What is Intro to Psychology? (answer these!!) 1. Why is it necessary to take psychology for nursing? a. Foundation on the anatomy and physiology of people b. Being able to understand a patient's wide range of emotions c. Being able to care and communicate with the patients d. Being familiar with mental disorders and how to work withDon't forget about the age old question of What is scalar derivatives?
If you want to learn more check out o How does whiteness inform history?
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We also discuss several other topics like What are the five steps of the scientific method?
We also discuss several other topics like structural mechanics notes
We also discuss several other topics like What is the maximum range on the capacitor?
patients with mental illnesses 2. Why is psychology called a root science (hub)? a. Psychology gets to root of all of our problems because it is showing us why people react the way they do and it helps us to understand how we should react to problems b. It is the root of every science and career 3. How will I use psychology in my life and in my career? a. I will use it as a nurse to care for my patient's correctly and to be able to understand mental disorders if I work in a psych unit b. I can understand why patient's react a certain way and how I can act to make them feel calm and in good hands c. Psychology will help improve my relationship with others because I can have a better grasp on my emotions and how to react to other people's emotions and what are the best ways to help someone going through troubles • Psychology gives us insight into real life and gives us real life relevance; social problems o More knowledgeable o want to know why as a society we are so vulnerable to racism o why prejudice in and of itself is not necessarily equal • When we are prejudice, we have the tendency to act inappropriate or outside of our cultural norms o Connection to us as individuals • Neuroscience o Study of the mind by looking at the brain o Correlations between questions and how our brain works • Different for cultures and geographic locations • Developmental (surface) o How we develop o The study of how they grow, they learn o What is the optimal area for each individual • How do we optimize it • How do we make the experience more enjoyable • Cognitive o Everyday o Computational approach on how we discriminate and categorize and study the mind o Why we think the way we do o How we think the way we do o Analogy of the computer o Thinking about thinking o Thinking about how we do things o We make assumptions as soon as people walk into the door, but we have no idea if those thoughts and assumptions are truthful until we actually get to know them • Social (can be specialized, social psych) o How to act in the group o How people interact o How they work in groups o How they put on different personas o How they work in diad, triad, etc. o Why do some marriages last forever and others don't even last a day o When we step out of those norms, there are issues and consequences o Why are there consequences for stepping outside of the boundaries? o Can grow and improve our social anxieties • Clinical o Mental health, illness o Stigmas attached o Does it incorporate what we want it to incorporate? o Is it dimensional? o Clinical case studies o Class: Abnormal Psych • Cover Materials: o Literature o Games o Demonstrations o Lectures Psychology Defined • Science of understanding individuals • Animals and people • Scientific study of thought and behavior o Why Should You Study Psychology? • Useful in many fields and relevant to life o Psychology in the Real World • Better listening skills • Techniques for learning o Sub-disciplines of Psychology• • Cognitive Psychology • How we perceive information • How we learn and remember • How we acquire and use language • How we solve problems • Developmental • How thoughts and behavior change and stabilize throughout life • Behavioral Neurosciences • Connections between brain, mind, and behavior • Biological psychology • Connection between bodily systems and chemicals and their relationship to behavior and thought • Personality psychology • What makes people unique • Consistencies in people's behaviors across time and situations • Unique and relatively enduring set of behaviors, feelings, thoughts, and motives that characterize an individual • Social psychology • How the real or imagined presence of others influences thoughts, feeling, and behavior • Clinical Psychology • Diagnosis and treatment of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders and ways to promote psychological health • Health Psychology • Role of psychological factors in physical health and illness • Educational Psychology • Study how students learn • The effectiveness of particular teaching techniques • The dynamics of school populations • Psychology of teaching • Understanding special populations of students • Industrial/Organizational(I/O) Psychology • Understanding real-world rather than laboratory behavior • Industrial side • Matching employees to their jobs and uses psychological principles and methods to select and evaluate employees • Organizational • Making workers more productive • How work environments and management styles influence worker motivation, satisfaction, and productivity • Sports Psychology • Psychological factors that affect performance and participation in sports and exercise • Forensic Psychology • Psychology, law, and criminal justice all together o The Origins of Psychology • Clinical practice • Science • A Brief History of the Practice of Clinical Psychology • Prehistoric Views • Shamans trephination • Ancient Views • Connections between bodily organs and emotions • Used narcotics to treat pain • Medieval to Early Modern Views • Supernatural causes • Possessed by demons, spirits, and the devil, not physical disorders • 16th and 17th centuries- asylums were built throughout Europe • Removed people with psychological disorders from society • Reform movements in support of moral treatment started in Europe and the US • Modern Views • Psychological disorders were seen as an illness and should be treated as medical conditions • "medical model" perspective • Emil Kraepelin • Sigmund Freud • Developed psychoanalysis • A clinical approach to understanding and treating psychological disorders • Unconscious mind is the most powerful force behind thought and behavior • Dreams have meaning • Our experiences in childhood affect the development of our adult personality • We use psychological defenses to protect ourselves from threatening things • Unconscious repression of disturbing thoughts is the foundation of all maladaptive adult behavior • Psychotherapy, drug therapy, and modern criteria for diagnosing mental disorders evolved by the mid-20th century• How to diagnose psychological disorders: • Diagnostic and Statistic Manual • Everyone has their own perspective on what disorders mean and how to treat them • A Brief History of Scientific Psychology • The Philosophy of Empiricism • Does knowledge come from reflection and thinking or from experience? • John Locke • Knowledge and thoughts come from experience- empiricism • The mind begins as a blank slate and different experiences write the contents of the mind • The Psychophysics of Human Perception • Five senses • Examine the subjective experience of physical sensations • The perception of physical properties is not the same as the physical properties themselves • Ernst Weber • Investigated the small change in weight or length that people can tell a difference • Gustav Fechner • Coined the term psychophysics • Hermann von Helmholtz • Memory, physiology, and color vision • Laws of conservation in physics and to music theory, meteorology, and geometry • Designed a workable telephone • Calculated the speed of a nerve impulse • Wilhelm Wundt • 1879 • Psychology lab in Leipzig, Germany • Psychology became independent from philosophy and physiology • Structuralism and Functionalism • Structuralism • Breaking down experience into its elemental parts helps to understand thought and behavior • Introspection • Want to get to the smallest part of something • Functionalism • Look at the way the mind worked the way it did rather than to describe its parts • Introspection • Eventually failed • Led by James • Behaviorism • Psychology can be a true science only if it examines observable behavior, not ideas, thoughts, feelings, or motives • Has to be observed and not assumed (not measurable) • Humanistic and Positive Psychology • Personal growth and meaning to reach one's highest potential • Positive psychology • Psychology should focus on studying, understanding, and promoting healthy and positive psychological functioning • Cognitivism • Gestalt psychology ("whole form") • Perception occurs in unified wholes, where the whole is more than the sum of its parts • Brains shape sensory information into perceptions • Sensation, perception, and mental processes • Cognition • Frederick Bartlett • Memory is not an objective and accurate representation of events, it is a personal reconstruction based on one's values, ideas, and point of view • Behavioral Genetics, Behavioral Neuroscience, and Evolutionary Psychology • Who we are and what we do are influenced by genetics and brain activity • Ways of Thinking about Mind, Body, and Experience • The Nature-Nurture Debate • What determines our personality and behavior? • Nature-only - who we are comes from inborn tendencies and genetically based traits • Our personalities remain consistent • Nurture- only - we are all essentially the same at birth and we are shaped by our experiences • Environmental and genetic forces can affect who we are • Soft wiring • Biological systems involved in thought and behavior are inherited but can be modified from the environment • Nature through nurture • The environment interacts with biology to shape who we are and what we do • Mind-Body Dualism • Mind and body are separate from one another • The mind controls the body and the vice versa can sometimes happen, but when there is not good judgement involved • They are forever intertwined though • The Evolution of Human Behavior • Evolution = change • Change over time in the frequency with which specific genes occur within a breeding species • Natural selection • A feedback process whereby nature favors one design over another, depending on whether it has an impact on reproduction • Occurs by chance • Chance mutations • Spontaneous changes in genes • Adaptations • Inherited solutions to ancestral problems that have been naturally selected because they directly contribute in some way to reproductive success • Evolutionary Psychology • Uncovers adaptive problems the human mind may have solved in the distant past and the effect of evolution on behavior today • Fear • Helps us deal with danger quickly and effectively • Emotions are behavioral adaptations • By-products or exaptations • When something evolves to solve one problem and it ends up solving another problem as well • Example: feathers • Nature and nurture are interdependent- they depend on and interact with each other • NewsFlash? • No One Perspective Tells the Whole Story in Psychology • Challenge Assumptions: Don't Believe Everything You Think • Scientific view encourages critical thinking and people to go find answers • There can be different perspectives on a certain topic • Proverbial nature-nurture question • Every fundamental aspect of human behavior develops from a complex interplay of biological and environmental forces, of nature and nurture (interdependent) • Research can lead to finding out things we didn't see before • Connections within and between Chapters • Bringing it all Together • Making Connections in Psychology • Studying Electronic Social interactions • Cognitive Psychology • How we learn, remember, think, and reason • Attention • Texting and driving • Developmental Psychology • How we change over the life span • Social Psychology • Online dating services• Personality Psychology • Extraverts vs. introverts use of electronics and social media • Health Psychology • Apple health app • No longer have to talk face-to-face • Clinical Psychology • Diagnosing disorders of technology use • Using technology to help treat people with various kinds of disorders • Chapter 1 Ending • Shamans • Medicine men or women who treat the possessed by coaxing and driving out demons with elaborate rituals • Humanism • Focuses on growth and meaning • Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers • Moral treatment • Approach to treatment for mental illness that began in Europe during the 18th and 19th centuries with a focus on care in a relaxing environment • Introspect • When you are asked to describe in as much detail as you can what you are experiencing • Greeks and Egyptians were the first ancient cultures that focused on natural and physical explanations for disorders Introduction to Psychology • Basis for all other professions • Study of one's thoughts and behaviors • The study of the behavior and mental processes of individuals • Look from different perspectives: mind, social, behavioral, • Scientific study • Systematic observations of things o Sub-disciplines of Psychology • Clinical • Need to be able to change things by tying it all together • Want to better our society/occupation/field • Expand into industrial organization of psychology • Why people in business are more productive when people are watching vs. not o We think about something and then we do it • Disconnect from our thoughts can cause it to become un-tuned with life o How you view and respond to different experiences will connect with how you involve with psychology • Think about things before you do it vs. you do something and think about it later • Cognitive behaviorism • Inform and perpetuate most of what we do in the world • How do we experience our life o Good can be found in each and every person o The good in society can be found o Society focuses on the negatives o Twins • Mind and behaviors yield different experiences • See the world differently • Before birth into the prenatal development of the mother's womb and into the rest of the life • Brain is the first major organ to develop in the fetus • Piaget discovered cognitive development • Embryonic stage o Formation of major organs o All systems start to develop o Embryo- bundle of rapidly dividing cells • Fetal stage o Bones develop o 8 weeks after conceptiono All major organs have formed and begun to do their own thing o 12-18 weeks- heart can be heard and felt o Continue to grow and mature o Fetus rapidly increases in size o Brain and sensory development occur before birth o Brain continues to grow after birth, by the time the infant is born, the head is 25% of its adult weight, body is 5% of weight o Neural Migration • 3-5 months during pregnancy, one part of the brain is more prominent than the other, the neurons will move within the brain ▪ Cannot figure out what type of neuron and cell they want to be o Tetragons • Mother's environment • Neural defects can occur if exposed to a lot of them • If mom has a lot of stress, psychological disorder can be passed onto the baby • Nature and nurture influences ▪ Prenatal programming • Process by which the whole process of development in the womb continues • Development of physical and psychological patterns ▪ Mother's nutrition • Body knows based on connection with the baby • Epigenetics • Those specific items are turned on by that maternal instinct • When the mother does not eat the appropriate foods, there is a possibility that psychological disorders are more prevalent if you do not listen and nurture your body o Need to take care of ourselves during the embryonic and fetal stage (viruses) o Alcohol, nicotine, and Prozac can cause premature birth and disorders and has an effect on motor skills• Psychical Development in Infancy and Childhood o Early Sensory Development • Five major senses develop at different rates • Experience is critical • Depth perception ▪ Visual cliff experiment • Test of the depth perception • Develops between the mom's voice • Change develops until the age of 6 • After the age of 2, the synaptic processes typically die off • Synaptic pruning • Way of making the brain more efficient • Occurs gradually • If babies can learn multiple languages before the age of 2, it is easier to turn on the synapses for later in life • The environment will create more or less pruning • If we do not immerse our children from the age of 2-6 in learning experiences, the synaptic pruning is not as efficient • More difficult to learn now if not exposed earlier in childhood • Age 15-16, as early as 12-13, all of the pruning that will occur has occurred • Half of those synapses that have existed are no longer evident • Hearing is nearly developed fully at birth • Vision is 20/100, which is why we must get so close to them • Distinguish voices instead of faces • 3-4 years old is when the vision normalizes ▪ Black, white and red rooms stimulates the neurons better ▪ Bright colors- moderate stimulation of neural passages ▪ Can we teach old dogs new tricks? • Critical periods is specific to the particular child o Early Motor Development • 8-9 months ▪ Typically starts walking with assistance • After 12 months, the baby will take their first steps • 17-24 months- able to walk fluently o Jean Piaget • Early Cognitive Development • Developed a series of stages to understand how we actually understand our world • Sensorimotor Stage ▪ Ages 0-2 ▪ Understand that we are using our senses because they are the most developed at this time to explore our world ▪ Object permanence • Peek- a -boo • We put a ball or stuffed animal behind our back and baby will try to find it from behind you • Should occur by the age of 9 months • Some are later or earlier, depends on the experiences that the child has • Those that don't make it until 9-10 months, didn't have people to interact with in their environment • 4 months is earliest recorded, typically had many caregivers and a lot of noise in the house, set on grass instead of blanket, can explore the environment ▪ How we remember, learn, and solve problems ▪ Used as benchmarks • Rene Baillargeon's research found object permanence at half the age • Personality Development During Infancy o Found from the moment of conception and on because of how the neurons fire o Personality always stays with us and endures throughout our life o Fairly stable across our lives, we may change some of the traits within the personality but the individual will usually remain stable o Each of us has an inconsistent way of interacting with the world (introvert vs. extrovert) o When we have a predictable way of looking at the world, when we stop outside of that, we are talking about temperament o Temperament • Biologically based tendency of how we react in certain environments and experiences o Thomas and Chess • Three Categories of Infant Temperament ▪ Easy child (40%) • Eats everything • Smiles all the time • Happy • Example: Amelia ▪ Difficult child (10%) • Unpredictable • Two things to eat • Example: Jake ▪ Slow-to-warm up child (15%) • Tense • Take it or leave it • Makes you prove why you are there • Going to make you work for their affection and love • Difficult to care for, often the ones that are most stable when they become adults • Example: Julia ▪ 35% other (not classified) • Combination of all above • Development of Moral Reasoning o Lawrence Kohlberg • "Heinz Dilemma" - a women was near death from a special kind of cancer/illness, only drug that the doctors thought would help but it was very expensive so they only gave it to those who could afford it or those who really needed it, druggist was selling it at 10x the amount, the sick woman's husband, Heinz, told the druggist he would pay $200 for the drug and then sold it for $2000, he didn't give it to the wife and she died, what do you think? • Break into lab to save the wife? • Why do we all cheat? In some way shape or form ▪ Preconventional level • Avoiding punishment or maximizing rewards ▪ Conventional level • Relationships and lawfulness • Individualistic ▪ Postconventional Level • Universal moral rules that may trump local rules ▪ How people develop their morals, understanding of how the world works ▪ Children tend to reason with Preconventional ▪ Adults are conventionally ▪ Very few hit the postconventional level because based on personal moral code • Pick the furthest form of boundaries which are usually societal boundaries ▪ Japan- for the group, self-sacrifice, • Early Cognitive Development o Lev Vygotsky • Social basis of cognitive development ▪ Learning through assistance • Early Socioemotional Development o John Bowlby • Separation anxiety • Attachment theory o Mary Ainsworth • Strange situation • Insecure-avoidant • Insecure-resistant • Insecure-disorganized/organized o Attachment • Imprinting • Attachment • Developing Relationships and Emotions o Harry Harlow • Monkey Study ▪ Wire "mother" v. cloth "mother" ▪ Warm and caring ▪ Needed to only meet hunger, thirst, and temperature regulation ▪ All the other items were left to the side ▪ Cloth monkey was a surrogate for the birth mothers ▪ One with milk, the other without ▪ Spent more time with cloth mother, regardless of milk • Need for physical contact ▪ Grew up to be negligent mothers • Field tested it in counseling field and the hospital ▪ Told as nurses and counselors and teachers that they shouldn't touch those in their care ▪ Touch therapy is more prevalent now, depressed and anxious individuals, to calm down the individuals and re duce infections and slow heart rate ▪ Example: Hug Fest • 96% felt better after giving bugs to others • Of those 96%, 15 had considered suicide that day, of that 15, 13 said that is the only thing that would have helped them that day • The Developing Adolescent o Should continue education and learning • Neurons are never kept active, those that continue cognitive aspect of their lives for the rest of their lives will suffer less from all of the other aspects, if you keep brain active, the rest will probably follow through o Social aspect will ebb and flow • Social interactions • Once you become an adult, you lose time for social interactions o All of these impact us on a daily schedule o Frontal lobes continue to develop the more we have this type of interaction with our environment • Highlight the idea of reasoning • If we continue to use moral reasoning, we might make it to postconventional thinking Consciousness • What is consciousness? o Consciousness • Awareness of one's surroundings and of what is in one's mind at a given moment • Experience of a moment as we move through it • Involves the capacity to take in and process information briefly before sending it to specialized areas for further use or storage • Can change quickly and dramatically • Acts as a stage for the "main event" of your brain at a given moment in time o Global workspace • Where various sensory elements are brought together o Why do we need consciousness? • Required for any mental processes that involve imagining situations • Crucial for mental tasks that require working with sequences of information • Two Dimensions of Consciousness: Wakefulness and Awareness o The degree to which we are awake and the degree to which we are aware o Wakefulness • Alertness • Extent to which a person is awake or asleep o Awareness • Monitoring of information from the environment and from one's own thoughts o Do not always work together o Minimal Consciousness • Coma ▪ Eyes are closed and the person is unresponsive ▪ Damaged areas of the brain that control wakefulness reticular formation • Glasgow Coma Scale ▪ Degree of eye opening ▪ Verbal responsiveness▪ Motor responsiveness ▪ Most severe: • Eyes closer • Do not respond verbally or motorically • 3-15 scale • Vegetative state ▪ The eyes might be open, but the person is otherwise unresponsive ▪ "wakefulness without awareness" ▪ Can receive and respond to stimuli from the environment • Minimally conscious state ▪ Person is barely awake or aware but shows some deliberate moments ▪ Show signs of intentional behavior, but they cannot communicate o Moderate Consciousness • Preconscious ▪ Material that is potentially accessible but not currently available to awareness ▪ Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon • We know what something it, but we can't come up with it • Moderate consciousness • Sleeping and dreaming o Full Consciousness • Flow ▪ Exists when we thrive in our ability to rise to the occasion of challenging tasks ▪ When things "click" all at once • Mindfulness ▪ A heightened awareness of the present moment, of events in one's environment and events in one's own mind • Attention: Focusing Consciousness o Attention • The limited capacity to process information that is under conscious control o Selective Attention • The ability to focus awareness on specific features in the environment while ignoring others • Filtering out unwanted noise to focus on what you want to hear (crowded party) • Came from research on "dichotic listening task" ▪ Participant received one message in one ear and another message in the other ear ▪ Told to pay attention to just one ear ▪ Measured recall for items presented to both ears • Better for the attended ear ▪ If the material presented to the unattended ear is meaningful in some way, it can make its way into consciousness ▪ Cocktail party effect • The ability to filter out auditory stimuli and then to refocus attention when you hear your name ▪ Focusing attention can create gapes in attention and perception ▪ In attentional blindness • Phenomenon by which we fail to notice unexpected objects in our surroundings • Video where participants are asked to count passes by players in a white shirt and they miss a gorilla come onto the screen ▪ Perceptual load model • We do not notice potential distracters when a primary task consumes all of our attentional capacity • Low • Participants had to name the color of the arm • Less busy and more likely to see the square • High • Participants had to say which arm was longer ▪ Synchronization • Conscious attention occurs when neurons from many distinct brain regions work together • Revealed by fMRI o Sustained Attention • Ability to maintain focused awareness on a target • Continuous Performance Test ▪ Requires that the participant maintain attentional focus for an extended period of time ▪ Cannot for more than 15 minutes ▪ Accuracy declines after 5-7 minutes o Multitasking: The Implications of Shifting Attention • People cannot typically do two things in parallel • Switch between tasks or leave and return • Truly concurrent, or parallel, task performance/engagement rarely occurs • Fast switching of one's attention from task to task ▪ Loses time when making switches • Switching from a simple to a simple task loses a low amount of time • Switching from a more substantial task to an SNS and bask results in more time lost • Switching compromises memory for the tasks at hand • Psychology in the Real World ▪ Hazards of Using a Mobile Device or Texting While Driving • Multitasking compromises learning ▪ Foerde • Weather prediction task • Distraction group members were less able to extrapolate what they had learned from the task to another weather prediciton simulation ▪ Salvucci and Taatgen • Threaded cognition theory of multitasking behavior • We can be involved in more than one task at a time, a particular resource can only be used by one task at a time • A bottleneck or backup can develop in the attempt to acess consciouness if a resource is needed by more than one task • Central control mechanism • Decides when to allocate sources • Bottlenecking with multitasking • A place where tasks compete for access to the workspace of consciousness or where attention is focused at a give point in time• Watson and Strayer • "supertaskers" • 2.5% • Training Consciousness: Meditation o A wide variety of practices that people use to calm the mind, stabilize concentration, focus attention, and enhance awareness of the present moment o Bringing focus to the breath o Meditation and Conscious Experience • Develop mindfulness, a fully conscious state of heightened awareness of the present moment • Encourages attention to the details of the momentary experience • Can improve attentional skills • Improves response inhibition ▪ Ability to resist impulsive responding o Meditation Training and the Brain • Significant increases in EEG activity in the left frontal cortex and decreased in negative mood • Quicker performances in an attentional task • Thicker brain tissue in the areas of the cortex associated with attention, sensitivity to bodily sensations, and the processing of external sensory information • Sleeping and Dreaming o Sleeping • A very active process • Brain is very active, but only partially processing information from the outside world • Two characteristics: ▪ Perceptual wall between the conscious mind and the outside world ▪ Can be immediately reversed • Different from a coma • Awareness of the outside world is greatly diminished, but not completely • Can filter relevant from irrelevant stimuli • Sleep and Circadian Rhythms ▪ Circadian rhythms • Variations in physiological processes that cycle within approximately a 24-hour period • Body temperature, the hormone melatonin, and alertness • Body temperature • Peaks a few hours before bed and soon after waking, drops during sleep • Reasons why we are sharper at some times of the day than others, jet lag (throws the rhythm off) • Eli, who just traveled from Nevada to Rhode Island, has the biggest disruption to his circadian rhythm ( biggest change in time zones) ▪ Internal timekeeper in the hypothalamus • Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) • Regulates physiological activity on daily cycles ▪ Melatonin • Hormone that plays a role in relaxation and drowsiness • Evening: decreased activity in the SCN prompts the secretion of melatonin- increases relaxation • The Sleeping Brain ▪ Nathaniel Kleitman and Eugene Aserinsky • When children lost attention and fell asleep, their eyes moved rapidly underneath their eyelids • Rapid eye movements (REM) • Brain is very active during sleep • Sleep changes throughout the night • Beta waves • When we are awake, brain activity is characterized by rapid, low-energy waves • When we are awake but relaxed and drowsy, our brain activity switches to slow and slightly higher-energy waves • Non-REM • Relatively few eye movements • Slow rather than father • Stage 1 • Sensory curtain drops and we are no longer responsive to the outside world • Brain waves change to theta waves • Slower and lower in energy than alpha waves • Light sleep • Not much stimulation is needed to awaken us from it • Stage 2 • After 5-7 minutes in Stage 1 • Theta waves now show short periods of extremely fast and somewhat higher-energy sleep spindles • Sudden, high-energy K-complexes • Stage 3 • Theta waves with some higher energy delta waves • More and more delta waves appear • Fewer and fewer sleep spindles and K complexes • Stage 4 • Deepest stage of sleep • Latter disappear completely • Shortly after entering Stage 4, we go back through Stage 3, Stage 2, and Stage 1 • Returning to Stage 1 • Our eyes begin to move rapidly underneath the eyelids • Now in REM sleep and are actively dreaming • Lasts for only about 8-10 minutes before the whole process tarts over • With each progressive cycle, the non-REM periods are shorter and the REM periods are longer • Adults • 4-6 cycles of non-REM and REM sleep every night • Cycle lasts roughly 90 minutes • REM sleep declines rapidly across the life span• Dreams are less common during non-REM than REM sleep, occur regularly • Up to 70% of non-REM periods may involve dreaming • Differ from REM dreams • Less detailed, less active, and more like regular thinkig • The Development of Sleep over the Life Span ▪ Newborns spend more time in REM sleep than in non REM sleep • Total of 8 hours In REM and another 8 hours in non-REM sleep per day ▪ REM sleep declines rapidly over the life span ▪ First 3 months • Total sleep in REM is close to 50% ▪ 8 months • REM sleep is 33% ▪ 1 year old • 28% REM sleep ▪ Steadily decreases during adolescence and adulthood ▪ Function of REM sleep: • Assist in brain growth and development • Corresponds to the degree of brain plasticity and neural growth • Brains are more plastic in infancy and childhood and less in adulthood • The Function of Sleep ▪ Neural growth ▪ Metabolic cleanup in the brain • Exchange of cerebrospinal fluid with intracellular fluid ▪ Memory consolidation ▪ Protection against cellular damage ▪ Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) • Cells that play an important role in myelin production • Doubles during sleep • Increases with the amount of time spent in REM sleep • Production decreases during wakefulness • Can lead to multiple sclerosis ▪ Helps us learn and remember better • Task learning is replayed in the brain during sleep • Helps performance on the next day • Napping after learning a task may improve performance as well ▪ Hours of sleep and when you sleep matters ▪ Sleep fights cell damage • Triggers the production of enzymes that fight cell damage • Cells are damaged when we use energy to metabolize oxygen • Sleep slows metabolism itself, slows the rate of cellular damage ▪ More sleep is not always better • Sleeping 6-8 hours a day makes people live longer • Sleep Deprivation and Sleep Debt ▪ Sleep is necessary for everyday functioning ▪ Adults • 6 hours and 40 minutes on weekdays, 7 hours and 25 minutes on weekends ▪ Sleep debt • Represents the amount of sleep our brains owe our bodies • If you do not get your sleep back, you pay by having daytime drowsiness, the use of stimulants, a lack of focused attention, and impaired learning and memory ▪ Affects mental health • Tips for better sleep ▪ Go to bed and get up at the same time each day ▪ Avoid caffeine, nicotine, beer, wine and liquor in the 4 to 6 hours before bedtime ▪ Don't exercise within 2 hours of bedtime ▪ Don't eat large meals within 2 hours of bedtime ▪ Don't nap later than 3 PM ▪ Sleep in a dark, quiet room that isn't too hot or cold for you ▪ If you can't fall asleep within 20 minutes, get up and do something quite ▪ Wind down in the 30 minutes before bedtime by doing something relaxing • Disorders of Sleep ▪ Insomnia • Taking more than 20 minutes to fall asleep, having trouble staying asleep, not feeling rested after a night's sleep for 2 or more consecutive weeks • 15% to 20% of U.S. adults suffer from insomnia • Causes for insomnia: • Restless leg syndrome • Erratic hours • Medical conditions • Psychological disorders • Excessive use of alcohol • Iron deficiency • Treatments • Ambien • Increase the effects of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) • Neurotransmitter that decreases CNS activity • Produce a general feeling of relaxation • Meditation • Can imrpove sleep for anyone • Cognitive- behavioral therapy • Imagery rehearsal • Rewrites out a nightmare and mentally rehearses images from the newly rescripted scenario while awake ▪ Sleepwalking • When a person gets out of bed during sleep, usually during the first third of the sleep cycle, and engages in activities that normally occur during wakefulness • Difficult to rouse and do not remember having been up after waking in the morning • Occurs during non-REM sleep • 4%-15% of children • 1.5%- 2.5% of adults ▪ Narcolepsy • Excessive daytime sleepiness • Fall asleep at inopportune times throughout the day, with little to no warning • Cataplexy • Weakness of facial muscles and the muscles in limbs • Disrupted nighttime sleep patterns • Function of insomnia • Abnormality in sleep spindles and disruption of REM sleeping patterns • Genetic basis • Treatment: • Amphetamines • Prevent daytime sleepiness • Antidepressants • Help with cataplexy ▪ Hypersomnia • Person sleeps more than 10 hours a day for 2 weeks or more • Strong urges to nap throughout the day, often at inappropriate times • Can be caused by other sleep disorders ▪ Night terrors • A person, often a child, speaks incoherently and ultimately awakens suddenly in a terrified state from sleep • May involve walking around in one's sleep • Could scream, bolt upright from bed, and appear confused and frightened • May wake up sweating and breathing every fast with dilated pupils • Last 10-20 minutes and then returns to normal sleep • No recollection the next morning • If adults suffer from night terrors, they have higher levels of depression, anxiety, and OCD • Do not occur during REM sleep and are not associated with dreams • Nightmares • Frightening or distressing dreams • Huge problem for veterans with PTSD and people dealing with ongoing severe stress or trauma • Dreaming ▪ Dreams • Succession of images, thoughts, and feelings we experience while asleep • Loosely connected by unusual associations and not well recalled afterwards • Always in REM sleep and somewhat regularly in non-REM sleep • Psychoanalytic Theory • Sigmund Freud • Coined the term preconscious • Conflicting impulses, thoughts, feelings, and drives that threaten the waking mind are released as a visual compromise in distorted and disguised form by the sleeping mind • Dreams are an attempt to fulfill unacceptable desires or satisfy unconscious wishes • Manifest level • Dream that we consciously recall after waking up • Latent level • The deeper, unconscious level, where the true meaning of a dream lies • Biological Theory • AIM theory • Dreams are devoid of meaning, result of random brain activity • Activation • Amount of neural activation and ranges from low to high activation • Input • Whether stimulation is internal or external• Mode • The mental state • Logical (wakeful) to loose illogical (dreaming) • Makes a cube • Waking- highly active, external, and logical mode of consciousness, upper-back-right portion of the cube • Non-REM sleep • Moderately active, external, logical, middle of the cube • REM sleep • Highly active, internal, and loose, lower-front-right portion of the cube • Cognitive Theory • Dreams are not that different from everyday thinking • Lucid dreaming- ability to know when you are dreaming • Combined Theories • Integration of cognitive and biological perspectives on dreaming • Dreams consolidate long-term memories first by strengthening the neural traces of recent events and then by integrating these traces with already stored memories • Keep existing memories stable • Cortisol strengthens these neural connections to consolidate memory • Change throughout sleep stages • Peaks of cortisol matching REM stages of sleep • Hypnosis o A state of mind that occurs in compliance with instructions o Focused attention, suggestibility, absorption, lack of voluntary control over behavior, and suspension of critical faculties of mind o 65%- mildly to moderately responsive to hypnotic suggestion o 15% are highly hypnotizable o Clinical tool o Uses: • Pain relief • Treating nicotine addiction, nausea, and vomiting and anxiety o Cortical areas activated during normal pain situations are not activated at all o A state in which one part of the brain operates independently o Hilgard • Under hypnosis one aspect of a person's mind can remain aware and open to stimulation from the outside while other parts are cut off from external input o Hypnosis does not alter consciousness, nor do hypnotized individuals give up control of their behavior • Behave the way they think a hypnotized person would behave • Role-playing o Hypnosis is not imitation but rather real brain activity o Amir Raz • Studied whether hypnosis might help eliminate Stroop effect ▪ Delayed reaction when there is a mismatch between font color and the meaning of the color word ▪ Tests visual selective attention ▪ Measures how people deal with conflicting verbal and color information • Altering Consciousness with Drugs o Psychoactive drugs • Naturally occurring or synthesized substances that, when ingested or otherwise taken into the body, reliably produce qualitative changes in conscious experience • Uses: ▪ Aid in spiritual practice ▪ Improve health ▪ Explore the self ▪ Regulate mood ▪ Escape boredom and despair ▪ Enhance sensory experience ▪ Stimulate artistic creativity and performance ▪ Promote social interaction • Hallucinations ▪ Convincing sensory experiences that occur in the abscense of an external stimulus • Psychological dependence ▪ People compulsively use a substance to alleviate boredom, regulate mood, or cope with the challenges of everyday life ▪ People who regularly take sleeping aids to help them fall asleep at night may be unable to sleep without them even though they may not be physically dependent on them is illustrated by psychological dependence • Addiction ▪ Results from the habitual use or physical and psychological dependence on a substance • Depressants ▪ Slow down central nervous system activity ▪ Alcohol, sedatives, and opioids (narcotics) • Increase the activity of GABA • Main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain • Decrease activity of glutamate • Main excitatory neurotransmitter ▪ Alcohol • Most widely used depressant • Amount of food in stomach and person's body mass influence absorption of alcohol into the bloodstream • BAC • Measured in mg of alcohol/100 mL of blood • Amount of alcohol in bloodstream • Suppresses the higher social regulatory functions of the cerebral cortex, lowers inhibitions • Liver damage • Leads to fat accumulation and blocks blood flow in the liver • Cirrhosis • Caused by chronic alcoholism • Accumulation of nonfunctional scar tissue in the liver • Heavy drinking can shrink the brain over time • Binge drinking • At least five drinks in a row for men and four for women • Having no more than 2 drinks a day • Blood levels rise for the beneficial form of cholesterol ▪ Sedatives • Create a feeling of stupor • Barbiturates and Benzodiazepines • Slow the HR, relax skeletal muscles, tranquilize the mind • Used before surgery to calm the mind ▪ Opioids • Applies to all drugs derives from opium or chemicals similar to opium • Derived from natural sources (morphine), synthetic (heroin), or entirely synthetic (codeine) • Depress CNS activity • Slow HR, respiration, and digestion, and suppress the cough center • Used as pain relievers • Our own bodies produce endorphins • Opioid-like proteins that bind to opioid receptors in the brain and act as natural painkillers • Stronger opioids produce feelings of overwhelming bliss, euphoria, and bodily relaxation • High potential for abuse o Stimulants • Activate the nervous system • A drug that has an arousal effect on the CNS • Caffeine ▪ Most commonly consumed psychoactive drug ▪ Increased alterness, increased HR, loss of motor coordination, insomnia, and nervousness ▪ Diuretic- increased urine output • Nicotine ▪ Active drug in tobacco • Puts nicotine into the bloodstream immediately ▪ Increases HR and rate of respiration, creates a feeling of arousal ▪ Increases the risk of high BP and heart disease ▪ Relaxes the skeletal muscles ▪ Extremely addicted ▪ Cigarette smoking reduces life expectancy on average by 10 years, increased risk for lung cancer, triples the risk of death from heart disease • Linked to leukemia, cataracts, pneumonia, and cancers of the cervix, kidney, pancreas, and stomach ▪ Tobacco • Trigger severe damage to DNA and can inhibit DNA repair in lung cells • Contains carbon monoxide • Deprives tissues of needed oxygen • Makes people look older, reduces blood supply to the skin tissue • Cocaine ▪ Stimulant and digestion-aiding when taken as a coca lead (SA Indians) ▪ Increases HR and produces short-lived but intense rush of euphoria ▪ Leads to a sense of invulnerability and power ▪ Effects: • Increased confidence • Mood elevation ▪ Induces a sense of exhilaration by increasing the availability of the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin in synapses ▪ Overdose could lead to death • Amphetamines ▪ Synthetically produced compounds that produce long lasting excitation of the sympathetic nervous system ▪ Methamphetamine (meth) • Highly addictive ▪ Dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine) ▪ Amphetamine sulfate (benzedrine or "speed") ▪ Suppress appetite and to treat symptoms of ADHD ▪ Effects:• Insomnia and mood elevation ▪ Elevate mood and increase paranoia ▪ Known to increase motivation and cause insomnia and increases paranoia ▪ Raise HR, increase motivation, and elevate mood ▪ Insomnia, stomach distress, headaches, decreased libido, and difficulty concentrating ▪ Severe depression, paranoia, loss of control over one's behavior, amphetamine psychosis (hallucinations) • Ecstasy ▪ MDMA • Considered a part of the hallucinogen and stimulant groups • Produces mild sensory hallucinations and physiological arousal • " the love drug" • Produces feelings of euphoria, warmth, and connectedness with others • Helpful in treatment of PTSD • Makes emotions more accessible • Increased risk of depression with repeated use • Slower processing times on cognitive tasks • Greater impulsivity • Persistent mental deficits • Low mood • Serotonin deficiencies • Effects: • Sense of well-being • Alertness • Exhilaration and euphoria o Hallucinogens • Create distorted perceptions of reality • Marijuana ▪ Alter consciousness and for medicinal properties ▪ Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) • Affects the brain and body ▪ Alters mood to create euphoria and changes perception, especially one's perception of time and food ▪ Makes time appear to slow down and makes food more desirable ▪ Does not lead to physical dependence and withdrawal symptoms ▪ Increased risk of lung cancer ▪ No medical value ▪ Effective prevention and treatment of nausea ▪ Can make food appear more appealing ▪ Effects: • More intense sensory experiences • Euphoria ▪ Medical Uses: • Reducing nausea associated with chemotherapy • Reducing symptoms associated with AIDS • LSD ▪ Altered visual perceptions, enhanced color perception, hallucinations, synthesia ▪ Increases levels of the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin ▪ Serotonin • Increases the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate ▪ Increases body temp., increased BP, insomnia, • Psilocybin ▪ Active ingredient of hallucinogenic mushrooms ▪ "trips" can lead to profound spiritual experiences • Fairly stable • Mood improvements ▪ Dependent on synapses using serotonin ▪ Can change personality • People in coma who show more organized EEG patterns during sleep have less disability later and a greater likelihood of survival than those whose brain patterns are less organized while sleeping (Valente et al., 2002). o Lacking ability to pinpoint and recognize faces • Affects consciousness o According to the Yerkes-Dodson law, the ideal amount of arousal interacts with the complexity of task o Training Consciousness: Meditation • Hypnosis ▪ The type of wave length that we have when we are focused allows us to have better health, less headaches, ease of digestion, • Insomnia, test anxiety, hunger: • Tighten parts of body and helps to relax the body • If you count out loud, you focus on the task at hand • Anxiety ▪ Focusing on everything except the present moment • If you have been studying for a while, go sit still for a little and it allows the brain to relax for the information to sit in your memory o Mindfulness • Allows us to be fully conscious • Focusing on all senses • Heightened awareness of the present moment • Mindfulness meditation ▪ Encourages us to look at the details in our environment ▪ Focus on thoughts, feelings, and sensations in our environment ▪ Allows us to be more focus, make a web of associations, ▪ Can train this in ourselves ▪ Allows us to thicken our cortical cortex (brain padding) ▪ Experience things in more detail • More details = better nurses, doctors, etc. o Hypnosis • Have to have specific instructions • Role play • Fill in • Real brain activity when done properly • Not imitation • Can be treatment for smoking o Altering Consciousness with Drugs • Religious, recreational, and healing• Trying to find where we sit within our world from a conscious behavioral standpoint • Conscious behaviors ▪ When we want to feel like others, we start to dress like them, drink the same things they do, eat the same way they do, want to understand the world from their perspective ▪ Mimicry • Unconsciously copy the behaviors of others • Others like us better ▪ Why do we mimic each other? • They are giving us signals on what to do in that social situation • Unconsciously picking up on those cues • We know how to adapt to every situation we come into o Bringing it all Together • Making Connections in Consciousness ▪ Brain injury • Waking up with a jerk, think you are falling during sleep, cold sweats • Car accidents, concussions, • Interrupts the process, doesn't allow the brain to get to the next level/stage of sleep • The more that you sink into your unconscious, the more organized your dreams will be • Comas and brain injuries lead to more vivid dreams than others ▪ Drugs • Should not do drugs and alcohol until 24- 26 • Less damage to reasoning abilities, thicker cortical cortex • Lack of consciousness o What is the evidence to suggest that sleep plays an important role in repairing the body?• Human growth hormones is released during stages 3 and 4 of N-ReM sleep highlight• Language and thought develop side by side o One is not possible without the other • Language • The Nature of Language o Human language • Open and symbolic communication system that has rules of grammar and allows its users to express abstract and distant ideas • Open= dynamic system free to change • Symbolic = have no real connection between a sound and the meaning or idea associated with it • Sounds symbolize meaning and ideas • Syntax ▪ The rules for arranging words and symbols in sentences • Grammar ▪ Comprises the entire set of rules for combining symbols and sounds to speak and write a particular language • We can say exactly the same sentence in almost every language in the world ▪ Ideas can be often directly translated from one language to another due to each language having its own distinct sounds • Only system capable of transmitting abstract ideas • The Evolution of Language in Humans o Protolanguage • Pre-language, language of the Homo erectus and Homo Neanderthals ▪ Used grammatical and syntactical language o Evolution of language and evolution of the brain were intertwines o Increases in the size of human social groups could have led to an increase in brain size • The more complex a group is, the greater is its members' need to communicate and cooperate • Language Development in Individuals o Children develop the ability to understand words before they develop the ability to produce words o Language comprehension occurs in the left hemisphere of the brain (Wernicke's area) - develops earlier o Language production is associated with the left-hemisphere region (Broca's area) o Stages of Language Development • First speech sounds consists almost exclusively of vowels (aah,ee,ooh) • Cooing during the first 6 months ▪ Uttering repeated vowel sounds • Babbling ▪ The infant's experimentation with a complex range of sounds or phonemes, overlaps with cooing, ▪ Starts around 5-6 months of age ▪ Consonants as well as vowels ▪ Sounds are not yet recognizable as words ▪ Make more sounds than they hear • Babies' brains are not yet fully shaped by their native language ▪ Hear more sounds than their parents can ▪ Start to "prune" away sounds that are not used in that language and lose the ability to say or perceive nonnative sounds • One- word utterances ▪ End of babbling stage ▪ 12 months ▪ "mama, dada, more, no!" ▪ Descended from protolanguage ▪ Depends on if the word is at the beginning, middle, or end of a sentence ▪ Tend to acquire words that are spoken at the ends of sentences first • English- nouns • Chinese- verbs ▪ Recency effect • Tendency to learn the last words in a sentence first ▪ Two-word utterances • 18 months • "my ball, mo wawa, go way" • Parents are translators for other people ▪ Sentence phase Prospec• 2.5 - 3 years old • Begin speaking in fully grammatical sentences • Happens very quickly • Mark the growth in the child's overall brain size • Steep rise in both brain growth and language between the ages of 1 and 3 • At age 3, the brain is about 80% of adult size • Child-directed speech ▪ Changes in adult speech pattern when speaking to young children or infants; changes in voice volume, use of simple sentences, emphasis on the here and now, and the use of emotion to communicate messages o The Sensitivity Period • If children are not exposed to any human language before a certain age, their language abilities never fully develop • Begins in the first years of life and ends at about age 12 • Uylings ▪ Sensitivity periods end after neural pruning and neural wiring have reached their peak ▪ Plasticity of neural connections becomes less flexible • Genie ▪ Activity of the brain for language was located in the right hemisphere ▪ Left-hemisphere speech development requires stimulations from the environment during a certain sensitivity period if it is to develop properly ▪ Need verbal stimulation from others, we need it while we are young • Theories of Language Acquisition o Sociocultural Theories • Erika Hoff ▪ Environmental influences on language • Culture, socioeconomic status, birth order, school, peers, television, and parents • Hart and Risely ▪ Children all started to speak around the same time and they developed good structure and use of language ▪ Professional families - 2,153 words per hour• By age 3, had a vocabulary of 1,100 words • Heard more encouragement words ▪ Middle and working-class families - 1,251 words per hour ▪ Unemployed families -616 words per hour • By age 4, the children would have heard 32 million fewer words than the children from professional families • By age 3, 500 word vocabulary ▪ Much of what we learn comes from imitating family members ▪ Child-directed speech ▪ Changes in adult speech patterns ▪ Differences in timing of the child's vocabulary development can be explained by three characteristics of the mother: • Her socioeconomic status, vocabulary use, and her personality characteristics ▪ Mirror neurons facilitate social learning and imitation o Conditioning and Learning Theory • B.F. Skinner ▪ Language is like any other behavior • Something that exists because it is reinforced and shaped ▪ Children learn to speak a particular language because their parents reinforce and reward when they speak ▪ Shaping, successive approximations, and reinforcement ▪ The first approximation of a complex behavior will be reinforced until the baby is able to speak fully grammatical sentences o Nativist Theory • Reinforcement does not occur as consistently with syntax and grammar rules • Children overgeneralize these language rules • We discover language rather than learn it • Language development is "native," or inborn - nativist view of language ▪ Brain is structured, or "wired", for language learning ▪ Broca's and Wernicke's area are dedicated to speech productive and comprehension • Noam Chomsky ▪ Language acquisition device (LAD) • An innate, biologically based capacity to acquire language • Born with a capacity to learn "language" ▪ There is essentially a single universal grammar underlying all human languages • Each language is simply a specific expression of this universal grammar ▪ Universal grammar follows universal principles • Each language sets limits, or parameters, for what is correct in terms of word orders and other aspects • We learn these as we learn to speak • The rules make it easier for the children to learn that language o Nature, Nurture, and Language Learning • Social and learning theorists ▪ Importance of social input and stimulation • Native theorists ▪ Importance of brain structures and genetic factors • Innately guided learning ▪ We learn to speak, but in doing so we are guided by our innate capacity for language learning ▪ Grammar is more innate and genetically influenced than is vocabulary ▪ Vocabulary is more strongly shaped by input from the environment ▪ Identical twins study • Identical twin pairs were more similar in vocabulary and grammar • Genetics influences about 25% of vocabulary development and about 40% of learning about grammar ▪ Brain systems change together over time ▪ 5-11 years old • Brain regions associated with language increase in activity during language processing • Can Other Species Learn Human Language? o American Sign Language is used to teach apes how to communicate (nonvocal sign language) o Apes sometimes use sign language to communicate with one another o Fouts • 88% of the conversations between apes were about social interaction, play and reassurance • 12% were about feeding, grooming, cleaning, discipline, and chimps signing, or "talking" to themselves o Apes are limited in their language ability but have basic level of meta-cognition (knowing what they know and do not know) • Language, Culture, and Thought o Whorf- Sapir hypothesis • Language creates thought as much as thought creates language • Linguistic determinism hypothesis ▪ Our language determines our way of thinking and our perceptions of the world ▪ Language influences rather than determines our thinking • Linguistic relativism ▪ Language and color perception • Thinking, Reasoning, and Decision Making o Knowledge is distinct from instinct o Cognition • "to know" • To refer to the mental processes involved in acquiring, processing, and storing knowledge • Cognitive psychology ▪ Science of how people think, learn, remember, and perceive • How Do We Represent Thoughts in Our Minds? o Store and process ideas, knowledge, and memories as mental representations o Mental representation • Structure in the end (idea or image) that stands for something else (external object or thing) • Frequently about things that we sensed in the past • Allow us to think about and remember things in the past and imagine things in the future • Think about abstract ideas that have no physical existence o Visual Representation • Visual system (occipital lobes) is older in evolutionary terms than the verbal system • Visual imagery ▪ Consists of visual representations created by the brain after the original stimulus is no longer present ▪ Brain is activated in much the same way while imagining a task as it is while performing the task • Mental rotation ▪ The process of imagining an object rotating in 3-D space ▪ Moderate to large gender effects, with boys and men generally doing better than girls and women ▪ Gender role identification and culture also plays a role • Gender difference in spatial ability is due to the levels of the male sex hormone testosterone o Verbal Representation • Major function of thought: ▪ Organize and classify our perceptions into categories • Naming things and giving them labels • Find similar features, form concepts and build categories based on similarities, • Most basic unit of knowledge: concept ▪ Mental grouping of objects, events, or people ▪ Concept fruit includes red, orange, yellow, blue, and green fruit, large and small fruit, and the presence of seeds • Concept hierarchy ▪ Certain concepts are related in a particular way, with some being general and others specific ▪ Helps us order and understand our world • Parallel distributed processing ▪ Proposes that associations between concepts activate many networks or nodes at the same time ▪ Neuronlike and involve patterns of activation over the network ▪ Concepts are activated in the network based on how strongly associated with or connected to each other they are • Category ▪ Concept that organizes other concepts around what they all share in common ▪ Well defined or fuzzy ▪ Prototypes • Best-fitting examples of a category • Prototype ▪ Typical example of a given concept • How Do We Reason about Evidence? o Reasoning • Process of drawing inferences or conclusions from principles and evidence ▪ May be able to draw sound or correct conclusions • Deductive ▪ When we reason from general statements of what is known to specific conclusions • Specific conclusion is always correct if the general statement is true • Inductive reasoning ▪ Draws general conclusions from specific evidence ▪ Conclusions are less certain ▪ Highly likely conclusions ▪ Use casual inferences • Judgements about whether one thing causes another thing • Confirmation bias ▪ Inductive reasoning and casual inferences ▪ Tendency to selectively attend to information that supports one's general beliefs while ignoring information or evidence that contradicts one's beliefs ▪ Wason • People are so inclined to test only ideas that confirm their beliefs that they forget that one of the best ways to test an idea is to try to tear it down or disconfirm it • Critical Thinking o Critical • Ancient Greek word kritikos • "to question, to make sense of, and to be able to analyze; or to be skilled at judging" o Critical thinking • "The ability to analyze facts, generate and organize ideas, defend opinions, make comparisons, draw inferences, evaluate arguments, and solve problems • Sound analysis, evaluation, and the formation of ideas based on the evidence at hand o What a Critical Thinker Does • Analyze • Evaluate • Make inferences • Interpret • Explain • Self-regulate o Metacognitive thinking • Critical and scientific thinking • Requires the ability first to think and then to reflect on one's own thinking • Able to question your own thinking • How Do We Make Judgements and Decisions? o Applying Critical Thinking beyond the Classroom • Scientific thinking is used to generate, test, reflect upon, and revise theories o Heuristics • Mental shortcuts used to make decisions • Methods for making complex and uncertain decisions and judgements • Quick and efficient decisions o The Representativeness Heuristic • Estimating the probability of one event based on how typical or representative it is of another event • Either-or decision that most people get wrong • Base rates can be applied to people, events, or things • Suppose the love of your life, whom you are no longer with, has specific mannerisms that you are fond of. Now whenever you see a person exhibit those mannerisms, you are immediately attracted to him or her o The Availability Heuristic • Strategy we use when we make decisions based on the ease with which estimates come to mind or how available they are to our awareness • More likely to be killed while flying in an airplane or while driving in a car • Vividness ▪ Conjuring up of dramatic images • Vividness and availability lead us to overestimate how likely certain events are • Kahneman and Tversky ▪ People bypass fully rational decision making and make use of automatic shortcuts in their reasoning and judgements ▪ Prospect theory • People are not always rational in their decision making • Conjunction fallacy ▪ Representativeness heuristic effect ▪ Occurs when people say that the combination of two events is more likely than either event alone o Challenging Assumptions in Human Rationality • When given a choice between two or more options, humans will choose the one that is most likely to help them achieve their particular goals (the rational choice) ▪ Rational choice theory • People are more averse to losing money than they are attracted to winning it • After age 7, learning a second language starts to become more difficult • Habituation o No longer noticing scents o The sensory process by which organisms adapt to constant stimulation o Results in a change in response that stems from experience • Basic Processes of Learning o Learning • Enduring change in behavior that occurs with experience • Changes in sensation, perception, behavior, and brain functions alter who we are, what we know, what we feel, and what we can do • Learning and memory work together • Occurs when information moves from short-term to long-term memory o Association • One piece of information from the environment is linked repeatedly with another and the organism begins to connect the two sources of information • Very powerful tool for learning • Form as a result of two events occurring together • Condition taste aversion ▪ One event may come to suggest that the other will occur • Conditioning Models of Learning o Conditioning • Form of associative learning • A behavior becomes more likely because the organism links that behavior with certain events in its environment • Classical and operant ▪ Forms of associative learning • Classical ▪ Learn from the relations between stimuli • Operant ▪ Learn from the consequences of their behavior o Classical Conditioning • Learning occurs when a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a stimulus to which the learner has an automatic, inborn response • Mike tried shrimp for the first time; but felt ill shortly after. Now, he cannot eat shrimp • Pavlov's Dogs ▪ Dogs formed an association between a stimulus that had no inherent food value and one that did ▪ Salivation is a reflex, an automatic response to a particular stimulus that requires no learning ▪ Salivation in response to the bell is a conditioned reponse • How Classical Conditioning Works ▪ Conditioning of reflexes of classical conditioning ▪ Unconditioned response (UCR)• Automatic, inborn response to a stimulus • Unconditioned = unlearned • Pavlov's = salivation ▪ Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) • Refers to the environmental input (meat power) that always produced the same unlearned response (salivation) • UCS always produces the UCR • Automatically causes a response, each time it is presented ▪ Neutral stimulus • A stimulus that does not bring about a response of interest ▪ Reflexes are unlearned, fixed responses to specific types of environmental stimuli • Fixed stimulus- response patterns ▪ Bell became a conditioned stimulus ▪ Conditioned stimulus (CS) • Previously neutral stimulus that an organism learns to associate with the UCS ▪ Conditioned response (CR) • Behavior that an organism learns to perform when presented with the CS alone ▪ Forward conditioning • the neutral stimulus is presented just before the UCS ▪ Backward conditioning • The neutral stimulus follows the UCS • Conditioning is less successful ▪ Two fundamental criteria for SRC to be successful • Multiple pairings of UCS and neutral stimulus (CS) are necessary for an association to occur and for the CS to produce the conditioned response • The UCS and the CS must be paired or presented very close together in time in order for an association to form ▪ Stimulus generalization • Extension of the association between UCS and CS to a broad array of similar stimuli ▪ Stimulus discrimination • Opposite of stimulus generalization • Occurs when a CR occurs only to exactly the stimulus to which it was conditioned ▪ Extinction • Weakening and disappearance of a conditioned respon • Occurs when the UCS is no longer paired with the CS ▪ Spontaneous recovery • Sudden reappearance of an extinguished response • Extinction never completely eliminates the response, only suppresses it ▪ Classical conditioning is a powerful learning device - advantages for survival • The Conditioning of Little Albert ▪ John Watson • Classical conditioning for humans • Defined psychology as "the study of behavior" • Conditioned a baby to fear white rats and other white, fluffy objects • Known as the father of behaviorism • Operant Conditioning o Some behaviors occur spontaneously o Edward L. Thorndike • Rewarding consequences can make a spontaneous behavior more likely to occur again • Learning curve ▪ The plot of the rate at which learning occurs over time • Law of effect ▪ The consequences of a behavior increases (or decrease) the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated o B.F. Skinner • Consequences of an individual's actions are the most important determinants of behavior • Operant ▪ Refers to behavior that acts or operates on the environment to produce specific consequences • Operant conditioning ▪ Process of modifying behavior by manipulating the consequences of that behavior ▪ Occurs when the actions of an individual operate on the environment to produce predictable consequences • A behavior that is rewarded is more likely to occur again ▪ Works when voluntary behavior is made more likely by its consequences o Reinforcement and Punishment • Reinforcer ▪ Any internal or external event that increases a behavior ▪ Mother's smile in response to the infant's ▪ Have to be things that the learner wants in order for them to influence the likelihood that a behavior will occur again ▪ Primary reinforcers • Not learned • Innate and often satisfy biological needs • Food, water, sex, and artificial sweeteners • Drugs such as caffeine and nicotine ▪ Secondary reinforcers (conditioned) • Money, grades, and peer approval, cars • Learned by association, usually via classical conditioning ▪ Positive reinforcement • Presentation or addition of a stimulus to a situation increases the likelihood of a behavior • Extra credit points ▪ Negative reinforcement • Removal of a stimulus to increase behavior • Removal of annoying beeping is negative reinforcement for fastening the seat belt • Confused with punishment • Any stimulus that decreases the frequency of a behavior ▪ Positive punishment • Addition of a stimulus that decreases behavior • Spanking ▪ Negative punishment • Decreases behavior by removing a stimulus ▪ Reinforcement is more effective than punishment • How Operant Conditioning Works ▪ Organisms learn about the consequences of their behavior ▪ Any behavior that is reinforced becomes strengthened and is more likely to occur in the future ▪ Skinner box • Simple chamber in which a small animal can move around, with a food dispenser and a response lever to trigger food delivery ▪ Shaping • The reinforcement of successive approximations of a desired behavior • Mold an organism to do things that it typically wouldn't do • Used to improve the attention span in people with schizophrenia ▪ Extinction occurs when a behavior stops being reinforced o Applications of Operant Conditioning • Modifies behavior in the treatment of disorders like phobias, nicotine addiction, and learning disabilities • Treatment of autism ▪ ABA (applied behavioral analysis) developed by Ivar Lovaas • Increases the frequency of adaptive behaviors in autistic children, punishment to decrease the likelihood of maladaptive behaviors o Schedules of Reinforcement • Reinforcers can be arranged (scheduled) to follow behavior under a variety of conditions or rules • Continuous reinforcement ▪ Rewarding a behavior every time it occurs • Intermittent reinforcement ▪ Does not occur after every response ▪ Produces a stronger behavioral response • Fixed- ratio (FR) schedule ▪ Follows a set number of responses ▪ Becomes predictable ▪ Response rate is not steady ▪ Produces a steep, stepwise pattern of response ▪ Payment based on production • Variable- ratio (VR) schedule ▪ The number of responses needed for reinforcement varies ▪ Produces a very steady rate of response ▪ Produce reinforcement around a mean number of responses ▪ Exact ratio differs for each trial ▪ Slot machine • Fixed- interval (FI) schedule ▪ Reinforcement always follows the first response after a set amount of time ▪ Produces a pattern in which the rate of response immediately following reinforcement is low ▪ Response rate accelerates as the time of reinforcement approaches ▪ Scalloped patterned graph ▪ One's studying behavior before and after a test • Variable- interval (VI) schedule ▪ First response is reinforced after time periods of different durations have passed ▪ Sets a mean interval length around which the intervals will vary ▪ Produce a steady, moderate rate of response • Challenging Assumptions about Conditioning Models of Learning o Traditional learning theory • Assumes that the Principles of conditioning are universal o Conditioned Taste Aversion • The learned avoidance of a particular taste when nausea occurs at about the same time as the food • John Garcia ▪ Rats could be conditioned to avoid a taste they previously liked ▪ The drop in intake of saccharin water lasted for at least 20 days ▪ Reflexive responses could be conditioned to any kind of stimulus ▪ An organism cannot be conditioned to respond to just any "neutral" stimulus paired with an unconditioned stimulus ▪ CS and UCS can be separated by as much as 75 minutes and still lead to conditioned taste aversion ▪ "bright-noisy water" findings showed that only certain stimuli can be conditioned to produce nausea o Instinctive Drift • Keller Breland and Marian Breland • Learned behavior that shifts toward instinctive, unlearned behavior tendencies • There are biological limitations, or constraints, on learning • Biological constraint model of learning ▪ Some behaviors are inherently more likely to be learned than others ▪ The adaptive ones are more likely to occur than the maladaptive ones o Latent Learning • Edward Tolman ▪ Ran rats through mazes ▪ The rats in Group 3 had been learning all along ▪ A type of learning that occurs in the absence of reinforcement and is not demonstrated until later, when reinforcement occurs ▪ Rats formed internal cognitive maps ▪ Some learning can occur in the absence of reinforcement ▪ Need motivation • Social Learning Theory o Albert Bandura • Enactive learning ▪ Learning by doing • Observational learning ▪ Learning by watching the behavior of others • Social learning theory ▪ Includes observation and modeling as major components of learning • Modeling ▪ Process of observing and imitating behaviors performed by others • Social learning also works through reinforcement • Bobo doll studies ▪ Pivotal in showing how children learn aggression and other violent behaviors from viewing aggression in others • The Interaction of Nature and Nurture in Learning o Imprinting • The rapid and innate learning of the characteristics of a caregiver within a very short period of time after birth • Sensitivity period in learning ▪ A period when a particular type of learning occurs very readily if an animal is exposed to a particular stimulus or situation • Can be learned soon after birth or not at all • Ethology ▪ The scientific study for animal behavior o Imitation, Mirror Neurons, and Learning • For some neurons in the frontal lob of the cerebral cortex, the experience of watching someone else do something is like doing it yourself • Involved in imitation and social learning o Synaptic Change during Learning • Certain proteins become activated in short- and long term memory formation and learning • Change preexisting synaptic connections and cause the growth of new synapses • Learning is the growth of new synapses • The same synaptic connections will weaken if they aren't used regularly, resulting in forgetting and the loss of learning • Need practice, use and rehearsal • Experience, Enrichment, and Brain Growth o Physical exercise benefits neural growth o Laboratory mice, for example, can have identical "childhoods" and then be randomly assigned to three different environments • The longer they live in an enriched environment, the more neural growth there is in the hippocampus • Bringing It All Together o Acquisition of smoking behavior is best explained by social learning theory • Once someone has become an established smoker, operant conditioning helps maintain smoking behavior • Influenced by gender, personality, and sociocultural characteristics as well • Behavior modification techniques ▪ Apply operant conditioning to changing behavior ▪ Help people quit smoking • Three Types of Memory o Memory • The ability to store and use information o Three-stage model of memory • Based on how long the memories last • Sensory memory ▪ Holds information in its original sensory form for a very brief period of time ▪ Half a second or less • Short-term memory ▪ Temporarily stores a limited amount of information before it is either transferred to a long-term storage or forgotten ▪ 2-30 seconds • Long-term memory ▪ The capacity to store a vast amount of information for as little as 30 seconds and as long as a lifetime • Active and dynamic process • Sensory Memory o Made up of the brief traces of a sensation left by the firing of neurons in the brain o Last less than half a second up to 2 or 3 seconds o Sensation - long-term memory o Iconic and echoic memory • Iconic memory ▪ Brief visual record left on the retina of the eye • Echoic memory ▪ Short-term retention of sounds • Symbols interferes with the ability to recall the digits • Sensory memory traces are preserved for a short period of time and are very fragile • Short- Term, or Working, Memory o Place to temporarily store information we need while working on a problem o Working memory • The part of memory required to attend to and solve a problem at hand • function o Short term memory • Emphasizes the duration of this type of memory o Examples: • Reading, talking, and listening to someone speak o Can be transferred to long-term memory if they are transferred • Short- Term Memory Capacity o Number of items that can be held in short-term memory o Limited to about 7 items o Usually between 5-9 units of letters, digits, or chunks of information o To increase short-term memory capacity, transform what you want to remember into a smaller set of meaningful units or chunks • Chunking o How Short-Term Memory Works • Attending to a stimulus ▪ Focusing and switching attention ▪ Master attentional control system • Three temporary storage systems • One for sounds and language (phonological) • Sound or linguistic • Assists the central executive by providing extra storage for a limited number of digits or words for up to 30 seconds at a time• Allows us to hold memory traces for a few seconds before they fade • One for images and spatial relations (visuospatial) • Provides storage for visual and spatial sensations • Images, photos, scenes, and 3-D objects • Lasts only a few seconds before it fades • One that provides temporary storage for specific events (a buffer) • Episodic buffer for specific events and experiences • Temporary store for information that will become longer-term memories of specific events • Central executive decides where to focus attention and selectively hones in on specific aspects of a stimulus • All require rehearsal if the information is to be remembered for any length of time • Rehearsal • Process of reciting or practicing matieral repeatedly • Storing information about the stimulus • Rehearsing the stored process to help solve a problem o The Serial Position Effect • Mary Whiton Calkins ▪ People are able to recall items at the beginning and end of lists better than items in the middle • Serial position effect • Primary effect ▪ Tendency to preferentially recall items at the beginning of a list ▪ The items in the beginning of the list are quickly rehearsed and transferred to long-term memory storage • Recency effect ▪ Recall the items at the end of a list ▪ Items at the end are still held in short-term memory and are accessible • Long- Term Memory o The most complex form of memory o Types of Long- Term Memory • Implicit and explicit memory • Implicit Memory ▪ How to ride a bike or add ▪ When we know or remember something but don't consciously know we remember it ▪ Known as nondeclarative memory ▪ Cannot directly recall this type of memory ▪ Based on prior experience ▪ The place where we store knowledge of previous experience ▪ Cannot describe how we perform these skills very well ▪ Includes procedural memory and priming ▪ Procedural memory • knowledge we hold for almost any behavior or physical skill we learn ▪ Priming • Kind of implicit memory that occurs when recall is improved by prior exposure to the same or similar stimuli • Better able to recall words • Emotions linked to an event increase the likelihood that our memories of them will last a lifetime • Explicit ▪ Where you left your car keys ▪ Conscious recall of facts and events ▪ Declarative memory ▪ Refers to memories that can be deliberately accessed or declared ▪ Semantic memory • Our memory for facts and knowledge • What we learn in school ▪ Episodic memory • Our memory for the experiences we have had • High school graduation • More personal and autobiographical o Stages in Long- Term Memory • Encoding ▪ Means by which we attend to, take in, and process new information ▪ Crucial for stage in long-term memory ▪ Attention ▪ Remember visual images more easily than verbal descriptions • Richer and more detailed representation in memory ▪ Automatic processing • Happens with little effort or conscious attention to the task • Does not improve with practice • Not processed as deeply, less likely to be recalled later ▪ Effortful processing • Carefully attend to and put conscious effort into remembering information • Basis of semantic memory • Involves rehearsal • Advancing age lessens recall for events and experiences that require effortful processing, but not those that involve automatic processing ▪ Levels of processing • The more deeply people encode information, the better they will recall it • Thomas Hyde and James Jenkins • Presented a list of about 28 words with a 5-second interval between words • Three levels of processing: • Structural, phonemic, and semantic • Structural • Shallowest level • Focus on the structure of a word • Phonemic processing • Midlevel processing • Sound of the word • Semantic processing • Deepest level • Think about the meaning of the words • Best recall when words are encoded for deeply • Mnemonic device • A scheme that helps people remember information • Rhyming, chunking, and rehearsal • Imagery and acronyms • Consolidation ▪ The process of establishing, stabilizing, or solidifying a memory ▪ Resistant to distraction, interference, and decay ▪ Provides time for proteins in brain to develop ▪ Sleep • Stabilizes the memory and enhances memory and makes it stronger ▪ Learn over long periods of time and evenly spaces sessions lead to better recall • Storage ▪ Retention of memory over time ▪ Hierarchies • Organize related information from the most specific feature they have in common to the most general ▪ Schemas • Mental frameworks that develop from our experiences with particular objects or events • Typical features of what should happen in a situation • Organizing information from episodic memory • Act as a filter through which we encode and organize information about our world • Tell us how people, objects, and events are most likely to look or act • Aid memory and recall • Bias our memory and perception ▪ Association • Psychological process that binds concepts together • Linked together in networks by their degree of closeness or relatedness • Associative network • Chain of associations between related concepts • Links between nodes are associations • Primed- more likely to make an association to a nearby concept or node • Neural networks • Computer models that imitate the way neurons talk to each other • Nodes are not single concepts information-processing units • Parallel distributed processing • Associations involve the simultaneous activity of many nodes • Priming function • Makes certain memories more likely than others to be stored • • Retrieval ▪ Recovery of information stored in memory ▪ Need to focus our attention on remembering ▪ Implicit • Without conscious effort ▪ Explicit • Require conscious effort for retrieval • More typical of explicit long- term memory • Bringing it all Together o How to Study • Material you learn in class is semantic memory • Go to class and pay attention • Read the text before class ▪ Make associations ▪ Being encoding ▪ Priming • Study deeply, not shallowly ▪ Add visual images ▪ Make material relevant ▪ Space things out and cover topics in separate tudy sessions • Form a study group • Devise meaningful mnemonics • The Biological Basis of Memory o Procedural-implicit, emotional, and declarative- explicit o Long-term memories begin with sensations being processed into output from cortical sensory association areas o Output goes to different brain regions o Sensory memories are processed in the various sensory cortexes o Short-term memory is processed in the hippocampus and frontal lobes o Long- term memories are stored in different parts of the cortex and sub cortex • Retrieved with the help of areas associated with the prefrontal cortex • Front most region of the frontal lobes • Attention, appropriate social behavior, impulse control, and working memoryo • The Neural Basis of Memory o Donald Hebb • Developed a theory of how neural connections form and how synaptic connections change with learning and memory • When the synapse of one neuron repeatedly fires and excites another neuron, there is a permanent change in the receiving neuron, the excitatory neuron, or both, which strengthens the synaptic connection • Long-term potentiation (LTP) ▪ When synapses fire more readily, learning becomes easier and more efficient ▪ Strengthening process• Repeated stimulation of a group of neurons leads to the formation of cell assemblies ▪ Networks of nerve cells that persist even after stimulation has stopped ▪ Neurons that fire together, wire together ▪ Use it or lose it • Kandel ▪ Sea slugs ▪ Fewer neurons than humans ▪ Neurons can be seen with the naked eye ▪ Created a long-term memory of how to react to shock ▪ Conversion from short-term to long-term memory storage requires spaced repetition ▪ Repeated stimulation of a neuron actually sends signals to the nucleus of the cell • Trigger the production of CREB, a protein that switches on the genes responsibly for the development of new synapses • Experience from the outside world changes genes and the way in which they are expressed▪ • Link between behavior and long-term memory o Psychology in the Real World • Manipulating Memory with Drugs and Drinks ▪ Gene-regulating protein CREB to help form memories • True or False? Drugs can prevent potentially traumatic memories from becoming traumatic ▪ True: it is possibly to administer a drug that interferes with strong negative memory formation (in mice)• Aricept and Reminyl ▪ Boost levels of acetylcholine • Long-term, regular consumption of foods and drinks rich in flavonoids can enhance memory and preserve cognitive function in elderly people by protecting neurons, stimulating blood flow, and inducing neurogenesis ▪ Grapes, blueberries, green tea, and cacao beans • Challenging Assumptions in Brain Stimulation and Memory o Alberto Priori o Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) • Electrical stimulation of the brain • A very weak voltage is administered via at least two electrodes placed on the scalp • Positively charged stimulation increases memory and negatively charged stimulation interferes with memory • Implicit memory and working memory are enhanced when part of the left prefontal cortex is stimulated • Transcranial electrical stimulation of the frontal lobe during slow wave sleep improves recall of word pairs ▪ Temporoparietal lobe improves word recognition memory in Alzheimer's patients • The Sensory Cortexes o Sensory neurons carry information about external stimuli from our sense organs to different parts of the brain o The sensation travels to the thalamus o Relays sensory information to the cerebral cortex for further processing o Visual cortex- occipital lobes o Auditory cortex- temporal lobes o Somatosensory cortex (touch)- parietal lobes o Taste and smell do not have their own processing regions • Pathways of Short-Term Memory in the Hippocampus and Prefrontal Cortex o Prefrontal cortex- determines what information in the environment is worthy of our attention o Encoding stage of memory formation activates the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus o Memory is consolidated through rehearsal and repetition o Repeated firing of neural impulses needed to switch short term memory to long-term memory occurs in the hippocampus • Could take hours, days, or sometimes weeks o Hippocampus is like a librarian • Aided by the frontal lobe • Processes, organizes, and directs memories and then returns them to the appropriate location in the cortex for long-term storage o Prefrontal cortex • Attention and focus • Keep the crucial information accessible o Working memory • Rehearsal o • Long-Term Memory Storage in the Cortex o Explicit long-term memories • Cortex • In the area where the original sensation was processed o Implicit memories • Stored in the structures of the subcortex • Striatum (part of the basal ganglia), amygdala, and cerebellum• o Priming occurs mostly in the cortex o Procedural memories for skills and habits involve the striatum o Amygdala • Associating particular events with emotional responses o Damage to the temporal lobe results in problems with one's sense of direction • Emotion, Memory, and the Brain o Emotional memories are easier to recall than are factual ones o Emotions help to encode and retrieve memories o Switch on genes that build proteins to strengthen the synaptic connections between neurons • Stimulate the formation of new synapses and even new neurons • Make the memory "stick" for a long period of time o Important structures for memory (amygdala and the hippocampus) are linked to key structures for emotion • Lie next to each other in the brain o Amygdala • Assigns emotional significance to events • Crucial in encoding information relevant to emotional experiences, like fear o Release of norepinephrine • Makes synaptic connections between neurons more plastic ▪ Changes the structure of the synaptic connections • Neural plasticity is necessary for making the connections between synapses stronger • Olfactory memories paired with fear experiences through conditioning seem to be passed down to the next generation via epigenetic processes • Traumatic memories may be inherited (payton and birds) o Sleep helps to consolidate memories, at least if they are emotional o The details of emotional memories tend to be less accurate than those non-emotional memories o Flashbulb memories • Detailed, especially vivid memories of very specific, highly charged events • Recalled like snapshot pictures • Highly charged with emotions • Makes memories not as accurate o Damage to the amygdala leads to the emotional accent of memories being gone o Damage to the left amygdala results in deficits in verbal recall of emotional events o Stress may both enhance the encoding of information and impair the retrieval of emotional memories • Loss of autobiographical memory is a way of regulating or coping with extreme emotional stress • Forgetting and Memory Loss o Subjective and reconstructive process than an objective one o Select, distort, bias, and forget events • Forms of Forgetting o Interference • Occurs when other information competes with the information we are truing to recall • Retroactive interference ▪ Occurs when new experiences or information cause people to forget previously learned experiences or information • Proactive interference ▪ Occurs when previously learned information interferes with the learning of new information o Ebbinghaus's forgetting curve • Recall shows a steady decline over time • Norman Slamecka and Brian McElree ▪ Given a long list of words to learn ▪ Seeing the same thing several times increases recall only a little bit o Absent-mindedness • Form of forgetfulness that involves attention as well as memory • Do not pay close attention or we divide our attention among different tasks • Divided attention • Increases with age ▪ Not a problem until people reach their 70s • Slowing of processing speed and less ability to filter our irrelevant information with age o Education has a positive effect on age-related decline o Blocking • Another form of forgetting • Inability to retrieve some information that once was stored • Simply won't resurface o Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon ▪ Almost recall something but the memory eludes us ▪ Steps in recalling the memory o Repression ▪ The retrieval of memories that have been encoded and stored is actively inhibited ▪ The person may suddenly remember the repressed event o Suggestibility ▪ Final form of misremembering or forgetting ▪ Occurs when memories are implanted in our minds based on leading questions, comments, or suggestions from someone else or some other source ▪ Most prone to suggestions that are present in the interval between our original experience and the time we are asked to recall it o Elizabeth Loftus • Conducted research on eyewitness testimony and false and recovered memories • Eyewitness testimony can be the deciding evidence presented at a trial • Among the first memory researchers to demonstrate that people's memories of events are not very accurate and are susceptible to suggestion • Changing the wording of a question impacts people's recall for events o False memories • Memories for events that never happened but were suggested by someone or something • Individual develops an actual memory, sometimes very elaborate and detailed, based on false information • Hyperthymestic memory (superior autobiographical memory) - not immune to false memories o Recovered memory • Supposedly from a real event • A memory that was encoded and stored but is not retrieved for a long period of time • Memory is retrieved after a later event brings it suddenly to consciousness • Blocked or repressed for years • Traumatic events may alter how people store memories and, as a defense, make them less likely to be specific in their recall • Memory Loss Caused by Brain Injury and Disease o Amnesia • People forget due to injury or disease to the brain ▪ Anterograde amnesia • Inability to remember events and experiences that occur after than injury or the onset of a disease • Fail to make new long-term memories • Recall experiences for only a short period of time, perhaps 10 minutes or less ▪ Retrograde amnesia • An inability to recall events or experiences that happened before the onset of the disease or injury • Might involve only the incident that preceded it or might include years of memories • Accidents ▪ Alzheimer's disease • Usually strikes people in their 60s,70s, and 80s (could be earlier) • Progressive memory loss, ending with complete memory loss • Experiences are lost due to anterograde amnesia • Difference threshold o The smallest amount by which two sensory stimuli can differ in order for an individual to perceive them as difference Which of the following researchers was the one to "break intelligence in two"? Robert Sternberg Charles Spearman Raymond Cattell Howard Gardner Chapter 10: Intelligence, Problem Solving, and Creativity • Intelligence o How intelligent are you? • Spearman's general intelligence • Intelligence is a single, general capacity o How are you intelligent? • Thurstone's multiple factors • Intelligence consists of 7 primary mental abilities, including spatial ability, memory, perceptual speed, and word fluency o How are you intelligent? • Cattell-Horn-Carroll hierarchical intelligence • Intelligence can be broken down into 3 levels of ability: general, broad, and narrowo How are you intelligent? • Sternberg's triarchic theory • 3 abilities (analytical, creative, and practical) • Mental age/ chronological age x 100 o How are you intelligent? • Gardner's multiple intelligences • 8 distinct capacities, including intelligence, interpersonal intelligence, and bodily-kinesthetic intelligence • Defining Intelligence o Inherent potential for learning, how fast we are able to learn, or the body of knowledge we possess o Includes the ability to do things in ways that other people have never tried o Definition of intelligence: • Set of cognitive skills that includes abstract thinking, reasoning, problem solving, and the ability to acquire knowledge • Mathematical ability, general knowledge, and creativity • Theories of Intelligence o One view: intelligence is a single, general ability o Other view: intelligence consists of multiple abilities o Traditional Models of Intelligence: Intelligence as a Single, General Ability • Charles Spearmen • Single, general capacity, or ability • Special dimensions or factors of intelligence: spatial, verbal, perceptual, and quantitative factors ▪ Direct relationship • G-factor theory of intelligence ▪ Single, general factor made up of specific components ▪ Implies that the single number on an IQ test accurately reflects a person's intelligence o Challenging Assumptions of Traditional Views of Intelligence: Intelligence as Multiple Abilities • Test scores ignore important aspects of intelligence • Multiple-factor theory of intelligence ▪ Different aspects of intelligence are distinct enough that multiple abilities must be considered ▪ Raymond Cattell • Fluid and crystallized intelligence • Fluid intelligence • Raw mental ability, pattern recognition, and abstract reasoning; applied to a problem that you have never confronted before • Not influenced by culture or size of vocabulary • Involves how fast you learn new things • Raven's Progressive Matrices Test • Matrix reasoning • Fluid intelligence • Does not depend on acquired knowledge and involves the ability to find patterns • Crystallized intelligence • Involves using skills, experience, and knowledge to solve problems • Influenced by the size of vocabulary, culture, use experience and knowledge to solve problems • Understanding the meaning of a written paragraph • Vocabulary tests ▪ John Carroll • Three levels arranged in a hierarchy • General intelligence at the top, broad intelligence is in the middle, and narrow intelligence at the bottom • Broad intelligence • Consists of abilities such as crystallized and fluid intelligence, memory, learning, and processing speed • Narrow intelligence • 70 distinct abilities • Speed of reasoning and general sequential reasoning for fluid intelligence • Reading, spelling, and language comprehension for crystallized language • Note: as we go from young adulthood to middle adulthood, our experience based (crystallized) intelligence continues to