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nutr 1020

nutr 1020


School: University of Utah
Department: Nutrition
Course: Scientific Foundations of Nutrition and Health
Professor: Anandh velayutham
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: eatingdisorders, Energy, Calories, nutrition, cancer, and FoodSafety
Cost: 50
Name: Test 3 - Study Guide
Description: This study guide is a summary of what is going to be covered on Test 3. This study guide covers the topics of: bone health, energy metabolism and nutrients, energy balance, nutrition and cancer, food safety, and eating disorders
Uploaded: 12/04/2016
9 Pages 129 Views 1 Unlocks

o How does the body burn calories?

∙ Why do we need energy?

Why is a healthy weight important?

Test 3 --- Study Guide --- Nutrition 1020 Topics:  ∙    Bone Health  ∙    Energy Metabolism and Nutrients  ∙    Energy Balance  ∙    Nutrition and Cancer  ∙    Food Safety  ∙    Eating Disorders  Nutrients and Bone Health  Composition of Bones: ∙     30% Proteins and 70% Hydroapatite  ∙     Hydroxyapatite binds to the collagen proteins  Bone physiology:  ∙     PeriosteDon't forget about the age old question of vphy
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um – outermost layer, where muscles, ligaments, and tendons  connect  ∙     Cortical bone – compact bone, 80% of bone mass, provides strength and  stability ∙     Trabecular bone – spongy bone, 20% of bone mass, shock absorber, flexibility ∙     Bone marrow – spongy tissue located in packets of trabecular bones, contains stem cells Bone remodeling:  ∙ Growth, maintenance, and repair of bone involve: osteoclasts and  osteoblasts.  ∙     Osteoclasts: breakdown of bone, by reabsorption, which releases bone  minerals into the blood ∙     Osteoblasts: building of bone, from collagen and hydroxyapatite  Biological Factors Associated with Bone Status (Non-modifiable) ∙ Frame size – people with larger frames  higher bone mass  ∙ Sex - women  lower bone mass than men  ∙ Age - bone loss occurs after age 30  Lifestyle Factors Associated with Bone Status (Modifiable)  ∙ An active lifestyle is important for healthy bones (weight bearing activities) ∙ Smoking and excessive alcohol  ∙ Minerals  ∙ Diet ∙ Calcium  o 40% of all the minerals in the body  o Calcium forms part of bone structure  o Functions:   Bone growth, maintenance, and repair   To strengthen bones and teeth (99% of calcium in our body)  Blood clotting   Muscle contractions  o Tetany: too low of calcium, leads to muscles contracting and not being  able to relax  o Sources:Test 3 --- Study Guide --- Nutrition 1020  Recommended amount: 1000 milligrams/day   Dairy products, leafy greens, almonds, sardines, canned salmon  Calcium fortified foods Vitamin D  ∙ Fat soluble vitamin  ∙ Considered a hormone (calcitriol)  ∙ Location and season make a big difference in the synthesis of Vitamin D  ∙ Bone health: maintains blood calcium  ∙ Deficiency:  o Symptoms: muscle and bone aches o Rickets: Skeletal abnormalities – bowed legs, and thick wrist and ankles o Osteomalacia: Soft bone, an adult disease comparable to rickets in  children o Sources:   Sun, egg, sun exposed mushrooms, fatty fish, milk, meat  Fluoride  ∙ 95% of fluoride in the body is in the teeth and bones  ∙ Increase the protein synthesis in the osteoblast and subsequently have an  effect on the production of new bone.  ∙ Prevents dental caries  o Fluoride incorporated in to the tooth structure, creates a stronger tooth o Stimulate remineralization of enamel  o Inhibit tooth demineralization  o Antibacterial effect on microorganism found in plaque  ∙ Sources:  o Fish, shellfish, tea, seaweeds, and some water sources  o Most comes from fluoride added to drinking water  Osteoporosis  ∙     A progressive bone disease that is characterized by a decrease in bone mass  and density which can lead to an increase risk of fracture  ∙     Fractures most common in: hip, wrist, or spine  ∙     Osteopenia: a low bone mineral density that does not meet the diagnostic  criteria of osteoporosis.  ∙     Prevention: physical activity, adequate mineral intake, exposure to sunlight  ∙     Bone Health Assessment: DEXA – dual energy X-ray  Energy Metabolism and Nutrients  Energy Metabolism  ∙ Extracting energy from macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, fat) o Glucose, amino acids, fatty acid and glycerol  Micronutrients in Energy Metabolism  ∙ Basic fuels: stores large quantities of energy in a stable form over long  periods of time  o Converted into ATP through metabolism   ATP: short term energy currency of the cell   ATP synthase: synthesizes ATP Test 3 --- Study Guide --- Nutrition 1020 o ADP: two phosphate  o ATP: three phosphate/ created by adding a phosphate to ADP and using energy from food  o When the cells need energy: ATP is broken down  B Vitamins ∙ Vitamins in Energy Metabolism: B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7  ∙ Main function: to act as coenzymes  o Help to extract energy from macronutrients  ∙ Water soluble  ∙ High bioavailability: 50% to 90% of the B vitamins in the diet are absorbed  ∙ Whole grains are more nutrient dense sources of B vitamins  Why is a healthy weight important?  ∙ Overweight or Obesity  o Overweight: having extra body weight from muscle, bone, fat, and  water o Obesity: having a high amount of extra fat   34% of total population is obese  Energy ∙ Why do we need energy?  o Mechanical work: for muscle contraction  o Chemical work: to synthesize macromolecules  o Transport work: to more chemical substances  o Control chemical reactions ∙ Energy Balance  o Energy input = energy output  o Positive energy balance, good in certain conditions, but can also be  stored as adipose tissue when not needed.   Prevent: by eating less and doing more physical activity  Brown fat: good fat that burns more calories  White fat: excessive fat deposits  ∙ Cells can expand up to 50 times to store more fat  o Negative energy balance, good to reduce the body weight, bad in  conditions like anorexia  ∙ Energy Expenditure  o How does the body burn calories? 4 different ways:  Basal thermogenesis: energy for basal metabolism  ∙ The Energy required to sustain the basic processes of life  ∙ Uses 60-70% of our energy daily ∙ Basal metabolic rate (BMR)  o How many calories your body burns by just existing o RMR – measured without fasting, slightly high than  BMR  Diet induced thermogenesis: energy to process nutrients in the  diet  ∙ Work associated with processing the nutrients in food ∙ Food composition influences thermic effects of food  Physical Activity thermogenesis: energy for activity Test 3 --- Study Guide --- Nutrition 1020 ∙ Voluntary movement: sedentary vs active  o Intensity, duration, frequency, and type  Adaptive thermogenesis: energy for adaptation  ∙ Also called as non-shivering, regulatory thermogenesis  Energy Balance  How many calories your body burns each day? ∙ Food + Oxygen = Water, Carbon Dioxide, ATP, and Heat  o Heat is the final product  ∙ Indirect method: measurement of oxygen consumption  ∙ Direct method: measurement of heat  Direct Calorimetry  ∙ Measures the amount of body heat reduced by a person  o The person is put into a chamber to calculate the energy expended  ∙ Principle: almost all the energy used by the body eventually leaves as heat  ∙ Disadvantages: expensive and complex mechanics  ∙ Rarely used  Indirect Calorimetry  ∙ Most commonly used  ∙ Measures the respiratory gas exchange, which is the amount of oxygen a  person consumes and the amount of carbon dioxide expelled.  ∙ The human body uses 1 liter of oxygen to yield about 4.85 kcal of energy  Calorie Recommendations  ∙ Women – 1800-2400  ∙ Men – 2400 – 3000  Diagnosing Obesity  ∙ Using BMI o Height to weight ratio  o 18.5 – 24.9 healthy weight (same for men and women)  o Overweight: 25-29.9  o Obesity: 30 -39.9  o Sever obesity >40  ∙ Total amount of fat in the body  o Men: 13-20% good   Risky: More than 30% or less than 5%  o Women: 23-30% good   Risky: less than 15% or more than 40% ∙ Presence/absence of weight-related medical problems  o Blood tests  o Checking for other health problems  o General physical exam Location of Body Fat  ∙ Upper body fat distribution o Apple shape: android obesity o Central obesity   Insulin resistance and fatty liverTest 3 --- Study Guide --- Nutrition 1020 ∙ Lower body fat distribution  o Pear shape: Gynoid o Fat around butt, thighs, and hips  Weight Loss and Weight Management  ∙ Weight Management triangle  o Measure: body composition, Monitor: diet and activity, and Modify:  energy balance ∙ Adipose tissue  fat  3500 kcal per pound  o To lose 1 pound of fat you need to create a deficit of 3500 calories  Control of Calorie Intake  ∙ Approaches:  o Less fat – especially saturated and trans fat  o Less carbohydrates – especially refined carbs  o Protein intake in excess of what is typically needed  o Portion control influences calorie intake  o Larger portions of low-energy density foods  Regular Physical Activity  ∙ Calorie burning is enhanced both during and after physical activity  ∙ Expending 100 to 300 extra kcal per day above and beyond normal daily  activity, while controlling calorie intake, can lead to a steady weight loss.  ∙ 150 minutes/ day recommendation  ∙ Resistance exercises increase overall metabolic rate  ∙ Aerobic activity burns more fat than resistance activity  Medications for Weight Loss  ∙ Good candidate of BMI is more than 30 OR 27 to 29.9 with health conditions  ∙ Drug therapy alone has not been found to be successful  ∙ Medications to reduce fat absorption  Treatment of Obesity  ∙ Severe (morbid) obesity requires professional treatment  ∙ BMI greater than 40  ∙ Weighing at least 100 pounds over healthy weight  ∙ Drastic measures may be necessary  ∙ Very Low Calorie Diets (VLCD)  ∙ Bariatric Surgery: makes you feel faster quicker  ∙ Gastric Bypass: Stomach stapling: reducing the stomach capacity and  bypassing a short segment of the upper small intestine ∙ Sleeve Gastrectomy: Restricts the amount of food you can eat before feeling  full ∙ Liposuction (lipectomy): Removing fat cells from the body ∙ Fad Diets  ∙ Temporary  ∙ Promises dramatic weight loss results  ∙ Can be dangerous to your health  ∙ High-Protein, Low-Carb Diets   Burden to the kidneys Test 3 --- Study Guide --- Nutrition 1020 Nutrition and Cancer  Cancer  ∙ Second leading cause of death for North American adults  o Behind cardiovascular disease  o 1600 people die each day of cancer in the United States  o Cancer is many diseases ∙ About 1/3 of all cancers arise from smoking  ∙ Abnormal and uncontrollable division of cells that results in mutations of DNA  o Cancerous tumors: can spread all over the body through blood and  lymphatic circulation.  Normal cells to cancer cells  ∙ Sometimes the genetic material DNA of a cells can become damaged or  changed  o Producing mutations that affect normal cell growth and division   Damaged cells do not die when they should   New cells form when the body does not need them  ∙ Extra cells may form a mass of tissue = tumor  Tumor  ∙ Spontaneous new tissue growth that serves no physiological purpose  o Benign Tumor: cells in benign tumors do not spread to other parts of  the body   Can be removed and in most cases do not come back   Dangerous only if it interferes with normal body functions  o Malignant Tumor: cancerous   Cells in these tumors can invade nearby tissues and be carried  throughout the body – metastasis.  What causes cancer?  ∙ Carcinogen: any agent that causes cancer  ∙ Factors that influence the development of cancer:  o Genetics (only 5%)  o Environment  o Lifestyle – smoking, alcohol, diet, physical activity  Influence of Diet on Cancer  ∙ Some foods and vitamins have a possibly protective effect against cancer  o Vitamins A,E,C, Flavonoids, and Phytochemicals  ∙ Excess calorie intake and cancer  o Obesity responsible for estimated 14% of cancer deaths among men  and 20% among women.  ∙ Nitrosamines  o Nitrite and amino acids combine under high temperatures to form  nitrosamines   Cured meats – ham, bacon, sausages  ∙ Saturated fat  o Linked to prostate cancer  ∙ High glycemic load carbohydrates  o Increase insulin which increases tumor growth Test 3 --- Study Guide --- Nutrition 1020 ∙ Barbecuing meat  ∙ Aflatoxin  o Mold found in peanuts or grains that can alter the DNA  ∙ High salt and alcohol also have been linked to cancer  ∙ Processed meats can increase the risk of cancer Anti-Cancer Supplements  ∙ Don’t use supplements to protect against cancer ∙ Better to look for whole foods and their nutrients  Physical Activity  ∙ Associated with a reduced risk of colon, breast, and prostate cancer.  Cancer Prevention  ∙ Be physically active  ∙ Limit processed foods and red meat  ∙ Limit alcoholic drinks  ∙ Avoid sugary drinks  ∙ Eat more fruits and vegetables Food Safety  Foodborne illness ∙ A disease that is transmitted by eating or handling contaminated food.  ∙ Disease-causing microbes/pathogens in contaminated foods lead to  foodborne infections ∙ Poisonous chemicals lead to foodborne disease  ∙ Causes  o Microbial contamination  o Chemicals in foods o Food additives  o Pesticides in foods  Food Preservation Techniques  ∙ Refrigeration  o Slows down the growth of bacteria  ∙ Freezing  o Stops growing microbes, but does not kill them  ∙ Salting  o Kills the bacteria due to osmosis  o Can last for years  ∙ Pickling  o Not healthy, very salty  ∙ Canning  o Store for years, boiling can change the nutrition amount in some foods  ∙ Pasteurization  o Heat treatment process  ∙ Vacuum packing  o Common for storing nuts Foodborne illness caused by microorganismsTest 3 --- Study Guide --- Nutrition 1020 ∙ Direct effect: produced from bacteria inside the body (infection)  ∙ Indirect effect: secrete toxin into the food (intoxication)  ∙ Symptoms of bacterial foodborne illness  o Gastrointestinal symptoms – vomiting, diarrhea  Danger zone for humans: most bacteria grow best in danger zone temperatures of  40 to 140 degrees  Foodborne Illness caused by food additives  ∙ Additives are primarily used to extend shelf life by preventing microbial  growth.  ∙ Preservatives  o Salt, nitrates, and nitrites   Interact with amino acids at high temperatures and create  nitrosamines (a carcinogenic) Dirty Dozen Fruits and Vegetables to Avoid (unless organically grown) ∙ Strawberries, apples, peaches, celery, spinach, tomatoes, cucumbers, grapes, bell peppers, cherries  Clean Fifteen  ∙ Avocados, asparagus, grapefruits, cantaloupe, papaya, mangoes, onions,  kiwi, pineapple, corn  Eating Disorders  What causes eating disorders? Stress, wanting to change body weight, illness  Three main types: Anorexia nervosa, Bulimia nervosa, Binge-eating disorder ∙ Genetic factors and social factors  Anorexia nervosa is characterized by: Extreme food restriction (self-starvation) Excessive weight loss (some times by over exercising) A distorted body image An irrational fear of weight gain and obesity Bulimia Nervosa:  Two types: Purging bulimia and non-purging bulimia ∙ Purging can be very destructive for the health of the body  o Stomach ulcers, tooth decay, low blood potassium  ∙ Followed by compensatory behaviors Binge- Eating Disorder  ∙ characterized by recurrent binge eating, which cause marked distress, but  are not followed by compensatory behaviors ∙ Diagnosed in middle age and affects men and women equally  ∙ Most widespread eating disorder  Pica Test 3 --- Study Guide --- Nutrition 1020 ∙ is an eating disorder in which a person persistently ingests nonnutritive,  nonfood items such as clay, dirt, or ice The Female Athlete Triad  ∙ a syndrome of three interrelated conditions of severity, including: o Energy deficiency, Menstrual disturbances, Osteoporosis

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