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UTEP / Psychology / PSYC 1301 / what is Humanistic psychology?

what is Humanistic psychology?

what is Humanistic psychology?

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School: University of Texas at El Paso
Department: Psychology
Course: Introduction to Psychology
Professor: Zarate
Term: Fall 2016
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Cost: 50
Name: Final Exam Study Guide PSYC 1301
Description: Covers: Personality, Social Psychology, and Psychological Disorders with Terminology and Practice Quiz Questions
Uploaded: 12/05/2016
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Final Exam Study Guide for PSYC 1301


what is Humanistic psychology?



Covers: Personality, Social Psychology, and Psychological Disorders with Terminology  and Practice Quiz Questions

Ch. 11 - Personality

The Humanistic Perspective on Personality

• Humanistic psychology was championed as the “third force” in psychology. It  emphasized human potential, psychological growth, self-awareness, and free will.  Important humanistic theorists were Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow

o Humanistic psychology – the Theoretical viewpoint on personality that  generally emphasizes the inherent goodness of people, human potential,  self-actualization, the self-concept, and healthy personality development  

• Rogers believed that the most basic human motive was the actualizing tendency.  He viewed the self-concept as the most important aspect of personality.  Conditional positive regard by parents or other caregivers causes a person to deny  or distort aspects of experience, leading to a state of incongruence with regard to  the self-concept. In contrast, unconditional positive regard leads to a state of  congruence. The fully functioning person experiences congruence, the actualizing  tendency, and psychological growth.


what is Actualizing tendency in in Rogers’s theory?



o Actualizing tendency – in Rogers’s theory, the innate drive to maintain and  enhance the human organism

o Self-concept – the set of perceptions and beliefs that you hold about  yourself

o Conditional positive regard – in Rogers’s theory, the sense that you will  be valued and loved only if you behave in a way that is acceptable to  others; conditional love or acceptance

o Unconditional positive regard – in Rogers’s theory, the sense that you will  be valued and loved even if you don’t conform to the standards and  expectations of others; unconditional love or acceptance

• The humanistic perspective on personality has been criticized for being difficult  to validate or test scientifically and for being too optimistic

The Social Cognitive Perspective on Personality

• Albert Bandura’s social cognitive theory stresses the role of conscious thought  processes, goals, and self-regulation. Reciprocal determinism emphasizes the  interaction of behavioral, cognitive, and environmental factors in behavior and  personality


what is Self-concept?



Don't forget about the age old question of What is Space modulation?

o Social cognitive theory – albert Bandura’s theory of personality, which  emphasizes the importance of observational learning, conscious cognitive  processes, social experiences, self-efficacy beliefs, and reciprocal  

determinism

o Reciprocal determinism – a model proposed by psychologist Albert  Bandura that explains human functioning and personality as caused by the  interaction of behavioral, cognitive, and environmental factors

• Self-efficacy beliefs influence behavior, performance, motivation, and persistence o Self-efficacy – the beliefs that people have about their ability to meet the  demands of a specific situation; feelings of self-confidence  

• Social cognitive theories emphasize the interaction of multiple factors in  determining personality and behavior. Although a key strength of this perspective  is its grounding in empirical research, it has been criticized for its limited view of  human personality, which ignores unconscious conflicts and emotions Don't forget about the age old question of What is Cognitive Dissonance?

The Trait Perspective on Personality

• Trait theories focus on measuring, and describing individual differences, or traits.  Surface traits can be easily inferred from observable behaviors. Source traits are  thought to represent the basic, fundamental dimensions of personality

o Trait theory – a theory of personality that focuses on identifying,  describing, and measuring individual differences in behavioral  

predispositions

o Surface traits – personality characteristics or attributes that can easily be  inferred from observable behavior We also discuss several other topics like How many significant figures are in the number 0.00040650?

o Source traits – the most fundamental dimensions of personality; the broad,  basic traits that are hypothesized to be universal and relatively few in  number We also discuss several other topics like Where are pigments that function as attractants stored in a Plant cell?
Don't forget about the age old question of what is the Theories of Emotion?

• Raymond Cattell believed that there were 16 basic personality factors. Hans  Eysenck proposed that there were three basic personality dimensions:  extraversion – introversion, neuroticism – emotional stability, and psychoticism.  Eysenck believed that the extraversion – introversion dimension might reflect  physiological differences

• According to the five-factor model, there are five basic personality dimensions:  extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to  experience

o Five-factor model of personality – a trait theory of personality that  identifies extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and  openness to experience as the fundamental building blocks of personality

• Traits are generally stable over time and across situations, although situations do  influence how and whether traits are expressed

• Behavioral genetics research uses twin and adoption studies to measure the  relative influence of genetics and environment. Extraversion, neuroticism,  openness to experience, and conscientiousness seem to have a significant  genetic component

o Behavioral genetics – an interdisciplinary field that studies the effects  of genes and heredity on behavior We also discuss several other topics like What is the Correlation?

• The trait perspective is useful in describing individual differences and in  predicting behavior. Trait theories have been criticized for their failure to explain  human personality and the development of individual differences

Assessing Personality: Psychological Tests

• Valid psychological tests accurately reflect personal characteristics on some  dimension and predict future psychological functioning or behavior. These two  basic types of personality tests are projective tests and self-report inventories.  Projective tests developed out of the psychoanalytic approach and include the  Rorschach Inkblot Test and the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) 

o Psychological test – a test that assesses a person’s abilities, aptitudes,  interests, or personality on the basis of a systematically obtained sample of  behavior

o Projective test – a type of personality test that involves a person’s  interpreting an ambiguous image; used to asses unconscious motives,  conflicts, psychological defenses, and personality traits

o Rorschach Inkblot Test – a projective test using inkblots, developed by  Swiss psychiatrist Hermann Rorschach in 1921

o Graphology - pseudoscience that claims to assess personality, social, and  occupational attributes based on a person’s distinctive handwriting,  

doodles, and drawing style  

o Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) – a projective personality test,  developed by Henry Murray and colleagues, that involves creating stories  about ambiguous scenes

• Projective tests provide qualitative information about individual. They have some  limitations: responses may be affected by the examiner for the situation; scoring is  very subjective; results may be inconsistent; and they do not predict behavior well

• Self-report inventories are objectively scored and differentiate among people on  particular personality characteristics. Self-report inventories include the MMPI,  CPI, and 16PF. The reliability, validity, and predictive value of self-report  inventories are high. However, people do not always respond honestly or  accurately items in self-report inventories. Psychological tests provide just one  measure of personality at a particular point in time.

o Self-report inventory – a type of psychological test in which a person’s  responses to standardized questions are compared to established norms o Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) – a self-report  inventory that assesses personality characteristics and psychological  disorders; used to assess both normal and disturbed populations  

o California Psychological Inventory (CPI) – a self-report inventory  developed by Raymond Cattell that generates a personality profile with  ratings on 16 trait dimensions

Quiz:

1. Christina believes that learning experiences play a critical role in the development  of a personality, especially in the development of a person’s goals and beliefs  about one’s abilities. Christina’s beliefs reflect the _____ perspective of  personality.

a. Humanistic

b. Social cognitive

c. Psychoanalytic

d. Trait

2. The emphasis on unconscious mental processes is to the _____ perspective as the  emphasis on learning and conscious cognitive processes is to the _____  perspective.

a. Trait; humanistic

b. Social cognitive; trait

c. Psychoanalytic; social cognitive

d. Humanistic; psychoanalytic

3. Freud’s famous technique of free association involved patients: a. Spontaneously reporting mental images, thoughts, and feelings as they  came to mind

b. Instantly responding to each of 50 words that Freud read to them c. Looking at inkblots and interpreting what they saw

d. Making up a story about an ambiguous picture

4. Anna is sitting in Sigmund Freud’s office and tells him that she remembers a  dream in which she boarded a train that entered a dark tunnel. After some  discussion Freud suggests to Anna that the train probably symbolized a man’s  penis and the action of entering the dark tunnel probably symbolized sexual  intercourse. In Freud’s psychoanalytic theory the symbolic, or hidden, meaning of  the dream images is called the ______ content.

a. Latent

b. Displaced

c. Manifest

d. Preconscious

5. The term “Freudian slip” refers to:

a. An undergarment that was worn by fashionable upper-class women in  Vienna in the early 1900’s

b. Thinking and behaving in a way that is the opposite of unacceptable urges  or impulses  

c. Freely expressed pent-up emotion that emerges spontaneously during  psychotherapy

d. An unintentional mistake, accident, or misstatement that Freud interpreted  as revealing unconscious wishes or motives

6. Before reading this question you were not thinking about the name of the first  president of the United States. In terms of Freud’s theory of personality the name  was stored at the _____ level of awareness.

a. Latent; preconscious

b. Unconscious; preconscious

c. Unconscious; conscious

d. Preconscious; conscious

7. According to Freud the ego is guided by _____, whereas the id is guided by  _____.

a. Thanatos; Eros

b. Eros; Thanatos

c. The reality principle; the pleasure principle

d. The pleasure principle; the reality principle

8. Which of the following statements reflects Freud’s view of the superego? a. It is “a cauldron of seething excitement” that wants immediate  gratification of instinctual drives and urges

b. It is the moralistic and self-evaluative component of personality c. It is the component of personality that operates on the reality principle d. It is the source of the life instinct and death instinct.

9. Ego defense mechanisms:

a. Distort thoughts or perceptions of reality

b. Operate consciously

c. Displacement

d. Providing a safe outlet for the libido

10. When Carol was 8 years old her mother died. As an adult Carol has no memories  of attending her mother’s funeral. Which ego defense mechanism in Freud’s  theory would best account for the fact that Carol has no memories of this  upsetting event?

a. Projection

b. Repression

c. Displacement

d. Undoing

11. In Freud’s theory if a parent overindulges or frustrates the child’s expression of  pleasurable feelings at a particular psychosexual stage of development the: a. Parent will experience the psychological influence of the superego, which  will promote strong feelings of guilt and inferiority

b. Child may experience fixation and continue to seek pleasure through  behaviors associated with the particular psychosexual stage

c. Child will experience reaction formation and behave in a way that is  directly opposite to the frustrated desires

d. Child’s ego may not develop

12. According to Freud’s theory the Oedipus complex:

a. Is the child’s unconscious sexual desire for the opposite-sex parent b. Occurs during the oral stage of psychosexual development

c. First appears during the adolescent years, when sexual urges begin to  surface

d. Is resolved through the defense mechanism of reaction formation 13. According to Freud, the successful resolution of the phallic stage of psychosexual  development involves the child’s use of the defense mechanism of:  a. Fixation  

b. Reaction formation

c. Undoing

d. Identification

14. According to Alfred Alder:

a. The images and themes contained in the collective unconscious are  transmitted from one generation to the next

b. The Oedipus complex persists and resurfaces throughout life

c. The most fundamental human motive was the desire to improve oneself,  master challenges, and move toward self-perfection

d. Men suffer from “womb envy” and resent women’s capacity to bear  children

15. Which of the following psychoanalytic ideas has NOT been supported by  empirical research?

a. Early childhood experiences are important to adult relationships and  personality development

b. Some people are better than others at controlling their impulses and  directing their energies toward socially acceptable ends

c. Much of mental life is unconscious

d. Children predictably progress through the oral, anal, phallic, latency, and  psychosexual stages

Chapter 12 – Social Psychology

Introduction: What is Social Psychology?

• Social psychology is the scientific study of how individuals think, feel, and  behave in social situations. One important social psychological concept is our  sense of self. Social cognition and social influence are two additional important  areas of research in social psychology

o Social psychology – branch of psychology that studies how a person's  thoughts, feelings, and behavior are influenced by the presence of other  people and by the social and physical environment

o Sense of self – an individual's unique sense of identity that has been  influenced by social, cultural, and psychological experiences; your sense  of who you are in relation to other people

o Social cognition – the mental processes people used to make sense of their  social environments

o Social influence – the effect of situational factors and other people on an  individual's behavior

Person Perception: Forming Impressions of Other People

• Person perception is an active and subjective process that occurs in an  interpersonal contest, the interpersonal context includes the characteristics of the  individual you are judging, your own characteristics, and the situation.  

o Person perception – the mental processes used to form judgments and  draw conclusions about the characteristics and motives other people • Person perception is influenced by subjective perceptions, personal goals, social  norms, and self perception

o Social norms – the “rules” or expectations, for appropriate behavior in a  particular social situation

• People often rely on social categories when they evaluate others. Social  categorization may be automatic through a process called implicit cognition or  deliberate through a process called explicit cognition. Using social categories is  cognitively efficient but can lead to in accurate conclusions

o Social categorization – the mental process of categorizing people into  groups (or social categories) on the basis of their shared characteristics

o Explicit cognition – deliberate, conscious mental processes involved in  perceptions, judgments, decisions, and reasoning

o Implicit cognition – automatic, non-conscious mental processes that  influence perceptions, judgments, decisions, and reasoning

• Because we expect certain traits and behaviors to go together, we often form and  rely on inclusive personality theories in person perception. Implicit personality theories provide a mental framework that organizes observations, memories, and  beliefs about other people. One comment implicit personality theory is "what is  beautiful is going." However, there are a few personality differences between  attractive and less attractive people.

o Implicit personality theory – a network of assumptions or beliefs about the  relationships among the various types of people, traits, and behaviors

Attribution: Explaining Behavior

• The attribution process refers to how we infer the cause of our own or another  person's behavior. Attributions can strongly influence our opinions of other  people, but the attribution process is susceptible to many biases

o Attribution – the mental process of inferring the causes of people's  behavior, including one's own. Also refers to the explanation made for a  particular behavior

• Three important attuributional biases are the fundamental attribution error, the  actor-observer bias, and the self-serving bias. The just-world hypothesis, along  with the fundamental attribution error, contributes to blaming the victim of the  tragedy. In some collectivistic cultures, people display the modesty, or self

effacing, bias and are less prone to making the fundamental attribution error then  our people in individualistic cultures

o Fundamental attribution error – the tendency to attribute the behavior of  others to internal, personal characteristics, while ignoring or  

underestimating the effects of external, situational factors; an attributional  bias that is common in individualistic cultures  

o Actor-observer bias – the tendency to attribute our own behavior to  external, situational characteristics, while ignoring or underestimated the  effects of internal, personal factors

o Blaming the victim – the tendency to blame an innocent victim of a  misfortune for having somehow caused the problem or for not having  taken steps to avoid or prevented

o Just-world hypothesis – the assumption that the world is fair and that  therefore people get what they deserve and deserve what they get

o Self-serving bias – the tendency to attribute successful outcomes of one's  own behavior to internal causes and unsuccessful outcomes to external,  situational classes

The Social Psychology of Attitudes

• An attitude is a learned tendency to evaluate an object, person, or issue in a  particular way. This evaluation is usually positive or negative, but maybe  ambivalent. Attitudes can have cognitive, emotional, and behavioral components

o Attitude – a learned tendency to evaluate some object, person, or issue any  particular way; such evaluations may be positive, negative, or ambivalent • Attitudes are likely to determine behaviors when they are extreme or expressed  frequently, when they have been formed through direct experience, when people  are very knowledgeable about the attitude object, when people have a vested  interest in the subject of the attitude, and when people expect a favorable outcome  from acting in accordance with their attitude

• When behavior conflicts with attitudes, cognitive dissonance may occur, and  people may change their attitudes to conform to their behavior

o Cognitive dissonance - an unpleasant state of psychological tension or  arousal (dissonance) that occurs when two thoughts or perceptions  

(cognitions) are inconsistent; typically results from the awareness that  attitudes and behaviors are in conflict

Understanding Prejudice

• Prejudice refers to a negative attitude toward people who belong to a specific  social group. Stereotypes are characteristics associated with all members of  particular social groups. Relying on stereotypes can have many negative  consequences. Stereotyped thinking can distort perception and cause us to  accurately prejudge individuals. Once formed, stereotypes resists change

o Prejudice - a negative attitude towards people who belong to a specific  social group

o Stereotype – a cluster of characteristics that are associated with all  members of a specific social group, often including qualities that are  unrelated to the objective criteria that define the group

• Judgments of others are also influenced by whether they are members of the in group or an out-group. We’re more likely to use negative stereotypes to evaluate  members of out-groups. The out-group homogeneity effect and in-group bias are  two forms of bias that can result in in-group/out-group thinking

o In-group – a social group to which one belongs

o Out-group – a social group to which one does not belong

o Out-group homogeneity effect – the tendency to see members of out groups as very similar to one another

o In-group bias – the tendency to judge the behavior of in-group members  favorably and out-group members unfavorably

• Stereotypes form the cognitive basis for prejudicial attitudes. Prejudice also has  emotional and behavioral components. Implicit attitudes are preferences that are  unintentional and sometimes unconscious, and are measured by the Implicit  Association Test

o Implicit attitudes – preferences and biases toward particular groups that  are automatic, spontaneous, unintentional, and often unconscious;  

measured with the Implicit Associations Test (IAT)

• Muzafer Sherif demonstrated that intergroup conflict can be decreased when  groups engaged in a cooperative effort. Cooperative learning is one way of  reducing prejudice in classrooms

Conformity: Following the Crowd

• Social influence is the psychological study of how behavior is influenced by the  social environment and other people. Conformity occurs when people change  their behavior, attitudes, and beliefs in response to real or imagined pressure.  Sometimes people conform publicly but not privately

o Conformity – adjusting your opinions, judgments, or behaviors so that they  match the opinions, judgments, or behaviors of other people, or the norms  of a social group or situation

• Research by Solomon Asch demonstrated the degree to which people will  conform to a majority view and the conditions under which conformity is most  likely. Normative and informational social influence both contribute to  conformity

o Normative social influence – behavior that is motivated by the desire to  gain social acceptance and approval

o Informational social influence - behavior that is motivated by the desire to  be correct

• Conformity is generally higher in collectivistic cultures than in individualistic  cultures. Conformity to group norms is viewed less negatively in many  collectivistic cultures than it is in individualistic cultures  

Obedience: Just Following Orders

• Obedience was studied most extensively by Stanley Milgram. In Milgram’s  original obedience experiment, the subject (the “teacher”) thought he was  delivering ever-increasing levels of electric shock to another person (the  “learner”). In contrast to predictions, most of the subjects obeyed the  experimenter and progressed to the maximum shock level

o Obedience – the performance of a behavior in response to a direct  command

• Milgram identified several powerful aspects of the original experimental situation  that influenced subjects to obey the experimenter and continue delivering electric  shocks. In later experiments, Milgram also identified several situational factors  that made people less likely to obey

• Asch’s research on conformity and Milgram’s research on obedience demonstrate  the degree to which behavior is influenced by situational factors

Altruism and Aggression: Helping and Hurting Behavior

• The scientific study of helping behavior – altruism and prosocial behavior – was  spurred by the murder of Kitty Genovese in front of 38 witnesses. Although no  one intervened to save Genovese, sometimes people do help strangers

o Altruism – helping another person with no expectation of personal reward  or benefit

o Prosocial behavior – any behavior that helps another, whether the  underlying motive is self-serving or selfless

• Bibb Latané and John Darley extensively studied the circumstances under which  people will help a stranger. Several factors have been identified that affect the

likelihood of bystander intervention. Diffusion of responsibility is the most  important factor that explains the bystander effect 

o Bystander effect – a phenomenon in which the greater the number of  people present, the less likely each individual is to help someone in  distress

o Diffusion of responsibility – a phenomenon in which the presence of other  people makes it less likely that any individual will help someone in  distress because the obligation to intervene is shared among all the  

onlookers

• The likelihood that people will engage in aggressive behaviors is driven by a  number of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors that interact with  one another

o Aggression - verbal or physical behavior intended to cause harm to other  people

The Influence of Groups on Individual Behavior

• Individual behavior can be strongly influenced by the presence of others. In social  loafing, people expend less effort when working as a group on a collective task  than when working alone on the same task. Social loafing is less likely when we  know the other people in a group, when we are members of a highly valued  group, or when a task is meaningful or unique

o Social loafing – the tendency to expend less effort on a task when it is in a  group effort

• Social loafing is reduced or reversed in some collectivistic cultures. Instead,  individuals spend more effort when they are working in a group on a collective  task, a phenomenon known as socials striving

• Under some conditions, the presence of others enhances individual performance, a  phenomenon called social facilitation. Social facilitation is most likely when a  task is simple or well rehearsed. Performance decreases when a task is complex or  poorly learned

o Social facilitation – the tendency for the presence of other people to  enhance individual performance

• Deindividuation can occur when increased arousal due to the presence of others is  combined with diffusion of responsibility and anonymity. Deindividuation can  lead to antisocial behaviors, but it can be reduced if self-awareness is heightened

o Deindividiation - the reduction of self-awareness and inhibitions that can  occur when a person is a part of a group whose members feel anonymous • We engage in persuasion when we try to influence other people’s attitudes or  behavior  

o Persuasion – the deliberate attempt to influence the attitudes or behavior  of another person in a situation in which that person has some freedom of  choice

Quiz:

1. In the process of person perception, we initially form a very rapid first impression  based largely on looking at other people’s faces. According to the textbook, if you  glanced at a stranger’s face for only one tenth of a second:

a. It would be impossible to form any kind of impression of the person b. You could arrive at an impression of the person’s physical attractiveness,  but would not be able to infer any other characteristics about the person in  that brief time period

c. You could evaluate the other person’s attractiveness, likability,  competence, trustworthiness, and aggressiveness

d. You would have to rely entirely on the process of explicit cognition to  arrive at an impression of the person in that amount of time

2. While working on a term paper Marcie read some interesting research on the  mental processes we use to form judgments and draw conclusions about the  characteristics and motives of others. Marcie was reading research about:  a. Social influence

b. Evolutionary psychology

c. Person perception

d. Cognitive psychology

3. Psychologists use the term implicit cognition to describe the:

a. Tendency to overestimate one’s ability to have foreseen or predicted the  outcome of an event

b. Cognitive schemas or mental frameworks we hold about traits and  behaviors associated with different types of people

c. Deliberate, conscious mental processes involved in perceptions,  judgments, decisions, and reasoning

d. Automatic, nonconscious mental processes that influence perceptions,  judgments, decisions, and reasoning

4. Harrison is a handsome young man. Other people are most likely to perceive him  as being:

a. More lonely, less popular, and more anxious in social situations than other  people

b. Much the same as less attractive people

c. Less socially competent than unattractive people

d. More intelligent, happier, and better adjusted than other people 5. The common tendency in individualistic cultures to attribute the behavior of  others to internal, personal characteristics, while ignoring or underestimating the  effects of external, situational factors is called:

a. The fundamental attribution error

b. Diffusion of responsibility

c. Altruism

d. The bystander effect

6. Leslie is concerned about the environment and consistently sorts her garbage by  placing paper, plastic, metal, and glass in their respective recycling containers.  This example best illustrates the ____ component of attitudes.

a. Behavioral

b. Biological

c. Cognitive

d. Emotional

7. Roger was not sure which of the two candidates to vote for in the race for mayor.  However, after he cast his vote, he felt much more confidant that he had made the  correct choice. The change in the strength of Roger’s attitude about the candidate  he voted for is probably the result of:

a. Normative social influence

b. Cognitive dissonance

c. Social categorization

d. Social categorization

e. Informational social influence

8. According to the In Focus box, “Interpersonal Attraction and Liking.” We are  more attracted to people whom we perceive as being like us. However, cross cultural research has shown that:

a. Attraction does not occur in every culture

b. We perceive similarities in most people

c. Similarity is a less important predictor of attraction in some eastern  cultures

d. Different cultures perceive similarity exactly the same way  

9. The tendency to see members of out-groups as very similar to each other is called: a. The self-serving bias

b. The bystander effect

c. The out-group homogeneity effect

d. Ethnocentrism  

10. Muzafer Sheriff’s work with 11-year-old boys at a summer camp demonstrated  that:

a. Contrary to expectations, competition between the two groups actually  increased harmony between them

b. When situations were created that required cooperation and the joint  efforts of both groups, conflict and hostility between them were reduced c. It was very difficult to establish in-group/out-group conflict because there  were no intrinsic differences between the Rattlers and the Eagles d. Simple social contact between the two groups greatly reduced conflict and  hostility

11. What were the basic results of psychologist Stanley Milgram’s original obedience  study?

a. Despite hearing protests form the learner in another room, two-thirds of  the subjects continued to administer shocks all the way to the full 450-volt  level

b. The majority of the subjects refused to continue the experiment when the  learner first protested that the shocks were painful at the 90-volt level c. Only about one-third of the subjects continued to obey the experimenter  and administer shocks beyond the 350-volt level

d. Even though ordered by the experimenter to do so, not subject went  beyond the 300-volt level

12. While studying in the crowded library, Arlene hears a crashing noise and then  someone moaning. The commotion appeared to come from behind closed doors  marked “Staff Only.” Nobody near Arlene seems concerned, so Arlene goes back  to her studying. This example best illustrates:

a. The self-serving bias

b. Altruism

c. The bystander effect

d. The rule of reciprocity

13. On a cross-country road trip Gregory ran out of gas on the outskirts of Edenville,  population 3,211. Which of the following is most probable?

a. There is no way to predict if Gregory will get assistance because  population size is not correlated with helping behavior

b. Gregory is less likely to get help than if he had a similar problem in  nearby Clarksville, population 25,000

c. Although he is a complete stranger in this small town, Gregory is likely to  get help very quickly

d. Gregory is more likely to get help than if he had a similar problem in  nearby Clarksville, population 25,000

14. Ken and Suzy were interested in trading in their four-door sedan for a sportier  convertible car. They had successfully negotiated a straightforward trade and had  filled out the sales contract. The car salesman took the paperwork to his  manager’s office for approval but cam back looking dejected. “I’m terribly sorry,”  the car salesman said. “My manager won’t let me complete the trade. He says that  the convertible is worth much more than your sedan. We can still make a deal, but  you will have to pay $5,000 in addition to your trade-in.” In this scenario the  salesman is attempting the:

a. Door-in-the-face technique

b. Highball technique

c. Low ball technique

d. Rule of reciprocity

15. The Stanford Prison Experiment demonstrated the powerful influence of: a. The just-world hypothesis

b. Situational roles and conformity to implied social rules and norms c. Explicit orders and direct pressure to obey by an authority figure d. The bystander effect

Chapter 14 – Psychological Disorders

Introduction: Understanding Psychological Disorders

• Distinguishing “normal” form “abnormal” behavior involves consideration of  many different vectors, including cultural norms. Psychopathology refers to the  scientific study of the origins, symptoms, and development of psychological  disorders  

o Psychopathology - the scientific study of the origins, symptoms, and  development of psychological disorders

• A psychological disorder, or mental disorder, is a pattern of behavior or  psychological symptoms that causes significant personal distress and/or impairs  the ability to function

o Psychological disorder or mental disorder - a pattern of behavioral and  psychological symptoms that causes significant personal distress, impairs  the ability to function in one or more important areas of life, or both

• The diagnostic criteria for specific psychological disorders are described in the  DSM-5, which has been criticized for gender bias, cultural bias, and for  pathologizing normal behavior and experiences

o DMS-5 – abbreviation for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental  Disorders, fifth edition; the book published by the American Psychiatric  Association that describes the specific symptoms and diagnostic  

guidelines for different psychological disorders

• The prevalence of psychological disorders is much higher than had previously  been thought. According to one comprehensive survey, approximately one in two  Americans will experience a psychological disorder at some point in their  lifetime, and approximately one in four Americans has experienced the symptoms  of a psychological disorder in the previous year. Comorbidity is common,  meaning that many people are diagnosed with more than one disorder

Fear and Trembling: Anxiety Disorders, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

• In contrast to normal anxiety, anxiety disorders consist of irrational and  uncontrollable feelings and are unreasonably intense, frequent, persistent, and  disruptive  

o Anxiety – an unpleasant emotional state characterized by physical arousal  and feelings of tension, apprehension, and worry

o Anxiety disorders – a category of psychological disorders in which  extreme anxiety is the main diagnostic feature and causes significant  disruptions in the person’s cognitive, behavioral, or interpersonal  

functioning

• Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder are characterized by  intense anxiety that is not triggered by a specific stimulus. Generalized anxiety  disorder involves a constant, persistent state of anxiety. Panic disorder involves  sudden episodes of extreme, intense anxiety, which are called panic attacks.  

o Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) – an anxiety disorder characterized  by excessive, global, and persistent symptoms of anxiety; also called free floating anxiety

o Panic attack – a sudden episode of extreme anxiety that rapidly escalates  in intensity

o Panic disorder – an anxiety disorder in which the person experiences  frequent and unexpected panic attacks

• Agoraphobia is fear of suffering a panic attack or other embarrassing symptoms in  a public or inescapable situation

o Agoraphobia – an anxiety disorder involving extreme fear of experiencing  a panic attack or other embarrassing or incapacitating symptoms in a  public situation where escape is impossible and help is unavailable

• The phobias involve intense and irrational fear, and avoidance of the feared object  or situation. Important forms of phobias include specific phobia and social anxiety  disorder. Learning theory and evolved biological predispositions have been  offered as explanations of the development of phobias

o Phobia – a persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, situation, or  activity

o Specific phobia – an excessive, intense, and irrational fear of a specific  object, situation, or activity that is actively avoided or endured with  marked anxiety

o Social anxiety disorder – an anxiety disorder involving the extreme and  irrational fear of being embarrassed, judged, or scrutinized by others in  social situations

o Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) develops in response to an extreme  psychological or physical trauma. Symptoms include frequent intrusive  memories of the trauma, avoidance of stimuli and situations associated  with the event; negative changes in thoughts, moods, and emotions, and a  persistent state of heightened physical arousal Posttraumatic stress 

disorder (PTSD) – a disorder triggered by exposure to a highly traumatic  event which results in recurrent, involuntary, and intrusive memories of  the event; avoidance of stimuli and situations associated with the event;  negative changes in thoughts, moods, and emotions; and a persistent state  of heightened physical arousal

• Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a disorder in which a person's life is dominated  by repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and actions (compulsions). Biological factors  that have been implicated in obsessive-compulsive disorder include serotonin  deficiency and brain dysfunction

o Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) – disorder characterized by the  presence of intrusive, repetitive, and unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and  repetitive behaviors or mental acts that are individual feels driven to  perform (compulsions)

o Obsessions – repeated, intrusive, and uncontrollable irrational thoughts or  mental images that cause extreme anxiety and distress

o Compulsions – repetitive behaviors or mental acts that a person feels  driven to perform in order to prevent or reduce anxiety and distress, or to  prevent a dreaded event or situation

Disordered Moods and Emotions: Depressive and Bipolar Disorders • The depressive and bipolar disorders, also called affective disorders, involve  serious, persistent disturbances in emotions that caused psychological discomfort  and/or impair the ability to function

• The symptoms of major depressive disorder include negative emotions, extreme  pessimism, thoughts of suicide, cognitive impairment, lack of motivation, and  sleep disruption for a period of two weeks or longer. Persistent depressive 

disorder is a chronic form of depression that is often less severe than major  depressive disorder

o Major depressive disorder – a mood disorder characterized by extreme  and persistent feelings of despondency, worthlessness, and hopelessness,  causing impaired emotional, cognitive, behavioral, and physical  

functioning  

o Persistent depressive disorder – a disorder involving chronic feelings of  depression that is often less severe than major depressive disorder  

• Major depressive disorder is the most common psychological disorder. Left  untreated, major depressive disorder may recur and become progressively more  severe. Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) generally occurs with the onset of the  fall and winter months, and its associated with lesser amounts of some might

o Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) – a mood disorder in which episodes of  depression typically occur during the fall and winter and subside during  the spring and summer

• Bipolar disorder usually involves periods of depression alternating with manic  episodes. A milder form of bipolar disorder is cyclothymic disorder. Bipolar  disorder is less common major depressive disorder

o Bipolar disorder – a mood disorder involving periods of incapacitating  depression alternating with periods of extreme euphoria and excitement;  formerly called manic depression

o Manic episode – a sudden, rapidly escalating emotional state characterized  by extreme euphoria, excitement, physical energy, and raped thoughts and  speech  

o Cyclothymic disorder – a mood disorder characterized by moderate but  frequent mood swings that are not severe enough to qualify as bipolar  disorder

• Genetics, brain chemistry, and stress have all been located in the depressive  disorders and bipolar disorders. The neurotransmitters serotonin and  norepinephrine have been located in a major depressive disorder. Another  neurotransmitter, glutamate, may be involved in bipolar disorder

Eating Disorders: Anorexia, Bulimia, and Binge-Eating Disorder

• Eating disorders are serious and maladaptive disturbances in behavior. Anorexia  nervosa is defined by the refusal to maintain a normal body weight, an irrational  fear of gaining weight, and distorted perceptions about body size

o Eating disorder – a category of mental disorders characterized by severe  disturbances in eating behavior

o Anorexia nervosa – an eating disorder characterized by excessive with  loss, and irrational fear of gaining weight, and distorted body self

perception

• Bulimia nervosa involves episodes of binging and purging. People with this eating  disorder typically maintain a normal body weight. Binge-eating disorder involves  episodes of binging without purging

o Bulimia nervosa – an eating disorder characterized by binges of extreme  overeating followed by self-induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives, or

other inappropriate methods to purge the excessive food and prevent  weight gain

o Binge-eating disorder – an eating disorder characterized by binges of  extreme overeating without use of self-induced vomiting or other  

inappropriate measures to purge the excessive food  

• Eating disorders are more common in females than males. Factors that contribute  to the development of eating disorders include genetics and disruptions of  neurotransmitters and other chemical signals that normally regulate eating  behavior. Cultural attitudes also contribute to eating disorders

Personality Disorders: Maladaptive Traits

• Personality disorders are characterized by inflexible, maladaptive patterns of  thoughts, emotions, behavior, and interpersonal functioning. These traits are  stable over time and across situations, and deviate from the social and behavioral  expectations of the individual's culture

o Personality disorder – inflexible, maladaptive patterns of thoughts,  emotions, behavior, and interpersonal functioning that are stable over time  and across situations, and that deviate from the expectations of the  

individual’s culture

• Personality disorders are grouped into three clusters: the audit, eccentric cluster;  the dramatic, emotional, erratic cluster; and the anxious, fearful cluster • Antisocial personality disorder is characterized by a pervasive pattern of  disregarding and violating the rights of others. People with this personality  disorder habitually deceive and manipulate others for their own gain. A history of  substance abuse, arrest, and other irresponsible behaviors is common. Multiple  factors seem to be involved in the development of antisocial personality disorder o Antisocial personality disorder – a personality disorder characterized by a  pervasive pattern of disregarding and violating the rights of others; such  individuals are also often referred to as psychopaths or sociopaths

• Borderline personality disorder is characterized by instability of interpersonal  relationships, self-image, and emotions. Mood swings, impulsive actions, self destructive tendencies, and substance abuse are common features. Factors that  seem to contribute to the development of this disorder include parental neglect for  abuse during childhood

o Borderline personality disorder – a personality disorder characterized by  instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and emotions, and  marked impulsivity

The Dissociative Disorders: Fragmentation of the Self

• Dissociative experiences involve a disruption in awareness, memory, and personal  identity. The dissociative disorders, however, dissociative experiences are  extreme, frequent, and disruptive

o Dissociative experience – a break or disruption in consciousness during  which awareness, memory, and personal identity become separated or  divided

• Dissociative amnesia is characterized by the inability to recall important  information, an inability that is not due to a medical condition and that cannot be  explained by ordinary forgetfulness. Some cases of dissociative amnesia involve  dissociative fugue, which is amnesia with sudden, unexplained travel away from  home

o Dissociative amnesia – a dissociative disorder involving the partial or total  inability to recall important personal information

o Dissociate fugue – a type of dissociative amnesia involving sudden and  unexpected travel away from home, extensive amnesia, and identity  confusion

• Dissociative identity disorder (DID) involves memory gaps and the presence of  two or distinct identities. Some psychologists are skeptical of dissociative identity  disorder. According to one theory, the DID is caused by trauma in childhood and  represents an extreme form of coping through dissociation

o Dissociative identity disorder (DID) – a dissociative disorder involving  extensive memory disruptions along with the presence of two or more  distinct identities, or “personalities”; formerly called multiple personality  disorder  

Schizophrenia: A Different Reality

• Schizophrenia is a psychological disorder that involves severely distorted beliefs,  perceptions, and thought processes

o Schizophrenia – a psychological disorder in which the ability to function  is impaired by severely distorted beliefs, perceptions, and thought  

processes

• The positive symptoms of schizophrenia represent excesses in a normal  functioning. They include delusions, hallucinations, and severely disorganized  thought processes, speech, and behavior. Negative symptoms reflect deficits or  decreases in normal functioning. They include flat affect, alogia, and avolition

o Positive symptoms – in schizophrenia, symptoms that reflect excesses or  distortions of normal functioning, including delusions, hallucinations, and  disorganized thoughts or beliefs

o Negative symptoms - in schizophrenia, symptoms that reflect defects or  deficits in normal functioning, including flat affect, alogia, and avolition o Delusion - a falsely held belief that persists despite compelling  

contradictory evidence

o Hallucination - a false or distorted perception that seems vividly real to  the person experiencing it

• The course of schizophrenia it's highly variable. Schizophrenia becomes chronic  in about one half of the people who experience a schizophrenic episode. About  one quarter recover completely, and about one quarter experience recurrent  episodes that are able to function with minimal impairment

• Family, twin, and adoption studies session genetics contribute to the development  of schizophrenia. However, studies of identical twins demonstrate non-genetic  factors play at least an equal role in the development of schizophrenia. Non inherited genetic factors probably involved in schizophrenia, as researchers have

found that genetic mutations are much more common people with schizophrenia.  Bipolar disorder and schizophrenia seem to share some common genetic markers.  Although genetics is clearly implicated in the development of schizophrenia, no  specific gene for pattern of genetic variation has been found to be clearly  predictive of schizophrenia. The risk of schizophrenia is higher in the offspring of  older fathers

• According to the dopamine hypothesis, excess dopamine in the brain may be  associated with schizophrenia. Newer hypotheses also implicate neurotransmitters  glutamate and adenosine in schizophrenia. Along with abnormal brain chemistry,  abnormalities in brain structure and function have been identified as factors  associated with schizophrenia. Environmental factors that may be involved in  schizophrenia include exposure to a virus during prenatal development and a psychologically unhealthy family environment. Adopted children who were  genetically at risk to develop schizophrenia were found to be less likely to  develop the disorder when raised in a psychologically healthy family

Quiz:

1. Regarding the difference between normal and abnormal behavior, which of the  following statements is TRUE?

a. Abnormal behavior is usually frightening and disturbing, but normal  behavior is not.

b. Abnormal behavior is unusual, whereas normal behavior is not

c. Normal behavior is not “crazy” but abnormal behavior is

d. The difference between normal and abnormal is often a matter of degree 2. The National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R) found that: a. Almost 1 out of 2 adults (46%) has experienced the symptoms of a  psychological disorder at some point thus far in his or her life  

b. The vast majority of people with a psychological disorder seek  

professional treatment for their symptoms

c. There was a very low degree of comorbidity; few people with one disorder  were likely to be diagnosed with another disorder as well

d. Only 1 out of every 10 adults (10 percent) has experienced the symptoms  of a psychological disorder at some point in his or her life

3. Although he has only been caught one time, Devin has repeatedly shoplifted small  items that he could easily pay for or doesn’t need. Which of the following  psychological disorders is Devin most likely to have?

a. Kleptomania

b. Borderline personality disorder

c. Pyromania

d. Tourette’s disorder

4. Which of the following is an anxiety disorder that is characterized by constant,  excessive, and unjustified anxiety about a wide range of issues and  

circumstances?

a. Agoraphobia

b. Panic disorder

c. Posttraumatic stress disorder

d. Generalized anxiety disorder

5. The textbook defines ______ as a persistent and irrational fear of something,  usually a specific object or situation that does not necessarily interfere with the  ability to function in daily life.

a. Ataque de nervios

b. Panic disorder

c. A phobia

d. Taijin kyofusho

6. Which of the following statements about social anxiety disorder is FALSE? a. People with social anxiety disorder typically are unaware that their fears  are unreasonable or excessive

b. People with social anxiety disorder fear being embarrassed or failing in  public

c. In severe cases, people with social anxiety disorder may suffer a panic  attack in social situations

d. Social anxiety disorder is more prevalent among women than men 7. Which of the following would be an example of a phobia that reflects biological  preparedness?

a. After being bitten by a strange dog, Eloise is phobic of dogs

b. Ever since he was a child, Alan has been terrified of snakes

c. After being mugged on a subway platform, Annie is afraid to ride the  subway and insists on taking buses or cabs

d. Simply eating a meal with others in a restaurant evokes unbearable anxiety  in Stephen

8. In the last three days, Doug has become progressively more energetic and  euphoric. He has been sleeping no more than an hour or two a night, but he seems  to have unlimited energy. Doug is inappropriately self-confident as he veers from  one grandiose idea to another in his plans to become rich and famous. Doug  appears to be experiencing:

a. A manic episode

b. Rapid cycling

c. Symptoms of dissociative identity disorder

d. Dissociative identity disorder

9. Antidepressant medications are often used in the treatment of major depressive  disorder. In general, these medications work by:

a. Decreasing brain levels of lithium

b. Increasing brain levels of serotonin and norepinephrine

c. Increasing brain levels of lithium

d. Decreasing levels of serotonin and norepinephrine

10. About four months ago, 16-year-old Amanda went on a drastic diet that caused  her to drop from her normal weight of 120 pounds to less than 90 pounds.  Although her weight is dangerously low, she continues to undereat because she  thinks she looks fat. Amanda suffers from:

a. Bulimia nervosa

b. Somatic symptom disorder

c. Anorexia nervosa

d. Dissociative identity disorder  

11. Personality traits are:

a. Correlated with the later development of schizophrenia

b. The precursors to dissociative disorders  

c. Relatively stable predispositions to behave or react in certain ways d. Constantly changing throughout the ages and stages of the lifespan 12. Borderline personality disorder is characterized by:

a. Erratic, unstable relationships, emotions, and self-image, and desperate  efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment

b. Pervasive but unwarranted distrust and suspiciousness and assumptions  that other people intend to deceive, exploit, or harm them

c. Rigid preoccupation with orderliness, personal control, rules, or schedules  that interfere with competing tasks.

d. Extreme social inhibition due to feelings of inadequacy, and  

hypersensitivity to criticism or disapproval  

13. A disorder called _____ is characterized by symptoms of extensive amnesia,  wandering or traveling, and confusion about one’s personal identity. a. Schizophrenia

b. Dissociative amnesia

c. Dissociative fugue

d. Borderline dissociative state

14. According to the text discussion, which of the following statements about the role  of genetics in schizophrenia is FALSE?

a. If either of the biological parents of an adopted individual had  schizophrenia, the adopted individual is at greater risk to develop  schizophrenia

b. Family, twin, and adoption studies clearly indicate that genetic factors  play a role in many cases of schizophrenia  

c. The more closely related a person is to someone who has schizophrenia,  the greater the risk that he or she will eventually develop schizophrenia d. Evidence that points to a genetic cause of schizophrenia, such as the high  concordance rate among identical twins, refutes the idea that  

environmental factors play a causal role

15. Use of cocaine or amphetamines cause:

a. Increase susceptibility to the dopamine virus  

b. Increase dopamine activity in the brain, which can produce  

schizophrenia-like symptoms

c. Increase dopamine activity in the brain, which often reduces the symptoms  of schizophrenia  

d. Decreases dopamine activity in the brain, which can produce  schizophrenia-like symptoms  

Terms for Ch.’s 11, 12, & 14 (7th ed)

Chapter 11 – Personality

o Collective unconscious – in Jung’s theory, the hypothesized part of the  unconscious mind that is inherited from previous generations and that contains  universally shared ancestral experiences and ideas

o Archetypes – in Jung’s theory, the inherited mental images of universal human  instincts, themes, and preoccupations that are the main components of the  collective unconscious

o Humanistic psychology – the Theoretical viewpoint on personality that  generally emphasizes the inherent goodness of people, human potential, self actualization, the self-concept, and healthy personality development  

o Actualizing tendency – in Rogers’s theory, the innate drive to maintain and  enhance the human organism

o Self-concept – the set of perceptions and beliefs that you hold about yourself o Conditional positive regard – in Rogers’s theory, the sense that you will be  valued and loved only if you behave in a way that is acceptable to others;  conditional love or acceptance

o Unconditional positive regard – in Rogers’s theory, the sense that you will be  valued and loved even if you don’t conform to the standards and expectations  of others; unconditional love or acceptance

o Social cognitive theory – albert Bandura’s theory of personality, which  emphasizes the importance of observational learning, conscious cognitive  processes, social experiences, self-efficacy beliefs, and reciprocal determinism

o Reciprocal determinism – a model proposed by psychologist Albert Bandura  that explains human functioning and personality as caused by the interaction  of behavioral, cognitive, and environmental factors

o Self-efficacy – the beliefs that people have about their ability to meet the  demands of a specific situation; feelings of self-confidence  

o Trait – a relatively stable, enduring predisposition to consistently behave in a  certain way

o Trait theory – a theory of personality that focuses on identifying, describing,  and measuring individual differences in behavioral predispositions o Surface traits – personality characteristics or attributes that can easily be  inferred from observable behavior

o Source traits – the most fundamental dimensions of personality; the broad,  basic traits that are hypothesized to be universal and relatively few in number o Five-factor model of personality – a trait theory of personality that identifies  extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to  experience as the fundamental building blocks of personality

o Behavioral genetics – an interdisciplinary field that studies the effects of  genes and heredity on behavior

o Psychological test – a test that assesses a person’s abilities, aptitudes,  interests, or personality on the basis of a systematically obtained sample of  behavior

o Projective test – a type of personality test that involves a person’s interpreting  an ambiguous image; used to asses unconscious motives, conflicts,  psychological defenses, and personality traits

o Rorschach Inkblot Test – a projective test using inkblots, developed by Swiss  psychiatrist Hermann Rorschach in 1921

o Graphology - pseudoscience that claims to assess personality, social, and  occupational attributes based on a person’s distinctive handwriting, doodles,  and drawing style  

o Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) – a projective personality test, developed  by Henry Murray and colleagues, that involves creating stories about  ambiguous scenes

o Self-report inventory – a type of psychological test in which a person’s  responses to standardized questions are compared to established norms o Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) – a self-report  inventory that assesses personality characteristics and psychological disorders;  used to assess both normal and disturbed populations  

o California Psychological Inventory (CPI) – a self-report inventory developed  by Raymond Cattell that generates a personality profile with ratings on 16 trait  dimensions

Chapter 12 – Social Psychology  

o Social psychology – branch of psychology that studies how a person's  thoughts, feelings, and behavior are influenced by the presence of other  people and by the social and physical environment

o Sense of self – an individual's unique sense of identity that has been  influenced by social, cultural, and psychological experiences; your sense  of who you are in relation to other people

o Social cognition – the mental processes people used to make sense of their  social environments

o Social influence – the effect of situational factors and other people on an  individual's behavior

o Person perception – the mental processes used to form judgments and  draw conclusions about the characteristics and motives other people

o Social norms – the “rules” or expectations, for appropriate behavior in a  particular social situation

o Social categorization – the mental process of categorizing people into  groups (or social categories) on the basis of their shared characteristics o Explicit cognition – deliberate, conscious mental processes involved in  perceptions, judgments, decisions, and reasoning

o Implicit cognition – automatic, non-conscious mental processes that  influence perceptions, judgments, decisions, and reasoning

o Implicit personality theory – a network of assumptions or beliefs about the  relationships among the various types of people, traits, and behaviors o Attribution – the mental process of inferring the causes of people's  behavior, including one's own. Also refers to the explanation made for a  particular behavior

o Fundamental attribution error – the tendency to attribute the behavior of  others to internal, personal characteristics, while ignoring or

underestimating the effects of external, situational factors; an attributional  bias that is common in individualistic cultures  

o Actor-observer bias – the tendency to attribute our own behavior to  external, situational characteristics, while ignoring or underestimated the  effects of internal, personal factors

o Blaming the victim – the tendency to blame an innocent victim of a  misfortune for having somehow caused the problem or for not having  taken steps to avoid or prevented

o Hindsight bias – the tendency to overestimate one's ability to have  foreseen or predict the outcome of an event

o Just-world hypothesis – the assumption that the world is fair and that  therefore people get what they deserve and deserve what they get o Self-serving bias – the tendency to attribute successful outcomes of one's  own behavior to internal causes and unsuccessful outcomes to external,  situational classes

o Attitude – a learned tendency to evaluate some object, person, or issue any  particular way; such evaluations may be positive, negative, or ambivalent o Cognitive dissonance - an unpleasant state of psychological tension or  arousal (dissonance) that occurs when two thoughts or perceptions  (cognitions) are inconsistent; typically results from the awareness that  attitudes and behaviors are in conflict

o Prejudice - a negative attitude towards people who belong to a specific  social group

o Stereotype – a cluster of characteristics that are associated with all  members of a specific social group, often including qualities that are  unrelated to the objective criteria that define the group

o In-group – a social group to which one belongs

o Out-group – a social group to which one does not belong o Out-group homogeneity effect – the tendency to see members of out groups as very similar to one another

o In-group bias – the tendency to judge the behavior of in-group members  favorably and out-group members unfavorably

o Implicit attitudes – preferences and biases toward particular groups that  are automatic, spontaneous, unintentional, and often unconscious;  measured with the Implicit Associations Test (IAT)

o Conformity – adjusting your opinions, judgments, or behaviors so that they  match the opinions, judgments, or behaviors of other people, or the norms  of a social group or situation

o Normative social influence – behavior that is motivated by the desire to  gain social acceptance and approval

o Informational social influence - behavior that is motivated by the desire to  be correct

o Obedience – the performance of a behavior in response to a direct  command

o Altruism – helping another person with no expectation of personal reward  or benefit

o Prosocial behavior – any behavior that helps another, whether the  underlying motive is self-serving or selfless

o Bystander effect – a phenomenon in which the greater the number of  people present, the less likely each individual is to help someone in  distress

o Diffusion of responsibility – a phenomenon in which the presence of other  people makes it less likely that any individual will help someone in  distress because the obligation to intervene is shared among all the  onlookers

o Aggression - verbal or physical behavior intended to cause harm to other  people

o Social loafing – the tendency to expend less effort on a task when it is in a  group effort

o Social facilitation – the tendency for the presence of other people to  enhance individual performance

o Deindividiation - the reduction of self-awareness and inhibitions that can  occur when a person is a part of a group whose members feel anonymous o Persuasion – the deliberate attempt to influence the attitudes or behavior  

of another person in a situation in which that person has some freedom of  choice

Chapter 14 – Psychological Disorders

o Psychopathology - the scientific study of the origins, symptoms, and  development of psychological disorders

o Psychological disorder or mental disorder - a pattern of behavioral and  psychological symptoms that causes significant personal distress, impairs  the ability to function in one or more important areas of life, or both

o DMS-5 – abbreviation for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental  Disorders, fifth edition; the book published by the American Psychiatric  Association that describes the specific symptoms and diagnostic  

guidelines for different psychological disorders

o Anxiety – an unpleasant emotional state characterized by physical arousal  and feelings of tension, apprehension, and worry

o Anxiety disorders – a category of psychological disorders in which  extreme anxiety is the main diagnostic feature and causes significant  disruptions in the person’s cognitive, behavioral, or interpersonal  functioning

o Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) – an anxiety disorder characterized  by excessive, global, and persistent symptoms of anxiety; also called free floating anxiety

o Panic attack – a sudden episode of extreme anxiety that rapidly escalates  in intensity

o Panic disorder – an anxiety disorder in which the person experiences  frequent and unexpected panic attacks

o Agoraphobia – an anxiety disorder involving extreme fear of experiencing  a panic attack or other embarrassing or incapacitating symptoms in a  public situation where escape is impossible and help is unavailable

o Phobia – a persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, situation, or  activity

o Specific phobia – an excessive, intense, and irrational fear of a specific  object, situation, or activity that is actively avoided or endured with  marked anxiety

o Social anxiety disorder – an anxiety disorder involving the extreme and  irrational fear of being embarrassed, judged, or scrutinized by others in  social situations

o Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) – a disorder triggered by exposure  to a highly traumatic event which results in recurrent, involuntary, and  intrusive memories of the event; avoidance of stimuli and situations  associated with the event; negative changes in thoughts, moods, and  emotions; and a persistent state of heightened physical arousal

o Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) – disorder characterized by the  presence of intrusive, repetitive, and unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and  repetitive behaviors or mental acts that are individual feels driven to  perform (compulsions)

o Obsessions – repeated, intrusive, and uncontrollable irrational thoughts or  mental images that cause extreme anxiety and distress

o Compulsions – repetitive behaviors or mental acts that a person feels  driven to perform in order to prevent or reduce anxiety and distress, or to  prevent a dreaded event or situation

o Major depressive disorder – a mood disorder characterized by extreme  and persistent feelings of despondency, worthlessness, and hopelessness,  causing impaired emotional, cognitive, behavioral, and physical  functioning  

o Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) – a mood disorder in which episodes of  depression typically occur during the fall and winter and subside during  the spring and summer

o Persistent depressive disorder – a disorder involving chronic feelings of depression that is often less severe than major depressive disorder  o Bipolar disorder – a mood disorder involving periods of incapacitating  depression alternating with periods of extreme euphoria and excitement;  formerly called manic depression

o Manic episode – a sudden, rapidly escalating emotional state characterized  by extreme euphoria, excitement, physical energy, and raped thoughts and  speech  

o Cyclothymic disorder – a mood disorder characterized by moderate but  frequent mood swings that are not severe enough to qualify as bipolar  disorder

o Eating disorder – a category of mental disorders characterized by severe  disturbances in eating behavior

o Anorexia nervosa – an eating disorder characterized by excessive with  loss, and irrational fear of gaining weight, and distorted body self perception

o Bulimia nervosa – an eating disorder characterized by binges of extreme  overeating followed by self-induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives, or  other inappropriate methods to purge the excessive food and prevent  weight gain

o Binge-eating disorder – an eating disorder characterized by binges of  extreme overeating without use of self-induced vomiting or other  inappropriate measures to purge the excessive food  

o Personality disorder – inflexible, maladaptive patterns of thoughts,  emotions, behavior, and interpersonal functioning that are stable over time  and across situations, and that deviate from the expectations of the  individual’s culture

o Antisocial personality disorder – a personality disorder characterized by a  pervasive pattern of disregarding and violating the rights of others; such  individuals are also often referred to as psychopaths or sociopaths

o Borderline personality disorder – a personality disorder characterized by  instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and emotions, and  marked impulsivity

o Dissociative experience – a break or disruption in consciousness during  which awareness, memory, and personal identity become separated or  divided

o Dissociative disorders – a category of psychological disorders in which  extreme and frequent disruptions of awareness, memory, and personal  identity impair the ability to function  

o Dissociative amnesia – a dissociative disorder involving the partial or total  inability to recall important personal information

o Dissociate fugue – a type of dissociative amnesia involving sudden and  unexpected travel away from home, extensive amnesia, and identity  confusion

o Dissociative identity disorder (DID) – a dissociative disorder involving  extensive memory disruptions along with the presence of two or more  distinct identities, or “personalities”; formerly called multiple personality  disorder  

o Schizophrenia – a psychological disorder in which the ability to function  is impaired by severely distorted beliefs, perceptions, and thought  processes

o Positive symptoms – in schizophrenia, symptoms that reflect excesses or  distortions of normal functioning, including delusions, hallucinations, and  disorganized thoughts or beliefs

o Negative symptoms - in schizophrenia, symptoms that reflect defects or  deficits in normal functioning, including flat affect, alogia, and avolition o Delusion - a falsely held belief that persists despite compelling  contradictory evidence

o Hallucination - a false or distorted perception that seems vividly real to  the person experiencing it

Additional Important Information (Not in Book – From Lecture)

Social Psychology

• Social Psychology

o Behavior or thought in the real, imagined, or implied prescience of  others

o Sense of Self: Unique sense of identity influenced by social, cultural, and  psychological experiences  

• Attribution: Explaining Behavior

o Attribution is the mental process of interring the causes of people’s  behavior, including one’s own

o Common attributional biases and explanatory patterns

▪ Fundamental attributional error

▪ Actor-observer bias

▪ Blaming the victim (just-world hypothesis)

▪ Hindsight bias

▪ Self-serving bias

▪ Self-efficacy (or modesty) bias

• Attributing Behavior to Persons or to Situations

o Attribution Theory: Fritz Heider (1958) suggested that we have a tendency  to give causal explanations for someone’s behavior, often by crediting  either the situation or the person’s disposition

o A teacher may wonder whether a child’s hostility reflects an aggressive  personality (dispositional attribution) or is a reaction to stress or abuse (a  situational attribution)

• The Social Psychology of Attitudes

o Attitude components

▪ Cognitive: thoughts and conclusions about given topic or situations ▪ Affective: feelings or emotions about topic

▪ Behavior: actions that you perform regarding the topic or situations o People who hold strong opinions and express them openly are most likely  to behave in ways that are consistent with tier attitudes

Please Refer to PSYC 10.11.16 Lecture notes for additional information on Social  Psychology  

Best of Luck on the Final!

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