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AUGUSTANA / Psychology / PSY 216 / vygotsky parenting styles

vygotsky parenting styles

vygotsky parenting styles


Why is replication important?

What are the five steps of the scientific method?

What have you learned?

Exam #1 Study Questions CH 1: What have you learned? Pg 9   1.  What are the five steps of the scientific method?   2.  Why is replication important? 3.  What basic question is at the heart of the nature–nurture controversy?   4.  What is the difference between “genetics” and “epigenetics”?   5.  How might differential susceptibility apply to understanding Don't forget about the age old question of what is dendrology
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students’ varied responses to a  low exam grade?   6.  What are the three domains of development?   7.  How does multidisciplinary research connect with the three domains? What have you learned? Pg 23   1.  How can both continuity and discontinuity be true for human development?   2.  What are some of the contexts of your life?   3.  How does the exosystem affect children’s schooling?   4.  What are some cohort differences between your generation and the one of your parents?   5.  What factors comprise a person’s SES (socioeconomic status)?   6.  Can you think of an example (not one in the book) of a social construction?   7.  What is the difference between race and ethnicity?   8.  How does a culture pass on values to the next generation, according to Vygotsky?   9.  In what two contrasting ways is human development plastic? 10. What is implied when human development is described as dynamic? What have you learned? Pg 34   1.  What is the role of the unconscious in Freud’s theory?   2.  What are the stages envisioned by Freud?   3.  How do Erikson’s stages differ from Freud’s?   4.  How is behaviorism a reaction to psychoanalytic theory?   5.  How do classical and operant conditioning differ?   6.  How is social learning connected to behaviorism?   7.  What is the basic idea of cognitive theory?   8.  How does information processing differ from Piaget’s theory?   9.  According to Maslow, what are the needs of a person? 10. Why is humanism particularly relevant for the medical professions? 11. How does evolutionary theory apply to human development? What have you learned? Pg44 1.  Why do careful observations not prove “what causes what”?   2.  Why do experimenters use a control (or comparison) group as well as an experimental  group?   3.  What are the strengths and weaknesses of the survey method?   4.  Why would a scientist conduct a cross-sectional study?   5.  What are the advantages and disadvantages of longitudinal research?         6.  Why do developmentalists prefer cross-sequential research, even though it takes longer  and is more expensive?   7.  Why does correlation not prove causation?   8.  What are the advantages and disadvantages of quantitative research?   9.  What are the advantages and disadvantages of qualitative research? 10. What is the role of the IRB? 11. Why should a study not be done without informed consent and confidentiality? 12. What reasons might a political leader have to not fund developmental research? 13. What is one additional question that you can think of about development that you think  should be answered? CH 3: What have you learned? Pg 103 1. Why is it not a problem if an infant is consistently at the 20th percentile in height and  weight? 2. How do sleep patterns change over the first 18 months? 3. What are the reasons for and against co-sleeping? 4. How does the brain change from birth to age 2? 5. How does communication occur within the central nervous system? 6. How can pruning increase brain potential? 7. What is the difference between experience-expectant and experience-dependent brain  function? 8. What should caregivers remember about brain development when an infant cries? 9. How does an infant’s vision change over the first year? 10. How do infants’ senses strengthen their early social interactions? 11. In what two directions do infants’ gross motor skills emerge? 12. Which fine motor skills are developed in infancy? What have you learned? Pg 112 1. Why do public health doctors wish that all infants worldwide would get immunized? 2. Why would a parent blame immunization for autism spectrum disorder? 3. What is herd immunity? 4. What are the reasons for exclusive breast-feeding for the first six months? 5. What is the relationship between malnutrition and disease? 6. What diseases are caused directly by malnutrition? 7. What is the difference between stunting and wasting? 8. In what ways does malnutrition affect cognition? What have you learned? Pg119 1. Why did Piaget call cognition in the first two years “sensorimotor intelligence”?  2. How does stage one of sensorimotor intelligence lead to stage two? 3. In sensorimotor intelligence, what is the difference between stages three and four? 4. Why is the concept of object permanence important to an infant’s development? 5. What does the active experimentation of the stage-five toddler suggest for parents?6. Why did Piaget underestimate infant cognition? 7. What conditions help 3-month-olds remember something? 8. How does the infant brain respond to experiences? What have you learned? pg 125 1.  What aspects of language develop in the first year?   2.  When does vocabulary develop slowly and when does it develop quickly?   3.  What are the characteristics of the way adults talk to babies?   4.  How would a caregiver who subscribes to the behaviorist theory of language learning respond when an infant babbles?   5.  What is typical of the first words that infants speak?   6.  What indicates that toddlers use some grammar?   7.  According to behaviorism, how do adults teach infants to talk?   8.  According to sociocultural theory, why do infants try to communicate?   9.  Do people really have a language acquisition device? 10. Why do developmentalists accept several theories of language development? CH 4: WHAT HAVE YOU LEARNED? Pg 137   1.  What are the first emotions to appear in infants?   2.  Why is it better for an infant to express anger than sadness?   3.  What do 1-year-olds fear?   4.  How do emotions differ between the first and second year of life?   5.  How do family interactions and culture shape toddlers’ emotions?   6.   What evidence is there that toddlers become more aware of themselves?   7.   What is known about the impact of brain maturation on emotions?   8.   What is not yet known about how brain maturation affects emotions?   9.   How are memory and emotion connected? 10. How does stress affect early brain development? 11.  What three dimensions of temperament are evident in children? 12.  What is the difference between temperament and personality? 13.  Why are temperament traits more apparent in some people than others? WHAT HAVE YOU LEARNED? Pg 150   1.  How might synchrony affect early emotional development?   2.  What would an infant do to demonstrate attachment?   3.  How would a caregiver try to maintain proximity and contact?   4.  How would a type B secure adult act in a romantic relationship?   5.   How would a type A insecure adult act in a romantic relationship?   6.   How would a type C insecure adult act in a romantic relationship?   7.  How do negative circumstances (e.g., divorce, abuse, low SES) affect attachment?   8.  What can be done to improve the parent–child bond?   9.  Whom do infants use as social references? 10. Why is allocare necessary for survival of the human species?11. How is father-care similar to mother-care? 12. How does father-care differ from mother-care? 13. What ethnic and cohort differences are apparent in father-care? WHAT HAVE YOU LEARNED? Pg 153   1.  What might happen if a person is stuck in the oral stage?   2.  What might happen if a person is stuck in the anal stage?   3.  How might the crisis of “trust versus mistrust” affect later life?   4.  How might the crisis of “autonomy versus shame and doubt” affect later life?   5.  How do behaviorists explain the development of emotions and personality?   6.  What emotional reactions might children learn from watching their parents?   7.  How would a child develop a working model about expressing emotions?   8.  What would change an adult’s working model? WHAT HAVE YOU LEARNED? Pg 158   1.  What are the advantages of nonmaternal day care for the infant?   2.  What are the disadvantages of exclusive maternal care for the infant?   3.  What might be the problem with infant day care?   4.  Why are the effects of center care in Norway different from those in the United States?   5.  What are the costs and benefits of infant care by relatives?    6.  What do infants need, no matter who cares for them or where care occurs? BOOK PAGE END 157 CH 5: WHAT HAVE YOU LEARNED? Pg 173   1.  How are growth rates, body proportions, and motor skills related during early childhood?   2.  Why do many children in developed nations suffer from malnutrition?   3.  What is changing in rates of early childhood obesity and why?   4.  When (if ever) and why should a left-handed toddler be changed to a right-handed child?    5.  What do children need to learn various motor skills?   6.  How does myelination advance skill development?   7.  How is the corpus callosum crucial for learning? 8.  What do impulse control and perseveration have in common?   9.  What is the limbic system? 10. What is the amygdala? 11. What does the hippocampus do? 12. What does the hypothalamus do? WHAT HAVE YOU LEARNED? Pg 181   1.  How does preoperational thought differ from sensorimotor and from concrete operational  thought?    2.  What barriers to logic exist at the preoperational stage?         3.  According to Vygotsky, what should parents and other caregivers do to encourage  children’s learning?   4.  How does scaffolding relate to a child’s zone of proximal development?   5.  What evidence is there that children overimitate?   6.  What aspects of children’s thought does theory-theory explain?   7.  Before developing theory of mind, what do young children think about other people’s  knowledge and emotions?   8.  How does theory of mind help a child interact with other people?    9.   What is surprising about the way children sort pictures by shape and by color? WHAT HAVE YOU LEARNED? Pg 187   1.  What is the evidence that early childhood is a sensitive time for learning language?   2.  How does fast-mapping aid the language explosion?   3.  How does overregularization signify a cognitive advance?   4.   What does the research say about language learning by deaf children?   5.  What evidence in language learning shows the limitations of logic in early childhood?   6.  Why is early childhood the best time to learn a second (or third) language?   7.   What are the advantages of a child learning two languages?   8.  How does book-reading to a toddler contribute to later literacy? WHAT HAVE YOU LEARNED? Pg 198   1.  What do most early-education programs provide for children that most homes do not?   2.  Why do early-education programs vary in quality and purpose?   3.  In child-centered programs, what do the teachers do?   4.   Why are Montessori schools still functioning, 100 years after the first such schools  opened?   5.   How does Reggio Emilia differ from most other early-education programs?   6.   What are the advantages and disadvantages of teacher-directed preschools?   7.   What are the goals of Head Start?   8.   Who benefits most from Head Start?   9.   What do the three small intervention programs have in common? 10. What are the long-term results of intervention preschools? CH 6: WHAT HAVE YOU LEARNED? Pg 210   1.  How might protective optimism lead to a child’s acquisition of new skills and  competencies?   2.  How would a child’s self-concept affect motivation?   3.  What is an example (not in the text) of intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation?   4.  What are children thought to gain from play?   5.  Why might playing with peers help children build muscles and develop self-control?   6.  What do children learn from rough-and-tumble play?   7.  What do children learn from sociodramatic play?         8.  Why do many experts want to limit children’s screen time? WHAT HAVE YOU LEARNED? Pg 218   1.  Describe the characteristics of the parenting style that seems to promote the happiest,  most successful children.    2.  What are the limitations of Baumrind’s description of parenting styles?   3.  What seems to be the worst parenting style?   4.  How does culture affect parenting style?   5.  How does a child’s temperament interact with parenting style?   6.  What does psychoanalytic theory say about the origins of sex differences and gender roles?   7.  What do behaviorists say about the origins of sex differences and gender roles?   8.  How does preoperational thought lead to sexism?   9.  What are the advantages and disadvantages of encouraging children to be unisex? WHAT HAVE YOU LEARNED? Pg 225   1.  What is the nature perspective on how people develop morals?   2.  What is the nurture perspective?   3.  How might children develop empathy and antipathy as they play with one another?   4.  How might children develop antipathy?   5.  What is the connection between empathy and prosocial behavior?   6.  What are the similarities and differences of the four kinds of aggression?   7.  How does moral development relate to discipline?   8.  Why have many nations made corporal punishment illegal?   9.  What are the arguments for and against psychological control? 10. When is time-out an effective punishment and when is it not? 11. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using induction as punishment? WHAT HAVE YOU LEARNED? Pg 233   1.  How do the rates of accidental and disease death compare?   2.  Why are fewer children killed by cars and trucks?   3.  When was lead proven to be toxic to children’s brains?   4.  Why might poverty contribute to child maltreatment?   5.  Why is reported abuse so much higher than substantiated abuse?   6.  How do rates of neglect and physical abuse compare?   7.  Why have rates of sexual abuse declined?   8.  What can social programs do to achieve primary prevention of child maltreatment?   9.  What are the short-term and long-term consequences of childhood maltreatment? 10. Why do developmentalists believe that tertiary prevention is too late? 11. What are the pros and cons of kinship care?

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