousness  ▪ Diuretic- increased urine output  • Nicotine  ▪ Active drug in tobacco  • Puts nicotine into the bloodstream immediately ▪ Increases HR and rate of respiration, creates a feeling  of arousal  ▪ Increases the risk of high BP and heart disease  ▪ Relaxes the skeletal muscles  ▪ Extremely addicted  ▪ Cigarette smoking reduces life expectancy on average  by 10 years, increased risk for lung cancer, triples the  risk of death from heart disease  • Linked to leukemia, cataracts, pneumonia, and  cancers of the cervix, kidney, pancreas, and  stomach  ▪ Tobacco  • Trigger severe damage to DNA and can inhibit DNA  repair in lung cells  • Contains carbon monoxide  • Deprives tissues of needed oxygen  • Makes people look older, reduces blood supply  to the skin tissue • Cocaine  ▪ Stimulant and digestion-aiding when taken as a coca  lead (SA Indians) ▪ Increases HR and produces short-lived but intense rush  of euphoria ▪ Leads to a sense of invulnerability and power  ▪ Effects: • Increased confidence • Mood elevation ▪ Induces a sense of exhilaration by increasing the  availability of the neurotransmitters dopamine and  serotonin in synapses  ▪ Overdose could lead to death • Amphetamines ▪ Synthetically produced compounds that produce long lasting excitation of the sympathetic nervous system  ▪ Methamphetamine (meth) • Highly addictive  ▪ Dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine) ▪ Amphetamine sulfate (benzedrine or "speed") ▪ Suppress appetite and to treat symptoms of ADHD  ▪ Effects:• Insomnia and mood elevation ▪ Elevate mood and increase paranoia ▪ Known to increase motivation and cause insomnia and  increases paranoia ▪ Raise HR, increase motivation, and elevate mood  ▪ Insomnia, stomach distress, headaches, decreased  libido, and difficulty concentrating  ▪ Severe depression, paranoia, loss of control over one's  behavior, amphetamine psychosis (hallucinations)  • Ecstasy  ▪ MDMA  • Considered a part of the hallucinogen and  stimulant groups • Produces mild sensory hallucinations and  physiological arousal  • " the love drug"  • Produces feelings of euphoria, warmth, and  connectedness with others  • Helpful in treatment of PTSD  • Makes emotions more accessible  • Increased risk of depression with repeated use  • Slower processing times on cognitive tasks  • Greater impulsivity  • Persistent mental deficits  • Low mood • Serotonin deficiencies  • Effects: • Sense of well-being • Alertness • Exhilaration and euphoria o Hallucinogens  • Create distorted perceptions of reality • Marijuana  ▪ Alter consciousness and for medicinal properties  ▪ Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) • Affects the brain and body  ▪ Alters mood to create euphoria and changes  perception, especially one's perception of time and  food ▪ Makes time appear to slow down and makes food more  desirable  ▪ Does not lead to physical dependence and withdrawal  symptoms ▪ Increased risk of lung cancer ▪ No medical value  ▪ Effective prevention and treatment of nausea  ▪ Can make food appear more appealing  ▪ Effects: • More intense sensory experiences • Euphoria ▪ Medical Uses: • Reducing nausea associated with chemotherapy • Reducing symptoms associated with AIDS • LSD ▪ Altered visual perceptions, enhanced color perception,  hallucinations, synthesia  ▪ Increases levels of the neurotransmitters dopamine and  serotonin ▪ Serotonin • Increases the excitatory neurotransmitter  glutamate ▪ Increases body temp., increased BP, insomnia,  • Psilocybin ▪ Active ingredient of hallucinogenic mushrooms  ▪ "trips" can lead to profound spiritual experiences  • Fairly stable  • Mood improvements  ▪ Dependent on synapses using serotonin ▪ Can change personality  • People in coma who show more organized EEG patterns during sleep  have less disability later and a greater likelihood of survival than  those whose brain patterns are less organized while sleeping (Valente  et al., 2002). o Lacking ability to pinpoint and recognize faces • Affects consciousness  o According to the Yerkes-Dodson law, the ideal amount of  arousal interacts with the complexity of task o Training Consciousness: Meditation  • Hypnosis ▪ The type of wave length that we have when we  are focused allows us to have better health, less  headaches, ease of digestion,  • Insomnia, test anxiety, hunger: • Tighten parts of body and helps to  relax the body  • If you count out loud, you focus on  the task at hand • Anxiety ▪ Focusing on everything except the present  moment  • If you have been studying for a while, go sit still for a  little and it allows the brain to relax for the information  to sit in your memory o Mindfulness • Allows us to be fully conscious  • Focusing on all senses • Heightened awareness of the present moment  • Mindfulness meditation  ▪ Encourages us to look at the details in our  environment  ▪ Focus on thoughts, feelings, and sensations in  our environment  ▪ Allows us to be more focus, make a web of  associations,  ▪ Can train this in ourselves ▪ Allows us to thicken our cortical cortex (brain  padding) ▪ Experience things in more detail  • More details = better nurses, doctors, etc.  o Hypnosis • Have to have specific instructions  • Role play  • Fill in  • Real brain activity when done properly  • Not imitation • Can be treatment for smoking o Altering Consciousness with Drugs • Religious, recreational, and healing• Trying to find where we sit within our world from a  conscious behavioral standpoint • Conscious behaviors  ▪ When we want to feel like others, we start to  dress like them, drink the same things they do,  eat the same way they do, want to understand  the world from their perspective ▪ Mimicry  • Unconsciously copy the behaviors of  others • Others like us better ▪ Why do we mimic each other?  • They are giving us signals on what to do in  that social situation • Unconsciously picking up on those cues • We know how to adapt to every situation  we come into  o Bringing it all Together • Making Connections in Consciousness  ▪ Brain injury  • Waking up with a jerk, think you are falling  during sleep, cold sweats • Car accidents, concussions,  • Interrupts the process, doesn't allow the  brain to get to the next level/stage of  sleep  • The more that you sink into your  unconscious, the more organized your  dreams will be  • Comas and brain injuries lead to more vivid  dreams than others  ▪ Drugs  • Should not do drugs and alcohol until 24- 26 • Less damage to reasoning abilities, thicker  cortical cortex  • Lack of consciousness  o What is the evidence to suggest that sleep plays an  important role in repairing the body?• Human growth hormones is released during stages 3  and 4 of N-ReM sleep highlight• Language and thought develop side by side  o One is not possible without the other  • Language • The Nature of Language  o Human language  • Open and symbolic communication system that has rules  of grammar and allows its users to express abstract and  distant ideas • Open= dynamic system free to change • Symbolic = have no real connection between a sound and  the meaning or idea associated with it  • Sounds symbolize meaning and ideas  • Syntax  ▪ The rules for arranging words and symbols in  sentences  • Grammar  ▪ Comprises the entire set of rules for combining  symbols and sounds to speak and write a particular  language  • We can say exactly the same sentence in almost every  language in the world  ▪ Ideas can be often directly translated from one  language to another due to each language having its  own distinct sounds  • Only system capable of transmitting abstract ideas  • The Evolution of Language in Humans  o Protolanguage  • Pre-language, language of the Homo erectus and Homo  Neanderthals  ▪ Used grammatical and syntactical language o Evolution of language and evolution of the brain were  intertwines  o Increases in the size of human social groups could have led to  an increase in brain size  • The more complex a group is, the greater is its members'  need to communicate and cooperate  • Language Development in Individuals  o Children develop the ability to understand words before they  develop the ability to produce words  o Language comprehension occurs in the left hemisphere of the brain (Wernicke's area) - develops earlier o Language production is associated with the left-hemisphere  region (Broca's area) o Stages of Language Development  • First speech sounds consists almost exclusively of vowels  (aah,ee,ooh)  • Cooing during the first 6 months  ▪ Uttering repeated vowel sounds • Babbling  ▪ The infant's experimentation with a complex range of  sounds or phonemes, overlaps with cooing,  ▪ Starts around 5-6 months of age  ▪ Consonants as well as vowels  ▪ Sounds are not yet recognizable as words  ▪ Make more sounds than they hear  • Babies' brains are not yet fully shaped by their  native language  ▪ Hear more sounds than their parents can  ▪ Start to "prune" away sounds that are not used in  that language and lose the ability to say or perceive  nonnative sounds  • One- word utterances  ▪ End of babbling stage ▪ 12 months  ▪ "mama, dada, more, no!"  ▪ Descended from protolanguage  ▪ Depends on if the word is at the beginning, middle, or  end of a sentence  ▪ Tend to acquire words that are spoken at the ends of  sentences first  • English- nouns • Chinese- verbs  ▪ Recency effect  • Tendency to learn the last words in a sentence  first  ▪ Two-word utterances  • 18 months  • "my ball, mo wawa, go way" • Parents are translators for other people  ▪ Sentence phase  Prospec• 2.5 - 3 years old  • Begin speaking in fully grammatical sentences  • Happens very quickly  • Mark the growth in the child's overall brain size  • Steep rise in both brain growth and language between the  ages of 1 and 3  • At age 3, the brain is about 80% of adult size  • Child-directed speech ▪ Changes in adult speech pattern when speaking to  young children or infants; changes in voice volume,  use of simple sentences, emphasis on the here and  now, and the use of emotion to communicate  messages  o The Sensitivity Period  • If children are not exposed to any human language before  a certain age, their language abilities never fully develop  • Begins in the first years of life and ends at about age 12 • Uylings  ▪ Sensitivity periods end after neural pruning and  neural wiring have reached their peak  ▪ Plasticity of neural connections becomes less flexible  • Genie ▪ Activity of the brain for language was located in the  right hemisphere  ▪ Left-hemisphere speech development requires  stimulations from the environment during a certain  sensitivity period if it is to develop properly  ▪ Need verbal stimulation from others, we need it while  we are young  • Theories of Language Acquisition  o Sociocultural Theories  • Erika Hoff ▪ Environmental influences on language  • Culture, socioeconomic status, birth order,  school, peers, television, and parents  • Hart and Risely  ▪ Children all started to speak around the same time  and they developed good structure and use of  language  ▪ Professional families - 2,153 words per hour• By age 3, had a vocabulary of 1,100 words  • Heard more encouragement words  ▪ Middle and working-class families - 1,251 words per  hour ▪ Unemployed families -616 words per hour  • By age 4, the children would have heard 32  million fewer words than the children from  professional families  • By age 3, 500 word vocabulary  ▪ Much of what we learn comes from imitating family  members ▪ Child-directed speech  ▪ Changes in adult speech patterns  ▪ Differences in timing of the child's vocabulary  development can be explained by three  characteristics of the mother:  • Her socioeconomic status, vocabulary use, and  her personality characteristics  ▪ Mirror neurons facilitate social learning and imitation  o Conditioning and Learning Theory  • B.F. Skinner  ▪ Language is like any other behavior  • Something that exists because it is reinforced  and shaped  ▪ Children learn to speak a particular language because  their parents reinforce and reward when they speak  ▪ Shaping, successive approximations, and  reinforcement  ▪ The first approximation of a complex behavior will be  reinforced until the baby is able to speak fully  grammatical sentences  o Nativist Theory  • Reinforcement does not occur as consistently with syntax  and grammar rules  • Children overgeneralize these language rules  • We discover language rather than learn it  • Language development is "native," or inborn - nativist  view of language  ▪ Brain is structured, or "wired", for language learning  ▪ Broca's and Wernicke's area are dedicated to speech productive and comprehension  • Noam Chomsky  ▪ Language acquisition device (LAD) • An innate, biologically based capacity to acquire  language  • Born with a capacity to learn "language"  ▪ There is essentially a single universal grammar  underlying all human languages  • Each language is simply a specific expression of  this universal grammar  ▪ Universal grammar follows universal principles  • Each language sets limits, or parameters, for  what is correct in terms of word orders and  other aspects  • We learn these as we learn to speak  • The rules make it easier for the children to learn  that language  o Nature, Nurture, and Language Learning  • Social and learning theorists  ▪ Importance of social input and stimulation  • Native theorists  ▪ Importance of brain structures and genetic factors  • Innately guided learning  ▪ We learn to speak, but in doing so we are guided by  our innate capacity for language learning  ▪ Grammar is more innate and genetically influenced  than is vocabulary  ▪ Vocabulary is more strongly shaped by input from  the environment  ▪ Identical twins study  • Identical twin pairs were more similar in  vocabulary and grammar  • Genetics influences about 25% of vocabulary  development and about 40% of learning about  grammar  ▪ Brain systems change together over time  ▪ 5-11 years old  • Brain regions associated with language increase  in activity during language processing  • Can Other Species Learn Human Language? o American Sign Language is used to teach apes how to  communicate (nonvocal sign language)  o Apes sometimes use sign language to communicate with one  another  o Fouts  • 88% of the conversations between apes were about social  interaction, play and reassurance  • 12% were about feeding, grooming, cleaning, discipline,  and chimps signing, or "talking" to themselves  o Apes are limited in their language ability but have basic level of  meta-cognition (knowing what they know and do not know)  • Language, Culture, and Thought  o Whorf- Sapir hypothesis • Language creates thought as much as thought creates  language  • Linguistic determinism hypothesis  ▪ Our language determines our way of thinking and our  perceptions of the world  ▪ Language influences rather than determines our  thinking • Linguistic relativism  ▪ Language and color perception  • Thinking, Reasoning, and Decision Making  o Knowledge is distinct from instinct  o Cognition  • "to know"  • To refer to the mental processes involved in acquiring,  processing, and storing knowledge • Cognitive psychology ▪ Science of how people think, learn, remember, and  perceive • How Do We Represent Thoughts in Our Minds? o Store and process ideas, knowledge, and memories as mental  representations  o Mental representation  • Structure in the end (idea or image) that stands for  something else (external object or thing)  • Frequently about things that we sensed in the past  • Allow us to think about and remember things in the past  and imagine things in the future • Think about abstract ideas that have no physical  existence  o Visual Representation  • Visual system (occipital lobes) is older in evolutionary  terms than the verbal system  • Visual imagery  ▪ Consists of visual representations created by the  brain after the original stimulus is no longer present  ▪ Brain is activated in much the same way while  imagining a task as it is while performing the task  • Mental rotation ▪ The process of imagining an object rotating in 3-D  space  ▪ Moderate to large gender effects, with boys and men  generally doing better than girls and women  ▪ Gender role identification and culture also plays a role • Gender difference in spatial ability is due to the levels of  the male sex hormone testosterone  o Verbal Representation  • Major function of thought:  ▪ Organize and classify our perceptions into categories  • Naming things and giving them labels • Find similar features, form concepts and build  categories based on similarities,  • Most basic unit of knowledge: concept  ▪ Mental grouping of objects, events, or people ▪ Concept fruit includes red, orange, yellow, blue, and  green fruit, large and small fruit, and the presence of  seeds • Concept hierarchy  ▪ Certain concepts are related in a particular way, with  some being general and others specific  ▪ Helps us order and understand our world  • Parallel distributed processing  ▪ Proposes that associations between concepts  activate many networks or nodes at the same time  ▪ Neuronlike and involve patterns of activation over the  network  ▪ Concepts are activated in the network based on how  strongly associated with or connected to each other they are • Category  ▪ Concept that organizes other concepts around what  they all share in common  ▪ Well defined or fuzzy  ▪ Prototypes  • Best-fitting examples of a category • Prototype ▪ Typical example of a given concept • How Do We Reason about Evidence?  o Reasoning • Process of drawing inferences or conclusions from  principles and evidence  ▪ May be able to draw sound or correct conclusions  • Deductive  ▪ When we reason from general statements of what is  known to specific conclusions  • Specific conclusion is always correct if the  general statement is true  • Inductive reasoning  ▪ Draws general conclusions from specific evidence  ▪ Conclusions are less certain  ▪ Highly likely conclusions  ▪ Use casual inferences  • Judgements about whether one thing causes  another thing  • Confirmation bias  ▪ Inductive reasoning and casual inferences  ▪ Tendency to selectively attend to information that  supports one's general beliefs while ignoring  information or evidence that contradicts one's beliefs  ▪ Wason  • People are so inclined to test only ideas that  confirm their beliefs that they forget that one of  the best ways to test an idea is to try to tear it  down or disconfirm it  • Critical Thinking o Critical  • Ancient Greek word kritikos  • "to question, to make sense of, and to be able to analyze; or to be skilled at judging" o Critical thinking  • "The ability to analyze facts, generate and organize ideas,  defend opinions, make comparisons, draw inferences,  evaluate arguments, and solve problems  • Sound analysis, evaluation, and the formation of ideas  based on the evidence at hand  o What a Critical Thinker Does • Analyze • Evaluate • Make inferences • Interpret • Explain • Self-regulate  o Metacognitive thinking  • Critical and scientific thinking  • Requires the ability first to think and then to reflect on  one's own thinking  • Able to question your own thinking  • How Do We Make Judgements and Decisions? o Applying Critical Thinking beyond the Classroom  • Scientific thinking is used to generate, test, reflect upon,  and revise theories  o Heuristics  • Mental shortcuts used to make decisions  • Methods for making complex and uncertain decisions and  judgements • Quick and efficient decisions  o The Representativeness Heuristic  • Estimating the probability of one event based on how  typical or representative it is of another event  • Either-or decision that most people get wrong  • Base rates can be applied to people, events, or things • Suppose the love of your life, whom you are no longer  with, has specific mannerisms that you are fond of. Now  whenever you see a person exhibit those mannerisms, you  are immediately attracted to him or her o The Availability Heuristic  • Strategy we use when we make decisions based on the  ease with which estimates come to mind or how available they are to our awareness  • More likely to be killed while flying in an airplane or while  driving in a car • Vividness ▪ Conjuring up of dramatic images  • Vividness and availability lead us to overestimate how  likely certain events are • Kahneman and Tversky  ▪ People bypass fully rational decision making and make  use of automatic shortcuts in their reasoning and  judgements  ▪ Prospect theory • People are not always rational in their decision  making  • Conjunction fallacy  ▪ Representativeness heuristic effect  ▪ Occurs when people say that the combination of two  events is more likely than either event alone  o Challenging Assumptions in Human Rationality  • When given a choice between two or more options,  humans will choose the one that is most likely to help  them achieve their particular goals (the rational choice)  ▪ Rational choice theory  • People are more averse to losing money than they are  attracted to winning it  • After age 7, learning a second language starts to become more  difficult • Habituation  o No longer noticing scents o The sensory process by which organisms adapt to constant  stimulation  o Results in a change in response that stems from experience • Basic Processes of Learning  o Learning  • Enduring change in behavior that occurs with experience  • Changes in sensation, perception, behavior, and brain  functions alter who we are, what we know, what we feel,  and what we can do • Learning and memory work together  • Occurs when information moves from short-term to  long-term memory  o Association  • One piece of information from the environment is linked  repeatedly with another and the organism begins to  connect the two sources of information  • Very powerful tool for learning  • Form as a result of two events occurring together • Condition taste aversion  ▪ One event may come to suggest that the other will  occur • Conditioning Models of Learning  o Conditioning  • Form of associative learning  • A behavior becomes more likely because the organism  links that behavior with certain events in its  environment  • Classical and operant  ▪ Forms of associative learning  • Classical  ▪ Learn from the relations between stimuli  • Operant  ▪ Learn from the consequences of their behavior  o Classical Conditioning  • Learning occurs when a neutral stimulus becomes  associated with a stimulus to which the learner has an  automatic, inborn response  • Mike tried shrimp for the first time; but felt ill shortly  after. Now, he cannot eat shrimp • Pavlov's Dogs  ▪ Dogs formed an association between a stimulus  that had no inherent food value and one that did  ▪ Salivation is a reflex, an automatic response to a  particular stimulus that requires no learning  ▪ Salivation in response to the bell is a conditioned  reponse • How Classical Conditioning Works  ▪ Conditioning of reflexes of classical conditioning  ▪ Unconditioned response (UCR)• Automatic, inborn response to a stimulus  • Unconditioned = unlearned  • Pavlov's = salivation  ▪ Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)  • Refers to the environmental input (meat  power) that always produced the same  unlearned response (salivation)  • UCS always produces the UCR  • Automatically causes a response, each time it  is presented ▪ Neutral stimulus  • A stimulus that does not bring about a  response of interest ▪ Reflexes are unlearned, fixed responses to specific  types of environmental stimuli • Fixed stimulus- response patterns ▪ Bell became a conditioned stimulus  ▪ Conditioned stimulus (CS) • Previously neutral stimulus that an organism  learns to associate with the UCS  ▪ Conditioned response (CR) • Behavior that an organism learns to perform  when presented with the CS alone  ▪ Forward conditioning  • the neutral stimulus is presented just before  the UCS  ▪ Backward conditioning  • The neutral stimulus follows the UCS  • Conditioning is less successful  ▪ Two fundamental criteria for SRC to be successful  • Multiple pairings of UCS and neutral stimulus  (CS) are necessary for an association to occur  and for the CS to produce the conditioned  response  • The UCS and the CS must be paired or  presented very close together in time in order  for an association to form  ▪ Stimulus generalization  • Extension of the association between UCS and  CS to a broad array of similar stimuli ▪ Stimulus discrimination  • Opposite of stimulus generalization • Occurs when a CR occurs only to exactly the  stimulus to which it was conditioned ▪ Extinction • Weakening and disappearance of a conditioned  respon • Occurs when the UCS is no longer paired with  the CS ▪ Spontaneous recovery  • Sudden reappearance of an extinguished  response • Extinction never completely eliminates the  response, only suppresses it  ▪ Classical conditioning is a powerful learning device - advantages for survival  • The Conditioning of Little Albert ▪ John Watson • Classical conditioning for humans • Defined psychology as "the study of behavior"  • Conditioned a baby to fear white rats and  other white, fluffy objects • Known as the father of behaviorism  • Operant Conditioning o Some behaviors occur spontaneously  o Edward L. Thorndike  • Rewarding consequences can make a spontaneous  behavior more likely to occur again  • Learning curve ▪ The plot of the rate at which learning occurs over  time  • Law of effect ▪ The consequences of a behavior increases (or  decrease) the likelihood that the behavior will be  repeated  o B.F. Skinner  • Consequences of an individual's actions are the most  important determinants of behavior  • Operant ▪ Refers to behavior that acts or operates on the  environment to produce specific consequences  • Operant conditioning  ▪ Process of modifying behavior by manipulating the  consequences of that behavior ▪ Occurs when the actions of an individual operate on  the environment to produce predictable  consequences  • A behavior that is rewarded is more likely to occur again  ▪ Works when voluntary behavior is made more likely  by its consequences  o Reinforcement and Punishment  • Reinforcer  ▪ Any internal or external event that increases a  behavior  ▪ Mother's smile in response to the infant's  ▪ Have to be things that the learner wants in order  for them to influence the likelihood that a behavior  will occur again ▪ Primary reinforcers • Not learned • Innate and often satisfy biological needs  • Food, water, sex, and artificial sweeteners  • Drugs such as caffeine and nicotine  ▪ Secondary reinforcers (conditioned) • Money, grades, and peer approval, cars  • Learned by association, usually via classical  conditioning  ▪ Positive reinforcement  • Presentation or addition of a stimulus to a  situation increases the likelihood of a behavior  • Extra credit points  ▪ Negative reinforcement  • Removal of a stimulus to increase behavior  • Removal of annoying beeping is negative  reinforcement for fastening the seat belt • Confused with punishment  • Any stimulus that decreases the  frequency of a behavior  ▪ Positive punishment • Addition of a stimulus that decreases behavior  • Spanking  ▪ Negative punishment  • Decreases behavior by removing a stimulus  ▪ Reinforcement is more effective than punishment  • How Operant Conditioning Works ▪ Organisms learn about the consequences of their  behavior  ▪ Any behavior that is reinforced becomes  strengthened and is more likely to occur in the  future  ▪ Skinner box  • Simple chamber in which a small animal can  move around, with a food dispenser and a  response lever to trigger food delivery  ▪ Shaping  • The reinforcement of successive  approximations of a desired behavior  • Mold an organism to do things that it typically  wouldn't do  • Used to improve the attention span in people  with schizophrenia  ▪ Extinction occurs when a behavior stops being  reinforced  o Applications of Operant Conditioning  • Modifies behavior in the treatment of disorders like phobias, nicotine addiction, and learning disabilities • Treatment of autism  ▪ ABA (applied behavioral analysis) developed by Ivar  Lovaas  • Increases the frequency of adaptive behaviors  in autistic children, punishment to decrease the  likelihood of maladaptive behaviors  o Schedules of Reinforcement  • Reinforcers can be arranged (scheduled) to follow  behavior under a variety of conditions or rules  • Continuous reinforcement  ▪ Rewarding a behavior every time it occurs  • Intermittent reinforcement  ▪ Does not occur after every response ▪ Produces a stronger behavioral response • Fixed- ratio (FR) schedule ▪ Follows a set number of responses  ▪ Becomes predictable ▪ Response rate is not steady  ▪ Produces a steep, stepwise pattern of response  ▪ Payment based on production • Variable- ratio (VR) schedule ▪ The number of responses needed for reinforcement  varies ▪ Produces a very steady rate of response  ▪ Produce reinforcement around a mean number of  responses ▪ Exact ratio differs for each trial  ▪ Slot machine  • Fixed- interval (FI) schedule  ▪ Reinforcement always follows the first response  after a set amount of time ▪ Produces a pattern in which the rate of response  immediately following reinforcement is low  ▪ Response rate accelerates as the time of  reinforcement approaches  ▪ Scalloped patterned graph  ▪ One's studying behavior before and after a test  • Variable- interval (VI) schedule  ▪ First response is reinforced after time periods of  different durations have passed  ▪ Sets a mean interval length around which the  intervals will vary  ▪ Produce a steady, moderate rate of response  • Challenging Assumptions about Conditioning Models of Learning  o Traditional learning theory  • Assumes that the Principles of conditioning are universal o Conditioned Taste Aversion  • The learned avoidance of a particular taste when nausea  occurs at about the same time as the food  • John Garcia  ▪ Rats could be conditioned to avoid a taste they  previously liked ▪ The drop in intake of saccharin water lasted for at  least 20 days  ▪ Reflexive responses could be conditioned to any  kind of stimulus  ▪ An organism cannot be conditioned to respond to  just any "neutral" stimulus paired with an  unconditioned stimulus  ▪ CS and UCS can be separated by as much as 75  minutes and still lead to conditioned taste aversion  ▪ "bright-noisy water" findings showed that only  certain stimuli can be conditioned to produce  nausea  o Instinctive Drift  • Keller Breland and Marian Breland  • Learned behavior that shifts toward instinctive,  unlearned behavior tendencies  • There are biological limitations, or constraints, on  learning  • Biological constraint model of learning  ▪ Some behaviors are inherently more likely to be  learned than others  ▪ The adaptive ones are more likely to occur than the  maladaptive ones  o Latent Learning  • Edward Tolman  ▪ Ran rats through mazes  ▪ The rats in Group 3 had been learning all along  ▪ A type of learning that occurs in the absence of  reinforcement and is not demonstrated until later,  when reinforcement occurs ▪ Rats formed internal cognitive maps  ▪ Some learning can occur in the absence of  reinforcement  ▪ Need motivation  • Social Learning Theory  o Albert Bandura  • Enactive learning  ▪ Learning by doing  • Observational learning  ▪ Learning by watching the behavior of others • Social learning theory  ▪ Includes observation and modeling as major  components of learning  • Modeling  ▪ Process of observing and imitating behaviors  performed by others  • Social learning also works through reinforcement  • Bobo doll studies  ▪ Pivotal in showing how children learn aggression  and other violent behaviors from viewing aggression  in others • The Interaction of Nature and Nurture in Learning  o Imprinting  • The rapid and innate learning of the characteristics of a  caregiver within a very short period of time after birth  • Sensitivity period in learning  ▪ A period when a particular type of learning occurs  very readily if an animal is exposed to a particular  stimulus or situation  • Can be learned soon after birth or not at all  • Ethology  ▪ The scientific study for animal behavior  o Imitation, Mirror Neurons, and Learning  • For some neurons in the frontal lob of the cerebral  cortex, the experience of watching someone else do  something is like doing it yourself  • Involved in imitation and social learning  o Synaptic Change during Learning  • Certain proteins become activated in short- and long term memory formation and learning  • Change preexisting synaptic connections and cause the  growth of new synapses • Learning is the growth of new synapses • The same synaptic connections will weaken if they  aren't used regularly, resulting in forgetting and the loss  of learning  • Need practice, use and rehearsal  • Experience, Enrichment, and Brain Growth  o Physical exercise benefits neural growth o Laboratory mice, for example, can have identical  "childhoods" and then be randomly assigned to three  different environments  • The longer they live in an enriched environment, the  more neural growth there is in the hippocampus  • Bringing It All Together  o Acquisition of smoking behavior is best explained by social  learning theory • Once someone has become an established smoker,  operant conditioning helps maintain smoking behavior  • Influenced by gender, personality, and sociocultural  characteristics as well  • Behavior modification techniques ▪ Apply operant conditioning to changing behavior  ▪ Help people quit smoking  • Three Types of Memory  o Memory • The ability to store and use information  o Three-stage model of memory  • Based on how long the memories last  • Sensory memory  ▪ Holds information in its original sensory form for a  very brief period of time ▪ Half a second or less • Short-term memory  ▪ Temporarily stores a limited amount of information  before it is either transferred to a long-term  storage or forgotten ▪ 2-30 seconds  • Long-term memory  ▪ The capacity to store a vast amount of information  for as little as 30 seconds and as long as a lifetime  • Active and dynamic process  • Sensory Memory  o Made up of the brief traces of a sensation left by the firing  of neurons in the brain  o Last less than half a second up to 2 or 3 seconds  o Sensation - long-term memory  o Iconic and echoic memory  • Iconic memory ▪ Brief visual record left on the retina of the eye  • Echoic memory  ▪ Short-term retention of sounds  • Symbols interferes with the ability to recall the digits  • Sensory memory traces are preserved for a short period  of time and are very fragile  • Short- Term, or Working, Memory  o Place to temporarily store information we need while working  on a problem  o Working memory  • The part of memory required to attend to and solve a  problem at hand  • function o Short term memory  • Emphasizes the duration of this type of memory o Examples:  • Reading, talking, and listening to someone speak  o Can be transferred to long-term memory if they are  transferred  • Short- Term Memory Capacity  o Number of items that can be held in short-term memory  o Limited to about 7 items  o Usually between 5-9 units of letters, digits, or chunks of  information  o To increase short-term memory capacity, transform what  you want to remember into a smaller set of meaningful units  or chunks  • Chunking  o How Short-Term Memory Works • Attending to a stimulus  ▪ Focusing and switching attention  ▪ Master attentional control system  • Three temporary storage systems  • One for sounds and language  (phonological) • Sound or linguistic  • Assists the central executive by  providing extra storage for a limited  number of digits or words for up to  30 seconds at a time• Allows us to hold memory traces for a  few seconds before they fade • One for images and spatial relations  (visuospatial)  • Provides storage for visual and spatial  sensations  • Images, photos, scenes, and 3-D  objects  • Lasts only a few seconds before it  fades  • One that provides temporary storage for  specific events (a buffer) • Episodic buffer for specific events  and experiences  • Temporary store for information  that will become longer-term  memories of specific events  • Central executive decides where to focus  attention and selectively hones in on specific  aspects of a stimulus  • All require rehearsal if the information is to be  remembered for any length of time  • Rehearsal  • Process of reciting or practicing matieral  repeatedly  • Storing information about the stimulus  • Rehearsing the stored process to help solve a problem  o The Serial Position Effect • Mary Whiton Calkins  ▪ People are able to recall items at the beginning and  end of lists better than items in the middle  • Serial position effect  • Primary effect  ▪ Tendency to preferentially recall items at the  beginning of a list ▪ The items in the beginning of the list are quickly  rehearsed and transferred to long-term memory  storage • Recency effect  ▪ Recall the items at the end of a list ▪ Items at the end are still held in short-term memory  and are accessible  • Long- Term Memory  o The most complex form of memory o Types of Long- Term Memory  • Implicit and explicit memory  • Implicit Memory  ▪ How to ride a bike or add  ▪ When we know or remember something but don't  consciously know we remember it  ▪ Known as nondeclarative memory  ▪ Cannot directly recall this type of memory ▪ Based on prior experience  ▪ The place where we store knowledge of previous  experience  ▪ Cannot describe how we perform these skills very  well  ▪ Includes procedural memory and priming  ▪ Procedural memory  • knowledge we hold for almost any behavior or  physical skill we learn  ▪ Priming  • Kind of implicit memory that occurs when  recall is improved by prior exposure to the  same or similar stimuli  • Better able to recall words  • Emotions linked to an event increase the  likelihood that our memories of them will last a  lifetime • Explicit  ▪ Where you left your car keys  ▪ Conscious recall of facts and events  ▪ Declarative memory  ▪ Refers to memories that can be deliberately  accessed or declared  ▪ Semantic memory  • Our memory for facts and knowledge • What we learn in school ▪ Episodic memory  • Our memory for the experiences we have had • High school graduation  • More personal and autobiographical  o Stages in Long- Term Memory  • Encoding  ▪ Means by which we attend to, take in, and process  new information  ▪ Crucial for stage in long-term memory  ▪ Attention  ▪ Remember visual images more easily than verbal  descriptions  • Richer and more detailed representation in  memory  ▪ Automatic processing  • Happens with little effort or conscious  attention to the task  • Does not improve with practice  • Not processed as deeply, less likely to be  recalled later  ▪ Effortful processing  • Carefully attend to and put conscious effort  into remembering information  • Basis of semantic memory  • Involves rehearsal  • Advancing age lessens recall for events and  experiences that require effortful processing,  but not those that involve automatic  processing ▪ Levels of processing  • The more deeply people encode information,  the better they will recall it  • Thomas Hyde and James Jenkins  • Presented a list of about 28 words with a  5-second interval between words  • Three levels of processing: • Structural, phonemic, and semantic  • Structural  • Shallowest level • Focus on the structure of a word  • Phonemic processing  • Midlevel processing • Sound of the word • Semantic processing  • Deepest level  • Think about the meaning of the  words • Best recall when words are encoded  for deeply • Mnemonic device  • A scheme that helps people  remember information  • Rhyming, chunking, and rehearsal  • Imagery and acronyms  • Consolidation ▪ The process of establishing, stabilizing, or  solidifying a memory ▪ Resistant to distraction, interference, and decay  ▪ Provides time for proteins in brain to develop  ▪ Sleep  • Stabilizes the memory and enhances memory  and makes it stronger  ▪ Learn over long periods of time and evenly spaces  sessions lead to better recall • Storage ▪ Retention of memory over time  ▪ Hierarchies  • Organize related information from the most  specific feature they have in common to the  most general  ▪ Schemas  • Mental frameworks that develop from our  experiences with particular objects or events • Typical features of what should happen in a  situation  • Organizing information from episodic memory  • Act as a filter through which we encode and  organize information about our world  • Tell us how people, objects, and events are  most likely to look or act  • Aid memory and recall  • Bias our memory and perception ▪ Association  • Psychological process that binds concepts  together • Linked together in networks by their degree of  closeness or relatedness • Associative network • Chain of associations between related  concepts  • Links between nodes are associations  • Primed- more likely to make an association  to a nearby concept or node  • Neural networks  • Computer models that imitate the way  neurons talk to each other  • Nodes are not single concepts information-processing units  • Parallel distributed processing  • Associations involve the simultaneous  activity of many nodes  • Priming function  • Makes certain memories more likely  than others to be stored • • Retrieval  ▪ Recovery of information stored in memory  ▪ Need to focus our attention on remembering  ▪ Implicit  • Without conscious effort  ▪ Explicit  • Require conscious effort for retrieval  • More typical of explicit long- term memory  • Bringing it all Together  o How to Study  • Material you learn in class is semantic memory  • Go to class and pay attention  • Read the text before class  ▪ Make associations  ▪ Being encoding  ▪ Priming  • Study deeply, not shallowly ▪ Add visual images  ▪ Make material relevant  ▪ Space things out and cover topics in separate tudy  sessions  • Form a study group • Devise meaningful mnemonics • The Biological Basis of Memory  o Procedural-implicit, emotional, and declarative- explicit  o Long-term memories begin with sensations being processed  into output from cortical sensory association areas  o Output goes to different brain regions o Sensory memories are processed in the various sensory  cortexes  o Short-term memory is processed in the hippocampus and  frontal lobes  o Long- term memories are stored in different parts of the  cortex and sub cortex  • Retrieved with the help of areas associated with the  prefrontal cortex • Front most region of the frontal lobes  • Attention, appropriate social behavior, impulse control,  and working memoryo • The Neural Basis of Memory o Donald Hebb  • Developed a theory of how neural connections form and  how synaptic connections change with learning and  memory • When the synapse of one neuron repeatedly fires and  excites another neuron, there is a permanent change in  the receiving neuron, the excitatory neuron, or both,  which strengthens the synaptic connection  • Long-term potentiation (LTP)  ▪ When synapses fire more readily, learning becomes  easier and more efficient  ▪ Strengthening process• Repeated stimulation of a group of neurons leads to the  formation of cell assemblies ▪ Networks of nerve cells that persist even after  stimulation has stopped  ▪ Neurons that fire together, wire together  ▪ Use it or lose it  • Kandel  ▪ Sea slugs  ▪ Fewer neurons than humans  ▪ Neurons can be seen with the naked eye  ▪ Created a long-term memory of how to react to  shock  ▪ Conversion from short-term to long-term memory  storage requires spaced repetition  ▪ Repeated stimulation of a neuron actually sends  signals to the nucleus of the cell • Trigger the production of CREB, a protein that  switches on the genes responsibly for the  development of new synapses  • Experience from the outside world changes  genes and the way in which they are expressed▪ • Link between behavior and long-term memory  o Psychology in the Real World  • Manipulating Memory with Drugs and Drinks  ▪ Gene-regulating protein CREB to help form  memories  • True or False? Drugs can prevent potentially traumatic  memories from becoming traumatic  ▪ True: it is possibly to administer a drug that  interferes with strong negative memory formation  (in mice)• Aricept and Reminyl  ▪ Boost levels of acetylcholine  • Long-term, regular consumption of foods and drinks rich  in flavonoids can enhance memory and preserve  cognitive function in elderly people by protecting  neurons, stimulating blood flow, and inducing  neurogenesis  ▪ Grapes, blueberries, green tea, and cacao beans  • Challenging Assumptions in Brain Stimulation and Memory o Alberto Priori  o Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) • Electrical stimulation of the brain  • A very weak voltage is administered via at least two  electrodes placed on the scalp  • Positively charged stimulation increases memory and  negatively charged stimulation interferes with memory  • Implicit memory and working memory are enhanced  when part of the left prefontal cortex is stimulated  • Transcranial electrical stimulation of the frontal lobe  during slow wave sleep improves recall of word pairs  ▪ Temporoparietal lobe improves word recognition  memory in Alzheimer's patients • The Sensory Cortexes  o Sensory neurons carry information about external stimuli  from our sense organs to different parts of the brain  o The sensation travels to the thalamus  o Relays sensory information to the cerebral cortex for further  processing o Visual cortex- occipital lobes o Auditory cortex- temporal lobes o Somatosensory cortex (touch)- parietal lobes  o Taste and smell do not have their own processing regions  • Pathways of Short-Term Memory in the Hippocampus and  Prefrontal Cortex  o Prefrontal cortex- determines what information in the  environment is worthy of our attention  o Encoding stage of memory formation activates the  prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus  o Memory is consolidated through rehearsal and repetition o Repeated firing of neural impulses needed to switch short term memory to long-term memory occurs in the  hippocampus  • Could take hours, days, or sometimes weeks  o Hippocampus is like a librarian  • Aided by the frontal lobe • Processes, organizes, and directs memories and then  returns them to the appropriate location in the cortex  for long-term storage  o Prefrontal cortex • Attention and focus  • Keep the crucial information accessible  o Working memory  • Rehearsal o • Long-Term Memory Storage in the Cortex  o Explicit long-term memories • Cortex • In the area where the original sensation was processed  o Implicit memories • Stored in the structures of the subcortex  • Striatum (part of the basal ganglia), amygdala, and  cerebellum• o Priming occurs mostly in the cortex  o Procedural memories for skills and habits involve the striatum  o Amygdala  • Associating particular events with emotional responses  o Damage to the temporal lobe results in problems with one's  sense of direction  • Emotion, Memory, and the Brain  o Emotional memories are easier to recall than are factual ones  o Emotions help to encode and retrieve memories  o Switch on genes that build proteins to strengthen the  synaptic connections between neurons  • Stimulate the formation of new synapses and even new  neurons  • Make the memory "stick" for a long period of time  o Important structures for memory (amygdala and the  hippocampus) are linked to key structures for emotion  • Lie next to each other in the brain  o Amygdala  • Assigns emotional significance to events • Crucial in encoding information relevant to emotional  experiences, like fear  o Release of norepinephrine  • Makes synaptic connections between neurons more  plastic  ▪ Changes the structure of the synaptic connections  • Neural plasticity is necessary for making the  connections between synapses stronger  • Olfactory memories paired with fear experiences  through conditioning seem to be passed down to the  next generation via epigenetic processes • Traumatic memories may be inherited (payton and  birds) o Sleep helps to consolidate memories, at least if they are  emotional  o The details of emotional memories tend to be less accurate  than those non-emotional memories  o Flashbulb memories  • Detailed, especially vivid memories of very specific,  highly charged events  • Recalled like snapshot pictures  • Highly charged with emotions  • Makes memories not as accurate  o Damage to the amygdala leads to the emotional accent of  memories being gone  o Damage to the left amygdala results in deficits in verbal  recall of emotional events  o Stress may both enhance the encoding of information and  impair the retrieval of emotional memories  • Loss of autobiographical memory is a way of regulating  or coping with extreme emotional stress • Forgetting and Memory Loss o Subjective and reconstructive process than an objective one  o Select, distort, bias, and forget events  • Forms of Forgetting  o Interference  • Occurs when other information competes with the  information we are truing to recall  • Retroactive interference ▪ Occurs when new experiences or information cause  people to forget previously learned experiences or  information  • Proactive interference  ▪ Occurs when previously learned information  interferes with the learning of new information  o Ebbinghaus's forgetting curve  • Recall shows a steady decline over time  • Norman Slamecka and Brian McElree  ▪ Given a long list of words to learn  ▪ Seeing the same thing several times increases recall  only a little bit  o Absent-mindedness • Form of forgetfulness that involves attention as well as  memory  • Do not pay close attention or we divide our attention  among different tasks  • Divided attention  • Increases with age ▪ Not a problem until people reach their 70s  • Slowing of processing speed and less ability to  filter our irrelevant information with age  o Education has a positive effect on age-related decline  o Blocking  • Another form of forgetting  • Inability to retrieve some information that once was  stored  • Simply won't resurface  o Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon  ▪ Almost recall something but the memory eludes us ▪ Steps in recalling the memory  o Repression  ▪ The retrieval of memories that have been encoded  and stored is actively inhibited ▪ The person may suddenly remember the repressed  event  o Suggestibility  ▪ Final form of misremembering or forgetting  ▪ Occurs when memories are implanted in our minds  based on leading questions, comments, or suggestions from someone else or some other  source  ▪ Most prone to suggestions that are present in the  interval between our original experience and the  time we are asked to recall it  o Elizabeth Loftus  • Conducted research on eyewitness testimony and false  and recovered memories  • Eyewitness testimony can be the deciding evidence  presented at a trial  • Among the first memory researchers to demonstrate  that people's memories of events are not very accurate  and are susceptible to suggestion  • Changing the wording of a question impacts people's  recall for events  o False memories • Memories for events that never happened but were  suggested by someone or something  • Individual develops an actual memory, sometimes very  elaborate and detailed, based on false information  • Hyperthymestic memory (superior autobiographical  memory) - not immune to false memories o Recovered memory  • Supposedly from a real event • A memory that was encoded and stored but is not  retrieved for a long period of time  • Memory is retrieved after a later event brings it  suddenly to consciousness  • Blocked or repressed for years  • Traumatic events may alter how people store memories  and, as a defense, make them less likely to be specific in  their recall • Memory Loss Caused by Brain Injury and Disease  o Amnesia  • People forget due to injury or disease to the brain  ▪ Anterograde amnesia  • Inability to remember events and experiences  that occur after than injury or the onset of a  disease • Fail to make new long-term memories • Recall experiences for only a short period of  time, perhaps 10 minutes or less  ▪ Retrograde amnesia  • An inability to recall events or experiences that  happened before the onset of the disease or  injury  • Might involve only the incident that preceded it  or might include years of memories  • Accidents  ▪ Alzheimer's disease  • Usually strikes people in their 60s,70s, and 80s  (could be earlier)  • Progressive memory loss, ending with  complete memory loss  • Experiences are lost due to anterograde  amnesia  • Difference threshold o The smallest amount by which two sensory stimuli can differ in  order for an individual to perceive them as difference Which of the following researchers was the one to "break intelligence in two"? Robert Sternberg Charles Spearman Raymond Cattell Howard Gardner Chapter 10: Intelligence, Problem Solving, and Creativity  • Intelligence  o How intelligent are you? • Spearman's general intelligence • Intelligence is a single, general capacity o How are you intelligent? • Thurstone's multiple factors  • Intelligence consists of 7 primary mental abilities, including  spatial ability, memory, perceptual speed, and word fluency  o How are you intelligent? • Cattell-Horn-Carroll hierarchical intelligence • Intelligence can be broken down into 3 levels of ability:  general, broad, and narrowo How are you intelligent? • Sternberg's triarchic theory • 3 abilities (analytical, creative, and practical) • Mental age/ chronological age x 100 o How are you intelligent? • Gardner's multiple intelligences • 8 distinct capacities, including intelligence, interpersonal  intelligence, and bodily-kinesthetic intelligence  • Defining Intelligence o Inherent potential for learning, how fast we are able to learn, or  the body of knowledge we possess  o Includes the ability to do things in ways that other people have  never tried  o Definition of intelligence: • Set of cognitive skills that includes abstract thinking,  reasoning, problem solving, and the ability to acquire  knowledge  • Mathematical ability, general knowledge, and creativity  • Theories of Intelligence  o One view: intelligence is a single, general ability o Other view: intelligence consists of multiple abilities  o Traditional Models of Intelligence: Intelligence as a Single,  General Ability  • Charles Spearmen  • Single, general capacity, or ability  • Special dimensions or factors of intelligence: spatial, verbal,  perceptual, and quantitative factors  ▪ Direct relationship • G-factor theory of intelligence  ▪ Single, general factor made up of specific components  ▪ Implies that the single number on an IQ test accurately  reflects a person's intelligence  o Challenging Assumptions of Traditional Views of Intelligence:  Intelligence as Multiple Abilities  • Test scores ignore important aspects of intelligence  • Multiple-factor theory of intelligence  ▪ Different aspects of intelligence are distinct enough  that multiple abilities must be considered ▪ Raymond Cattell  • Fluid and crystallized intelligence • Fluid intelligence • Raw mental ability, pattern recognition, and  abstract reasoning; applied to a problem that  you have never confronted before • Not influenced by culture or size of  vocabulary  • Involves how fast you learn new things  • Raven's Progressive Matrices Test • Matrix reasoning  • Fluid intelligence  • Does not depend on acquired knowledge and  involves the ability to find patterns  • Crystallized intelligence  • Involves using skills, experience, and  knowledge to solve problems  • Influenced by the size of vocabulary, culture,  use experience and knowledge to solve  problems • Understanding the meaning of a written  paragraph • Vocabulary tests ▪ John Carroll  • Three levels arranged in a hierarchy  • General intelligence at the top, broad intelligence  is in the middle, and narrow intelligence at the  bottom  • Broad intelligence • Consists of abilities such as crystallized and  fluid intelligence, memory, learning, and  processing speed  • Narrow intelligence  • 70 distinct abilities  • Speed of reasoning and general sequential  reasoning for fluid intelligence • Reading, spelling, and language  comprehension for crystallized language • Note: as we go from young adulthood to  middle adulthood, our experience based  (crystallized) intelligence continues to

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