Bio 150-Final Exam Study Guide Natural Selection vs. Sexual Selection The Reproductive Process 1. Which animal would benefit most from parthenogenesis? a. An organism in a changing hostile environment. b. An organism surrounded by a large number of members of its own species. c. An organism in an environment that fluctuaWe also discuss several other topics like (1) What are things you do today that wont be relevant in 10 years?
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tes between hostile and favorable. d. An organism with little chance of ever encountering another member of its own species 2. Which is NOT true about asexual reproduction? a. There is only one parent. b. It is less commonly found among vertebrates. c. It can occur by budding or by division and regeneration. d. A large number of offspring can be produced in this way in a short time. e. It produces variation that allows the species to adapt quickly to changing environmental conditions 3. If two individual organisms bear eggs or sperm separately, they are in the biological sense a. Asexual b. Monoecious c. Dioecious d. Hermaphroditic e. Parthenogenic 4. Which sex should always show mate choice? a. Always male b. Always female c. Neither d. The sex having higher parental investment e. The sex having lower parental investment 5. Which statement is incorrect? a. Sexual reproduction allows spread of beneficial genetic combinations and removal of bad ones. b. Diversity prevents extinction. c. In a highly changing environment, asexual reproduction is more advantageous. d. A sexual organism passes only half of its genes. 6. Since Hermaphrodites possess both male and female organs, they frequently undergo self-fertilization. True or False? Male Sexual Anatomy 1. Identify different parts of the penis a. Glans, Shaft, Root, meatus, Corona, Frenulum, Foreskin, corpora cavernosa, corpus spongiosum, and Urethra 2. What are the risks of and reasons for circumcision?a. Circumcision is done for religious reasons as well as to help keep male genital area clean. The foreskin can begin to smell or develop infection if not kept properly cleaned. 3. Why does the scrotum hang outside of the body? a. The temperature inside the body cavity is too warm for sperm to mature and the temperature of the scrotum is 3 degrees lower. 4. Identify the structure and functions of the testes a. seminiferous tubules-site of sperm production b. Sertoli cells- nourishment of developing sperm c. Leydig’s cells-testosterone production 5. Identify the parts and functions of sperm. a. 6. List some of the components of semen. 7. Label the male external and internal reproductive anatomy. 8. Identify the structure and functions of the accessory reproductive organs a. Epididymis-site of sperm maturation and storage b. vas deferens-transports sperm c. ejaculatory duct-transports sperm, semen, and urine d. seminal vesicles-site of sperm production e. prostate gland-produces milky alkaline fluid f. Cowper’s gland (bulbourethral gland)- produces clear mucus (lubricant) 9. Know terminology – a. Cryptorchidism-failure of testes to descend into scrotum b. Smegma-accumulation of sweat, skin oil, and bacteria around the foreskin c. dartos muscle-wrinkles scrotal sac d. cremaster muscle-lifts/lowers testes e. pampiniform plexus-cools arterial blood 10. Explain how erection of penis occurs. a. Stimulation b. nitric oxide (NO) release in arteries of corpora cavernosa c. NO causes production of cGMP (a chemical messenger) d. cGMP causes arteries to relax and vasodilatee. Erectile tissues engorge with blood; fluid pressure causes erection f. cGMP broken down by enzyme erection ends Female Sexual Anatomy 1. Identify the form and functions of the external genitalia a. mons pubis-fatty; pubic hair b. Perineum-sensitive skin between vagina and anus c. labia majora (outer lips)-fatty; pubic hair; nerve endings d. labia minora (inner lips)-hairless; forms clitoral hood; nerve endings e. Clitoris-erectile organ, no direct reproductive function; homologous to penis f. Hymen- thin membrane partially covering vaginal opening 2. Define and understand a. Labiaplasty-surgical alteration in size and/or labia appearance b. Clitoridectomy-surgical removal of parts of the clitoris c. Infibulation-genital mutilation 3. Identify the form and functions of the a. Vagina- birth canal; extremely elastic and expandable b. Uterus- where fertilized egg is implanted and fetus develops c. fallopian tubes-nourish and carry eggs into uterus d. Ovaries-primary reproductive organ (produces eggs) 4. Label the internal and external female anatomy. 5. Identify the components and functions of the breast. a. Not a sex organ, but important in sexual attraction and arousal b. Breast size changes over the course of a lifetime, during pregnancy and during monthly cycle General Sexual Anatomy Review 1. What functions for storage and maturation of sperm? a. Epididymis b. Vas deferens c. Bulbourethral gland d. Urethra 2. What structure is removed from the penis during circumcision? a. Root b. Prepuce c. Glans penis d. Corpora cavernosa 3. What is the function of leydig cells of the testes? a. Produce immature sperm b. Produce testosterone c. Produce sperm d. All of the above 4. Where does fertilization of an egg usually occur? a. Pelvic cavity b. Uterusc. Vagina d. Uterine tubes 5. Which male gland encircles the urethra and secretes a fluid that enhances sperm motility? a. Cowper’s gland b. Seminal vesicles c. Prostate d. Bulbourethral glands 6. Which of the following is NOT part of a mature sperm? a. Head b. Midpiece c. Body d. Tail 7. Which of the following is NOT part of the vulva? a. Clitoris b. Mons pubis c. Labia majora d. Vagina 8. The vas deferens joins a duct from the seminal vesicle to form the ___________. a. Urethra b. Prostate gland c. Ejaculatory duct d. Spermatic cord 9. Which male gland is located behind the urinary bladder and secretes an alkaline fluid with fructose and prostaglandins? a. Bulbourethral glands b. Cowper’s gland c. Prostate d. Seminal vesicles 10. What female external genital is homologous to the male's penis? a. Mons pubis b. labia majora c. labia minora d. Clitoris 11. How many cells are produced by meiosis? a. 1 b. 2 c. 3 d. 4 12. What does the urethra pass through in the penis? a. Corpus spongiosum b. Corpus cavernosa c. Glans penis d. prepuce 13. What type of cell is found inside the seminiferous tubules? a. Spermatogoniab. Sertoli cells c. Leydig cells d. Both a and b 14. Which conducts sperm into the abdominal cavity through the inguinal canal? a. Epididymis b. Vas deferens c. Bulbourethral gland d. urethra 15. What structures act to draw a released ovum into the uterine tube? a. Follicle b. Fimbriae c. Corpus luteum d. Zona pellucida 16. What does seminal fluid provide? a. The correct pH for sperm b. Fructose for energy c. Enhance sperm motility d. All apply 17. Gametogenesis is the ______________ a. Union of an egg and a sperm b. Formation of eggs by the female and sperm by the male c. Menstrual cycle in the female d. None of the above 18. The process of sperm production is called _____________ a. Spermatogenesis b. Spermiogenesis c. Oogenesis d. None of the above 19. The primary sex organ(s) in females is(are) _____________ a. Fallopian tubes b. Ovaries c. Uterus d. vagina 20. Which of the following is NOT a gland that secretes seminal fluid? a. Urinary bladder b. Prostate gland c. Bulbourethral glands d. Seminal vesicles 21. What nonviable cell is produced by oogenesis? a. Ovum b. Polar body c. Follicle d. Corpus luteum 22. The primary sex organs of a male are ___________ a. Scrotumb. Penis c. Testes d. Prostate gland 23. What is produced by the process of spermatogenesis? a. 2 haploid spermatids b. 2 diploid spermatids c. 4 haploid spermatids d. 4 diploid spermatids 24. Why do the testes descend into the scrotum? a. There is not sufficient room in the abdomen b. Abdominal temperature is too low to produce hormones c. Abdominal temperature is too high to produce viable sperm d. There is no known reason 25. Which is not a part of the male duct system? a. Epididymidis b. Vas deferens c. Bulbourethral gland d. Urethra 26. What is the diploid number of chromosomes in human body cells? a. 23 b. 23 pairs c. 46 d. Both 46 and 23 pairs 27. What type of cell acts to support, nourish, and regulate the development of sperm? a. Spermatogonia b. Sertoli cells c. Leydig cells d. Both a and b 28. The _______ is lines with mitochondria and expands the energy to propel the sperm. a. Acrosome b. Head c. Tail d. Midpiece e. None of these 29. How many cell divisions occur in meiosis? a. None b. One c. Two d. Many 30. The seminiferous tubules _________ a. Are found in the testes b. Are where sperm are formed c. Produce male hormones d. Both a and cHormones 1. What is the function of the following hormones in the male? a. GnRH b. FSH c. LH d. Testosterone e. Inhibin 2. What produces the following hormones? a. GnRH b. FSH c. LH d. Testosterone e. Inhibin 3. What is the target organ of these hormones? a. GnRH b. FSH c. LH d. Testosterone e. Inhibin 4. What are the male secondary characteristics? 5. What enzyme converts testosterone to dihydrotestosterone? 6. What enzyme converts testosterone to estrogen? 7. What happens if the mle produces normal testosterone but is unable to produce dihydrotestosterone? 8. Why is cholesterol necessary for growth and development of sexual organs? 9. What is the fate of the Wolffian duct? 10. What is the fate of the Mullerian duct? 11. What is the fate of the genital tubercle in the male? 12. What is the fate of the genital tubercle in the female 13. What is the fate of the genital folds in the male? 14. What is the fate of the genital folds in the female? 15. What is the fate of the genital swellings in the male? 16. What is the fate of the genital swellings in the female? 17. What determines whether the gonad will become ovary or testis? 18. What is the default sex in humans? Cellular Reproduction and Sex Inheritance 1. What are the stages in the cell cycle? 2. When does DNA replication occur during the cell cycle? 3. What are the differences between mitosis and meiosis? a. Number of divisions b. Number of offspring c. Types of offspring 4. What does homologous chromosomes mean? 5. What is a chromosome?6. What are the 2 types of chromosomes? 7. What is nondisjunction? Sexual Differentiation and Sexual Development Disorders ❖ Androgen insensitivity Syndrome ➢ A person with normal XY chromosome, normal testosterone, normal anti-Mullerian hormone but does not develop male reproductive ducts or male external genitalia ❖ 5-alpha Reductase Deficiency ➢ Guevedoces have this ❖ Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia ➢ An autosomal recessive disorder that is characterized by masculinization of female gonads and is usually treated with cortisone ❖ Cryptorchidism ➢ Failure of testis to descend ❖ Hypospadia ➢ Sexual disorder characterized by abnormal development of urethra ❖ Kallmann Syndrome ➢ Sexual disorder characterized by delayed puberty or absence of puberty as well as inability to smell ❖ Klinefelter Syndrome ➢ Male with an extra X chromosome ❖ Ovotestis ➢ Having both male and female reproductive organs ❖ Turner Syndrome ➢ Females lacking an X chromosome ❖ Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome ➢ Male with normal set of male reproductive organs but also has oviducts and uterus Conception ❖ Conception definition ➢ When the nucleus of a sperm fuses with the nucleus of an egg ❖ Why so many sperm? ➢ Many “barriers” that confront a sperm on its journey to the egg, thus increasing the likelihood that some sperm will make their way to the egg ❖ Ovulation ➢ The cervical mucus thins out to to ease the passage of the sperm ❖ Hyaluronidase ➢ An enzyme secreted by sperm❖ Zona pellucida ➢ Gelatinous layer around the egg; must be dissolved in order for sperm to enter the egg Pregnancy/Labor, Delivery, and Lactation ❖ First Trimester (months 1-3) ➢ Embryo implants, major organs begin to develop, extraembryonic membranes & primary germ layers develop. ❖ Second Trimester (months 4-6) ➢ Fetus greatly increases in size, physical features mature, bones strengthen, sleep/wake cycle begins, and begins to respond to sound ❖ Third Trimester (months 7-9) ➢ Baby continues to grow in size and become more proportionate, lings being to function, movement is limited, and baby turns in uterus to prepare for birth ❖ Primary Germ Layers ➢ Ectoderm ■ Outside; nervous system and skin ➢ Endoderm ■ Inside; digestive and respiratory system ➢ Mesoderm ■ Muscles, skeleton, connective tissues, reproductive system, and circulatory system ❖ Extraembryonic Membranes ➢ Amnion ■ Helps maintain temperature ➢ Yolk Sac ■ Produces first blood cells and then becomes part of umbilical cord ➢ Allantois ■ Becomes part of the umbilical cord ➢ Chorion ■ Portion of placenta; gas exchange ❖ Stages of Labor ➢ First Stage ■ Lightening: baby’s head drops into pelvic cavity (2-4 before birth) ■ Dilation: diameter of cervix widens ■ Effacement: softening and thinning of cervix ■ Bloody Show: discharge of blood and mucus ■ Water Breaks ■ Contractions➢ Second Stage ■ Pushing, birthing ➢ Third Stage ■ Afterbirth ➢ Postpartum (fourth stage of labor?) ■ Delivery of placenta ❖ Meconium ➢ Baby’s first stool ➢ Thick, green, and tar-like ❖ Lactation ➢ Lactogenesis I ■ During pregnancy ■ Growth and development of milk glands, milk ducts, and fat deposits ■ Milk production begins ➢ Lactogenesis II ■ After birth ■ True milk production (30-40 hours after birth) ● Colostrom ◆ Concentrated first secretion of mammary glands ◆ Mild laxative effect to help baby pass first stool ➢ Lactogenesis III ■ Autocrine control of milk synthesis ■ Driven by baby’s appetite and dietary needs ❖ APGAR ➢ A-Appearance (color) ➢ P-Pulse (heart rate) ➢ G-Grimace (facial expression in response to stimulation) ➢ A-Action (reflex) ➢ R-Respiration (breathing) ➢ Measurement taken 1 minute after birth and 5 minutes after birth ➢ Scored on a scale of 1-10 (score of 7 to 10 is considered normal) Blood Inheritance and Incompatibility ➢ Genes code for enzyme-structure of glycolipid on RBC ➢ Antigens (red blood cells) and antibodies (plasma) have specific shapes and fit together like a lock and key ➢ Rh Factor: ■ 85% Americans are Rh+ (D) ■ Complications● mother-fetus(dd), Rh+ father (dd or Dd) - at least 50% chance Rh+ child ■ Rh Incompatibility ● If mom (-); dad (+) ● If first child (+) ◆ No problem ● Second child (+) ◆ Erythroblastosis fetalis ◆ Agglutination of RBC-anemia, jaundice, fever, swelling, hepato-and splenomegaly ◆ Life-threatening ● Treatment-massive transfusion and drainage (newborn or fetus prior to birth) ● Prevention- Rho-GAM (anti-rh) to Ph-mother ◆ 28th wk of pregnancy ◆ Within 72 hours after delivery of an Rh+ baby ➢ Agglutinates any fetal red cells ➢ Prevents mom from producing her own anti-RH ➢ Short term immunization (not long lasting) ◆ Risk of erythroblastosis fetalis increases with each subsequent pregnancy ➢ Rho-GAM administered to Rh-women after miscarriage, induced abortion, ectopic pregnancy Infertility and Reproductive Technology ❖ What is Infertility? ➢ The inability to conceive after 12 to 18 months of unprotected intercourse ❖ What are the absolute requirements for pregnancy ➢ Ovulation ➢ Adequate normal sperm ➢ Patent (open) fallopian tubes ➢ Receptive uterus ❖ Does infertility affect more men or women? ➢ It affects men and women equally? ❖ What must evaluated to determine infertility? ➢ Ovulatory status ➢ Semen ➢ Tubal patency ❖ List 5 male treatment options ➢ Vitamin supplements ➢ Discontinue use of tobacco, alcohol, and drugs➢ Donor sperm insemination ➢ Assisted reproduction (such as IVF) ➢ Artificial insemination (IUI) ❖ What 3 factors can affect pregnancy and pregnancy success? ➢ Smoking ➢ BMI ➢ Stress ❖ List 5 options for stress management ➢ Become more informed with your treatment process ➢ Psychological counseling ➢ Exercise (yoga, pilates, etc) ➢ Massage therapy ➢ Acupuncture Contraceptives and Abortion ❖ Blood Inheritance and Compatibility ➢ Genes code for enzyme-structure of glycolipid on RBC ➢ Antigens (red blood cells) and antibodies (plasma) have specific shapes and fit together like a lock and key ➢ Rh Factor: ■ 85% Americans are Rh+ (D) ■ Complications ● mother-fetus(dd), Rh+ father (dd or Dd) - at least 50% chance Rh+ child ■ Rh Incompatibility ● If mom (-); dad (+) ● If first child (+) ◆ No problem ● Second child (+) ◆ Erythroblastosis fetalis ◆ Agglutination of RBC-anemia, jaundice, fever, swelling, hepato-and splenomegaly ◆ Life-threatening ● Treatment-massive transfusion and drainage (newborn or fetus prior to birth) ● Prevention- Rho-GAM (anti-rh) to Ph-mother ◆ 28th wk of pregnancy ◆ Within 72 hours after delivery of an Rh+ baby ➢ Agglutinates any fetal red cells ➢ Prevents mom from producing her own anti-RH ➢ Short term immunization (not long lasting)◆ Risk of erythroblastosis fetalis increases with each subsequent pregnancy ➢ Rho-GAM administered to Rh-women after miscarriage, induced abortion, ectopic pregnancy Sexually Transmitted Infections ❖ Classify as bacteria, insect, fungi, protozoa, or virus ➢ BV-bacteria ➢ Chlamydia-bacteria ➢ “Crabs”-insect ➢ Genital herpes-virus ➢ Genital warts-virus ➢ Gonorrhea-bacteria ➢ Hepatitis B-virus ➢ HIV-virus ➢ HPV-virus ➢ Syphilis-bacteria ➢ The “clap”-bacteria ➢ The “drip”-bacteria ➢ Trichomoniasis-protozoa ➢ Yeast infection -fungi ❖ Definitions ➢ Chancre-painless sore that occurs at the site of syphilis infection ➢ Antibiotics- drugs that treat bacterial infections ➢ Prevalence- refers to percentage of people who currently have a particular condition ➢ Incubation- the time period between the time the person is exposed to the pathogen and the appearance of symptoms ➢ HPV-virus that can cause cervical cancer ➢ HIV-virus that destroys immune cells ➢ Phthirus pubis-the medical term for the STI referred to as “crabs” ➢ Treponema pallidum-the causative agent of syphilis ➢ Chlamydia-bacterial STI that can cause scarring of fallopian tubes, ectopic pregnancy, etc. ➢ HSV-presented in 2 strands, one oral and one genital ➢ Incidence- number of new cases occurring in a population during specific time period ➢ Hepatitis B-can cause cirrhosis or cancer, and death ❖ Acronyms➢ PID-Pelvic Inflammatory Disease ➢ CDC-Center for Disease Control ➢ AIDS-Acquired immunodeficiency Syndrome ➢ HIV-Human Immunodeficiency Virus ➢ HPV-Human Papilloma Virus Sexual Dysfunctions ❖ Definition ➢ Difficulty experienced by an individual or a couple during any stage of a normal sexual response ❖ Phases of normal sexual response ➢ Desire ➢ Arousal ➢ Orgasm ➢ Resolution ❖ Categories of Sexual Dysfunctions ➢ Sexual desire disorders ■ Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD); Male/Female ■ Sexual Aversion Disorder (SAD) ➢ Sexual arousal disorders ■ Female Sexual Arousal Disorder (FSAD) ■ Male Erectile Disorder ➢ Orgasmic disorders ■ Female Orgasmic Disorder (Inhibited Female Orgasm) ■ Male Orgasmic Disorder (Inhibited Male Orgasm) ■ Premature Ejaculation ■ Retrograde Ejaculation ➢ Sexual pain disorders ■ Dyspareunia ■ Vaginismus ❖ ED ➢ The inability to get or keep an erection ➢ Sometimes called impotence ➢ Can be caused by both physical and psychological conditions ➢ Can be caused by some prescription medications ➢ Can be an early warning sign for heart disease or other vascular problems ➢ NOT hereditary ❖ Dyspareunia-pain during intercourse ❖ FSD➢ Female Sexual Dysfunction ➢ Not quantifiable; qualitative ➢ can’t be measured objectively ❖ Pelvic Pain ➢ pain below your belly button and above your legs ■ Causes: ● Appendicitis ● IBS ● Mittelschmerz ● PMS and Menstrual Cramps ● Ectopic Pregnancy ● STI ● Ovarian cysts ● Endometriosis ● UTI ● Kidney Stones ● Scar tissue ● etc.