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UF / Communications / ADV 3000 / organizations enter the blogosphere to achieve real-time communication

organizations enter the blogosphere to achieve real-time communication

organizations enter the blogosphere to achieve real-time communication


School: University of Florida
Department: Communications
Course: Principles of Public Relations
Professor: Mickey nall
Term: Fall 2016
Cost: 50
Name: PR Exam III Guide
Description: All my diamonds shine cus' they really diamonds. Here is your guide to exam iii. Everything you need to know. Yeet.
Uploaded: 12/05/2016
33 Pages 166 Views 1 Unlocks

● Who is the primary audience for the release?

● Who is the key message?

● 7 STRATEGIES FOR RESPONDING TO A CRISIS (possibly a word problem where you must ​ determine which strategy to be used for the response: Is this justification or apology?

PUR3000 FINAL EXAM GUIDE WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 7TH AT 12:50 PM How to maximize this guide: 1. Read this guide three times (preferably once a day beginning four days before the exam). 2. The day of the exam, go through and mIf you want to learn more check out math pages msu
Don't forget about the age old question of public speaking final exam
Don't forget about the age old question of Does reversing the orientation of the curve C reverses the sign of the integral?
We also discuss several other topics like asu byeng building
We also discuss several other topics like it 214 final exam
We also discuss several other topics like What hemisphere region of the brain is specialized for language processing?
ake sure you understand all of the bolded words. 3. Study this material through chunking (if there is a paragraph break, this is where you can break up the information for studying concepts). 4. Review the summaries of each chapter at the end as many times as possible. 5. Reread the textbook (Chapters 10, 13, 14, 15, 17, 20, 21) and review your lecture notes (or mine). Non-cumulative exam: 45-50 multiple choices and maybe some true and false 10: CONFLICT MANAGEMENT: “WHERE THE RUBBER MEETS THE ROAD.” ● PR PROFESSIONALS MUST DEMONSTRATE THEIR VALUE DURING A CRISIS/CONFLICT ○ PR professionals must develop communication strategies and processes to influence the course of conflicts to the benefit of the organization and, when possible, to the benefit of the organization’s many constituents: Such use of PR to influence the course of a conflict, and ultimately a crisis, is called strategic conflict management. ○ Key components: ■ Strategic: for the purpose of achieving particular objectives (because very C-Suit oriented again) ■ Management: planned, deliberate action ● Risk communications - insurance ■ Competition: striving for the same object, position, or prize ​as others ■ Conflict: sharp disagreements or opposition resulting in a direct, overt threat​ of attack from another entity. ● Mitigate or clash ● TIME: ○ The stance-driven approach to PR began with the discovery that virtually all practitioners share an unstated, informal approach to managing conflict and competition: “it depends.” ○ Threat Appraisal Model (Figure 10.2) ■ Situational and organizational demands become a sub-conflict ● Organizational: do you have the know ​ ledge, time​, finances, and management commitment to combat the threat? ● Situational​: how do you assess the severity of the danger to the organization? ■ Social media plays a massive part in conflict management because C-Suit people do not have a week to solve a social media conflict, it is immediate. ■ A threat to an organization requires an assessment of the demands that threat makes on the organization, as well as what resources are available to deal with the threat ● IT DEPENDS: 2 BASIC PRINCIPLES 1. Many factors determine the stance or position of an organization when it comes to dealing with conflict and perceived threats against the organization.ORK GUIDES 2. The PR stance for dealing with a particular audience or public is dynamic, that is, it changes as events unfold. This is represented by a continuum of stances from pure advocacy to pure accommodation figure 10.3. a. These two principles form the basis of what is called contingency theory. ○ Contingency continuum​: ■ The range of response can be shown on a continuum from pure advocacy to pure accommodation: aka hard-nosed stance of completely disagreeing or refuting the arguments, claims, or threats of a competitor or a group concerned about an issue. ○ Matrix of contingency factors ​that organizations should go through (external and internal factors): ■ Why it’s happening and things you need to know ■ External Factors: Why a SWOT analysis is conducted ● External threats ● Industry specific environment ● General political social environment ● External public’s characteristics ● The issue under consideration ■ Internal factors ● General corporate/organizational characteristics ● Characteristics of the PR department ● Top management characteristics ● Internal threats ● Personality characteristics of internal, involved persons ● Relationship characteristics. ● 4 PHASES OF CONFLICT MANAGEMENT 1. Proactive Phase​: where you plan for crisis ■ Environmental scanning: the constant reading, listening, and watching of current affairs with an eye to the organization’s interests ■ As issues emerge, issues tracking becomes more focused and systematic through processes such as the daily clipping of news stories ■ Issues management occurs when the organization makes behavior changes or creates strategic plans in ways that address the emerging issue. ■ Well run organizations will also develop a general crisis plan as a first step in preparing for the worst - an issue or an event that has escalated to crisis proportions ■ Secondary research 2. Strategic Phase: ​management function of crisis ■ 3 broad strategies in this phase ● Through risk communication, dangers or threats to people or organizations are conveyed to forestall personal injury, health problems, and environmental damage. This continues so long as the risk exists or until the risk escalates into crisis ● Conflict positioning strategies enable the organization to position itself favorable in anticipation of actions such as litigation, boycott, adverse legislation, elections, or similar events that will play out in the “court of Public opinion” ● Specific crisis management plan is developed for that particular issue 1ORK GUIDES 3. Reactive Phase​: the planes have all crashed and we need a plan. ■ There will be restitution ■ Lawyers super involved ■ Crisis communications ● Include the implementation of the crisis management plan as well as the hectic, 24/7 efforts to meet the needs of the publics such as disaster victims, employees, government officials, and the media. ■ When conflict has emerged but is not careening out of control, Conflict Resolution techniques are used to bring a heated conflict, such as collapsed salary negotiations, to a favorable resolution. ■ Figure 10.5 ■ Litigation PR: employs communication strategies and publicity efforts in support of legal actions or trials. 4. Recovery Phase ■ Reputation Management: systematic research to learn the state of the organization’s reputation and then take steps to improve it. ● Fire people ■ Image restoration: require a genuine change by the organization ■ Self disclosure: fall on the sword philosophy, PR people love it. ● ISSUES MANAGEMENT ○ Notes: ■ *probably a word question in the form of: Was it an issue or a crisis problem?* ■ *understand the difference between Issues and and crisis management* ○ Issues management: a proactive and systematic approach to: 1. Predict problems 2. Anticipate threats 3. Minimize surprises 4. Resolve issues 5. Prevent crisis ○ The idea of proactive planning: try to identify issues and influence decisions regarding them before they have a detrimental effect on a corporation ○ The point is particularly relevant because studies have shown that the majority of organizational crises are self-inflicted, because management ignored early warning signs. ○ Five basic steps: ■ Issue identification ■ Issue analysis ■ Strategy options ■ An action plan ■ The evaluation of results ○ Strategy options ■ What to do about a problem. ○ Action Plan ■ Once a specific policy has been decided on, the fourth step is to communicate it to all interested publics. ○ Evaluation ■ With the new policy in place and communicated, the final step is to evaluate the results 2ORK GUIDES ● CONFLICT MANAGEMENT ○ 3 triggers for a crisis ■ Financial irregularities ■ Unethical behavior ■ Executive misconduct ○ First 24 hours determines whether the situation remains an incident or becomes a full blown crisis ○ What is a Crisis? ■ Media often frames a situation as a crisis for the organization ○ Lack of Crisis Planning ■ Business crisis are almost inevitable ■ A quick response is an active response because it tries to fill the vacuum with fats. A slow response allows others to fill the vacuum with speculation and misinformation. But others could be ill-informed or could use the opportunity to attack the operation ○ How to Communicate during a crisis ■ Figure 10.5 ○ Organizations do not, and sometimes cannot, engage in two way communication and accommodative strategies when confronted with a crisis or conflict with a given public. Some variables proscribing accommodation include: ■ Management’s moral conviction that the public is wrong ■ Moral neutrality when two contending publics want the organization to take sides on a policy issue ■ Legal constraints ■ Regulatory constraints such as the FTC or SEC ■ Prohibition by senior management against an accommodative stance ■ Possible conflict between departments of the organization on what strategies to adopt. ● 7 STRATEGIES FOR RESPONDING TO A CRISIS (possibly a word problem where you must ​ determine which strategy to be used for the response: Is this justification or apology?) ○ Strategies for Responding to Crisis ■ Attack the Accuser: the party that claims a cri ​ sis exists is confronted and its logic and facts are faulted. Sometimes a lawsuit is threatened. ■ Denial: ​the organization explains that there is no crisis. ■ Excuses: ​the organization minimizes its responsibility for the crisis. ANy intention to do harm is denied, and the organization says that it had no control over the events that led to the crisis. This strategy is often used when there is a natural disaster or product tampering. ■ Justification: ​crisis is minimized with a statement that no serious damage or injuries resulted. Sometimes, the blame is shifted to the victims, as in the case of the Firestone tire recall. This is often done when a consumer misuses a product or when there is an industrial accident. ● Example: Apple Iphones: problem with reception, Apple said consumers were holding the phone wrong. ■ Ingratiation: ​actions are taken to appease the publics involved. Consumers who complain are given coupons, or the organization makes a donation to a charitable organization. 3ORK GUIDES ● Burlington dog-fur collar coats but advertised as wolf fur. Ultimately, Burlington made a huge contribution to the humane society. ■ Corrective Action: steps are taken to repair the damage from the crisis and to ​ prevent it from happening again. ■ Full Apology: ​the organization takes responsibility and asks forgiveness. Some compensation of money or aid is often included. ● REPUTATION MANAGEMENT: 3 FOUNDATIONS ○ The three foundations of Reputation, 1) Economic performance, 2) social responsiveness, and 3) the ability to deliver valuable outcomes to stakeholders. ■ Reputation audits (research techniques) can be used to assess and monitor an organization’s reputation ■ Stealing thunder rather than letting media break the news does frequently work to advantage ■ Apology is not always effective because of the hypocrisy factor ■ Figure 10.6 ○ Image restoration ■ building equity ■ Other strategies used by executives to recover reputation are, in descending order, ● To make progress/recovery possible ● Analyze what went wrong ● Improve governance structure ● Make the CEO and leadership accessible to the media ● Fire employees involved in the problem ● Commit to high corporate citizenship standards ● Carefully review ethics policies ● Hire outside auditors for internal audits ● Issue an apology from the CEO CHAPTER 13: THE INTERNET AND SOCIAL MEDIA ● PERVASIVENESS AND THE INTERNET (don’t memorize num ​ bers); just have a sense of it ○ Mediasphere vs the Blogosphere/ the new media system has the characteristics of ■ Widespread broadband ■ cheap/ free easy-to-use online publishing tools ■ New distribution channels ■ Mobile devices ■ New advertising paradigm ○ Facebook has more followers than twitter ● PULL VERSUS PUSH STRATEGY ○ Only difference between traditional and digital PR is that websites have a pull factor from the website, mostly push info out of organizations and hope that consumers get it. ○ Making a website interactive ■ The pull concept: the user actively pulls information from the various links that are ​ provided 4ORK GUIDES ● The user is constantly interacting with the site and pulling the info most relevant. ■ The push concept​: information delivered to the user without active participation. ■ The ideas of being interactive and encouraging feedback are more buzzwords than reality on many websites. ■ A delayed response to an email or no response at all damages an organization’s reputation and credibility. ● PODCASTS AND BLOGS ○ Blogs​: everyone is a journalist ■ Blogs are an extremely cost-effective way to reach large number of people ■ The format of mechanics of blogs make them attractive for several reasons: ● Almost anyone can create a blog with open-source software. A blog is as ideal for a small business as it is for a large company ● There are virtually no startup costs ● The format and writing are informal, which can give an organization a friendly, youthful human face. ● Links can be made to other blogs and webpages. ● Readers can post comments directly on the blog ● Material can be updated and changed instantly. ● Extensive uses of syndication technologies allow aggregation of information from hundreds of blogs at once. An organization can immediately assess what customers and various publics are saying about it. ● Blogs give an organization an outlet to participate in the online dialogue already going on in other blogs and message boards. ● They allow organizations to post their own points of view unfettered by the editing process of traditional media. ■ Organizations enter the blogosphere for four reasons​: ● To achieve real-time communications with key stakeholders ● To enable passionate, knowledgeable people (employees, executives, customers) to talk about the organization, its products, and its services ● To foster conversation among audiences with an affinity for or connection with the organization ● To facilitate more interactive communication and courage audience feedback. ■ Organizational Blogs: a corporate blog, unlike ​ an employee blog, is usually written by an executive and represents the official voice of the organization. ■ Employee blogs: are great sources of feedbac ​ k, ideas, and employee engagement ● There is a need to establish some guidelines for these. ○ Be transparent about any former, current, or prospective clients being mentioned in the blog ○ Respond in a timely manner to individuals who post comments ○ Generate as much original material as possible instead of just commenting on current news events ○ Link only to blog sites that are relevant to your post 5ORK GUIDES ○ Make sure readers know that the blog represents your views and not necessarily those of your employer or client. ■ Third party blogs​: organizations must monitor these too. ○ Podcasts​: Radio on Steroids ■ Can be delivered to users via computers, MP3 players, IPods, and even smartphones. ■ Most are audio only, but video podcasts are also find a home on smartphones, websites, YouTube, and other social networking sites. ■ Purposes: ● News about the company ● In depth interviews with executives and other experts ● Features giving consumer tips about the use of products and services and ● Training materials for employees ■ 3 major advantages: 1. Cost-effectiveness 2. The ability of users to access material on a 24/7 basis 3. Portability ■ Equipment needed ● Computer, Good microphone, Software (such as Audacity to record, edit, and finish audio files), A web server to store the files in a folder, and A website or a blog that users can access to download the podcast. ■ Difficult part is creating a podcast that is interesting and relevant to the target audience. Tips: ● Keep it less than 15 minutes ● Use several stories or segments ● Don’t use a script ● Create an RSS feed ● Produce new podcasts on a weekly basis ● DIFFERENCES AND VARIOUS TYPES OF SOCIAL MEDIA ○ Twitter is about headlines ○ Linkedin is business ○ Facebook used to be social/peer tool now it is a huge advertising and communications tool for organizations. ● RISING TIDE OF MOBILE ○ Smartphones will take over other electronics and how we as communications people use mobile CHAPTER 14: ***PREPARING MATERIALS FOR MASS MEDIA*** ● DEFINITIONS AND NUANCES ○ THE NEWS RELEASE: ​Today’s basic version of the news release, commonly referred to as a press release​, goes back more than a century when Ivy Lee wrote one for the Pennsylvania Railroad in 1906 6ORK GUIDES ■ The reality of mass comm today is that reporters and editors spend most of their time processing info, not gathering. ■ News release is not paid advertising ■ These planning questions should also include an ethical component: ● Who is the key message? This should be expressed in one sentence ● Who is the primary audience for the release? Is it journalists in traditional media, bloggers, or consumers looking for info via a search engine. ● What does the target audience gain from the product/service? What are the potential benefits and rewards? ● What objective does the release serve? Is it to increase product sales, enhance the organization’s reputation, or increase attendance at an event? ● Is a news release the best format for the information? ■ circulation vs. Impression numbers: Was it successful or not? ​ ● Impression number 2.5-3.5; the number is moving back towards circulation numbers. There may be one newspaper in the house but six people read it. ■ the Basic Online News Release ● Use single spacing ● 200 words or less ● Individuality “Dear ___ (Specific journalist)” Helps. ● You should specifically know your journalist. ● Use the inverted pyramid approach, in which the most important info is first, followed by less important details. ● The top line should give the name of the organization and perhaps its logo. ● The second line should give the date. ● The third line should be the headline in boldface with a slightly larger font than the text. This often serves as the subject line in an email, so it should give the key message in 20 words or less. It’s also important to include a keyword or phrase for search engine optimization (SEO) ● Provide the city of origination at the start of the lead paragraph. ● Write a succinct lead of only two or three sentences that gives the essence of the news release. ● Use a pull quote in the news release. This is a quote highlighted in a box that gives a major point about the release. ● Provide links in the news release so that readers can easily click on sites that provide related info. ● The last paragraph should provide basic info about the organization. ● The release should end with the name, telephone number, and the email address of the public relations contact person so that a reporter or blogger can easily contact him or her for more information. ○ THE MULTIMEDIA NEWS RELEASE: AKA “Smart media release” (SMR) or social media news release ■ SEO is the process of carefully selecting keywords for the news release that make the content easily retrievable. ● Uses audio and infographics​. ○ Infographics: ■ Simple is better ■ High rate of placement on websites and in news stories. 7ORK GUIDES ■ Tips: ● include links to Pages where multiple instances of your keywords/phrases reinforce your message. ● Place terms in key positions like headlines and first paragraphs ● distribute a release through a service that carries hyperlinks to downstream sites such as Yahoo finance, AOL news, and Netscape. ● don't go link crazy. ● don't use low-resolution images. ● Don't use all tools, all the time. ○ Focus first on the message. ○ use bells and whistles to complement the campaign ○ PUBLICITY PHOTOS​: More people read photographs than read articles. ■ Suggestions: ● Quality: ○ 72dpi (dots per inch) for fast download, but print publications need photos at 300 dpi in jpeg or gif format. ● Subject Matter: ○ “Grip and grin” photo of a person receiving an award or the CEO shaking hands with a visiting dignitary. ○ Large-group photograph is appropriate for the club newsletter but is never acceptable for a newspaper. ■ Instead take photos of groups of 3 or 4 from the same city and send only that photo to editors in that specific city. ● Composition: Uncluttered photos,Tight shots with minimum background, Emphasis on detail, not whole scenes, Limiting wasted space by reducing gaps between individual sor objects, Context matters ● Action: Makes a photo interesting (No static photos) ● Show scale ● Camera angle: Interesting angles can make the photo more compelling ● Lighting: Background is important, Use the sun ● Color: Have several formats available and send what the publication or news website wants. ○ MEDIA KITS: Aka press kit ​ ■ They are usually prepared for major events and new product launches, and their purpose is to give editors and reporters a variety of information that makes it easier for the reporter to write about the topic. ■ Typical contents (9X12 Folder): ● a basic news release ● a news feature about the product or service ● a fact sheet about the product, organization, or event ● Photos ● bios on the spokesperson or chief executives ● a basic brochure ● contact information such as email addresses, phone numbers, and website urls. ○ E-KITS: Electronic Media Kits 8ORK GUIDES ■ Distributed via email, a website, a cd or a flash drive. ■ lso posted to organizational websites or to servers so that journalists and bloggers can easily access them. ○ MAT RELEASES: Mat Feature Release ■ A variation of the traditional news release. ■ The concept is geared towards providing helpful consumer information and tips about a variety of subjects in an informative way with only a brief mention of the nonprofit or corporation that has distributed the release via affirms. ○ MEDIA ALERTS AND FACT SHEETS: AKA a media advisory ■ May be sent with an accompanying news release or by themselves. ■ Two Kinds ● Basically a summary sheet​ about the characteristics of a new product that serves as a quick reference for a journalist writing a story. They are used to support a media alert or to support a fact sheet. ● Often distributed as part of a media kit or with a news release to give supplemental information about a new product. ■ Corporate Profile:​ a one page summary in bulleted list format that gives the basic facts about an organization or a company. ● Purpose: provides reports with a “crib sheet” so that they can verify basic facts. ● Profile; it doesn’t change a lot. ○ PITCHING A STORY: ■ Pitch/engagement/building relationships: the objective is to contact journalists and bloggers on the one-to-one basis and convince them that you have a newsworthy story or idea. ■ Research each journalist before you pitch an idea, don’t cold call. ● Understand their individual deadlines. ■ Basic Guidelines for pitching by email: ● Use a succinct subject line that tells the editor what you have to offer; don't try to be cute or gimmicky. ● Keep the message brief, one screen at the most ● Don't include attachments unless the reporter is expecting you to do so. ○ Many reporters, due to the possibility of virus attacks, never open attachments unless they personally know the source. ● Don't send “blast” emails to large number of editors. ○ Email systems are setup to filter messages with multiple recipients in the “To” and “BCC” fields, a sure sign of spam. if you do send an email to multiple editors break the list into small groups ● Send tailored email pictures to specific reporters and editors; the pitches should be relevant to their beats and publications ● Regularly check the names and your email database to remove redundant recipients. ● Give editors the option of getting off your email list; this will ensure that your list is targeted to those who are interested. 9ORK GUIDES ● By the same token give editors the opportunity to sign up for regular updates via RSS feeds or from your organization's website. if they cover your industry they will appreciate it. ● Establish an email relationship. ○ One of the oldest services that match reporter queries with PR sources is PROFNET. ■ Pay the fee, see what’s going on, obtain the contact information to be matched ■ Very effective tool ■ After first story with journalist you have a real contact. ○ FIVE MAJOR METHODS FOR DISTRIBUTING MEDIA MATERIALS: 1. First-class mail. 2. Fax 3. Email 4. Electronic wire services: PR news wire: PR personnel pay a fee for it to be posted on the wire. 5. Online newsrooms. ○ ELECTRONIC NEWS SERVICES: ■ Purposes: they do the distribution ■ Benefits: saves time and money because it is very targeted ■ Convert a lot of what you do: news releases to customized search engine optimization ■ Corporate and financial info must be released according to SEC guidelines to multiple media outlets at exactly the same time. ■ Electronic news services provide a cost-effective way to directly reach thousands of media across the nation and even the globe with a single click. ○ ONLINE NEWSROOMS: ​Most major organizations have a pressroom or a newsroom as part of their website. ■ Very efficient because there is an enormous amount of material at your fingertips ■ A good online newsroom should have (at minimum): ● Current and archived news releases ● The names, phone numbers, and direct email addresses of PR contacts. ● Photographs ● Product information ● An opportunity for journalists to sign up for a daily RSS feed if they regularly cover that particular company or industry. ■ Reporters seeking info usually look first at the organization's website and online newsroom. ■ Other tips: ● Keep the online newsroom somewhat simple ○ Don't use sophisticated animation that might not be compatible with reporters’ computers ● Make high-resolution photos and graphics available that can be used for publication ● Link the pressroom to the company home page. 10ORK GUIDES ○ MEDIA INTERVIEWS: ■ A​ great deal of media coverage is generated by reporters calling an organization's spokesperson or working through the PR department to arrange an interview with an executive or expert. ■ Need for preparation: prepare the interviewee ■ Preparing for an interview ● Understand the interview’s purpose ● Short, direct answers delivered without hesitation help a person project an image of strength and credibility. ○ THE PRINT INTERVIEW: ■ An interview with a newspaper reporter may last about an hour and take place perhaps at lunch or over coffee in an informal setting. ■ Result may be a published story of 400-600 words. ■ Never ask to view the material before it is published (Rebuffed as a form of censorship) ■ A shorter Q and A type thing, sometimes done on the phone/skype ○ NEWS CONFERENCES: AKA PRESS CONFERENCE ■ Only use it for NEWS! You never know what else is going to happen in the world that makes your news conference null. ■ Makes possible quick, widespread dissemination of a person’s comments and opinions to a number of reporters at the same time ■ Most planned in advance: Regularly scheduled conference held by a public official at state times, even when there is nothing special to announce: briefing. ■ Planning and conducting a news conference: ● Never do one outside of Washington DC ● The essential element is the news. ● If you’re in a crisis ■ Checklist for PR staff organizing a news conference: ● Select a convenient location with minimal travel time. ● Set the date and time ○ Between midmorning and midafternoon ○ No friday afternoons. ● Distribute a media advisory about the upcoming news conference when appropriate. ○ Depends on the importance of the event ● Write a statement for the spokesperson to give at the conference and make sure that he or she understands and rehearses it. ○ Rehearse the entire conference ● Try to anticipate questions so that the spokesperson can readily answer difficult queries ○ problem/solution rehearsals prepare the spokesperson ● Prepare a media kit ○ Should include a brief fact sheet with names and titles of the participants, a basic news release, and basic support materials.The ● Make advance arrangements for the room 11ORK GUIDES ○ Enough chairs ○ Leave a center isle for photographers ○ Lectern must be able to accommodate several microphones. ● Arrive 30 to 60 minutes early to double check arrangements ○ Test microphones ○ Arrange name tags ○ Distribute literature. ○ ONLINE NEWS CONFERENCES ■ Many news conferences today are interactive webcasts so that journalists and bloggers around the world can participate. ■ Attendance is usually better. ● Cheaper and more time efficient ■ Find who the most influential online people are and pr people can tailor their pieces just for them. ○ MEDIA TOURS AND PRESS PARTIES: ■ Media Tours​: trip/junket ● Familiarization trip “fam trip” is offered to travel writers and editors by the tourism industry. ● The organization’s executives travel to key cities to talk to selected editors ● By invitation only, and its appropriate ■ Press Parties​: may be a luncheon, a dinner, or a cocktail party. ● Usually for consumer goods, especially fashion. ● Becoming fewer and fewer. ● SUMMARY (MICKY SPECIFICALLY SAID TO SEE THE END OF GUIDE SUMMARY) CHAPTER 15: RADIO AND TELEVISION “spend time here” ● DIFFERENCE BETWEEN RADIO AND TV ○ Still dominant sources in the US ■ Radio is free ■ Free aspects of tv ○ 2.5 hours a day for radio. 5 hours a day for tv ○ They reach the vast majority of the US public on a daily basis. ■ Radio and tv content has expanded to other digital platforms. ■ Broadcast media generate larger audiences for a particular program or event than any other single media platform. ■ Radio and tv are what the economist describes as “an inherently lazy form of entertainment” ■ Requires a special perspective ● AUDIO NEWS RELEASES (ANRS) ○ Radio news releases are written for the ear (More concise and to the point) ○ Guidelines on how to write a radio news release: ■ Time is money in radio. Stories should be no longer than 60 secs. Stories without actualities (soundbites) should be 30 seconds or less. 12ORK GUIDES ■ Convey your message with the smallest possible number of words and facts. ■ An ANR is not an advertisement; it is not a sales promotion piece. A radio news release is journalism - spoken. ■ Releases should be conversational. Use simple words and avoid legal-speak. ■ Never start a story with a name or a vital piece of info. While listeners are trying to figure out the person speaking and the subject matter, they don’t pay attention to the specific info. ○ Format: the most effective approach is to provide a radio station with a recording of someone with a good radio voice reading the entire announcement: this is called actuality ■ A second approach is to have an announcer and also include what is called a soundbite from a satisfied customer or a company spokesperson. ○ Production and Delivery: every ANR starts with a carefully written and accurately timed script ■ Most organizations use a professional recording and distribution service such as Strauss Radio Strategies. ● These services have state-of-the-art equipment and skilled personnel who can take a script, edit it, record it at the proper sound levels, and package it for distribution to broadcast outlets via phone, CDs, MP3 format, Webservers, and even through such networks as ABC and CNN radio. ○ Use of ANRs: somewhat of a bargain. ■ Despite their cost-effectiveness, ANRs should not be sent to every station. ■ The use of ANRs is increasingly popular with radio stations. ■ PR Tactics gives some additional tips from Trammell ● TImeliness ● Localization ● Humanization ● Human Appeal ● RADIO PSAS (PUBLIC SERVICE ANNOUNCEMENTS BY NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS) ○ Defined by the FCC: an unpaid announcement that promotes the programs of government or voluntary agencies or that serves the public interest. ○ Format and production: submit multiple psas on the same subject in various lengths; the idea is to give the station flexibility ○ Adding sound ■ Adding sound and other voices can make a radio PSA more interesting. ○ Use of Radio PSAs ■ Local community issues and events are most likely to receive airtime, followed by children’s issues. ■ Relatively low cost and the convenience of conducting numerous short interviews from one central location ■ Satellite media tour (SMT) ■ Do your homework and know that timing is a consideration. ● TELEVISION: BOTH SIGHT AND SOUND ○ Several approaches for getting an organization’s news and viewpoints on tv: ■ Send a standard news release ■ Send a media alert/advisory ■ Make a pitch by phone or email 13ORK GUIDES ■ Produce a video news release (VNR) package ■ Conduct a satellite media tour (SMT)​: around talk shows, primarily interviews on morning talk shows. ● Produce the promo for the station ■ Arrange for your spokesperson to appear on a tv talk or magazine show. ■ Do a product placement in tv entertainment shows. ● VIDEO NEWS RELEASES:​ need for a potential of national distribution and multiple pickups. (not cost effective like ANRs) ○ Format: somewhat complicated ■ 90second news report with voiceover narration on an audio channel separate from that containing soundbites and natural sound. ■ A B-Roll. THis is video only, without narration, giving a tv station maximum flexibility to add its own narration or use just a portion of the video as part of a news segment ■ Clear identification of the video source ■ Script, spokespeople info, media contacts, extra sound bites, and story background info provided electronically. ○ Production: pr departments and firms usually outsource production. ■ Tips: ● Give tv news directors maximum flexibility in editing the tape using their own anchors or announcers. ● Produce the VNR with news footage in mind. Keep soundbites short and to the point. Avoid commercial-like shots with sophisticated effects. ● Never superimpose your own written info on the actual videotape. ● Never use a stand-up reporter. Provide tv stations with a local angle. ● Good graphics ● B-ROLL PACKAGING: The new normal. ○ Contain additional soundbites and video that tv news staffs can use for repackaging the story. ○ “Fake news” ○ There are new standards for disclosure and transparencies. ● TV PSAs: ○ TV stations, like radio stations, use PSAs on behalf of governmental agencies, community organizations, and charitable groups. ○ They must be short, to the point, and professionally produced. ■ Both audio and visual elements must be present. ■ Talking head: someone speaking directly to the camera. ● SATELLITE MEDIA TOURS (SMT) ○ A series of prebooked, one-on-one interviews from a fixed location (usually a television studio) via satellite with a series of television journalists or talk show hosts. ○ Time efficient. ○ A staple of the pr and tv industries. ○ Co-op smts​: when organizations are represented on an SMT with a common theme or topic. 14ORK GUIDES ○ News feeds: ​A variation on the SMT is a news feed that provides video and soundbites of an event to tv stations across the country via satellite or through webcasts. ● GUEST APPEARANCES: DO YOUR HOMEWORK. ○ Possibilities are immense, a successful radio or tv show guest appearance has 3 requirements: ■ Preparation ■ Concise speech ■ Relaxation ○ Talk Shows: a staple of broadcasting: ○ 1960 KABC first talk show format ○ The advantage of talk shows is the opportunity to have viewers see and hear the organization’s spokesperson without the filter of journalists and editors interpreting and deciding what is newsworthy. ● MAGAZINE SHOWS:​ The term magazine refers to a tv program format that is based on a variety of video segments in much the same way that print magazines have a variety of articles. ● PITCHING A GUEST APPEARANCE ○ do your homework, be creative, and be succinct. ● Tv’s dramas and comedy shows, as well as the film industry, are good vehicles for promoting a company’s products and services: PRODUCT PLACEMENTS ○ Aka plugs: are often negotiated by product publicists and talent agencies ○ “Stealth marketing.” ○ PR specialists should always be alert to opportunities for publicity on television programs and upcoming movies. ○ In some cases, it’s a matter of mutual benefit ● ISSUES PLACEMENT ○ Convincing popular tv programs to write an issue or cause into their plotlines ○ The idea is to educate the public about a social issue or a health problem in an entertaining way. ○ The flip side of asking scriptwriters to include material is asking them to give a more balanced portrayal of an issue ● DJs AND THE MEDIA-SPONSORED EVENTS ○ Another form of product placement is agreements with radio stations to promote a product or event as part of their programming. ○ They must be convinced that their involvement will benefit the station in terms of greater public exposure, increased audience, and improved market position. ● It took 50-60 years for the world to adopt radio ○ 30-40 years to adopt tv ○ 10 for the internet ○ Now everyone has an iphone 15ORK GUIDES CHAPTER 17: CORPORATIONS ● Majority of people who go into PR will work in a corporate environment: Corporate PR ​ practitioners face a delicate balance between arguing for realism and making lame excuses on behalf of their companies ○ Role we play: ■ Corporate social responsibility (CSR) ● Must counsel the CEO ■ Corporations seek a better reputation for a variety of reasons: ● Responsible business practices ward off increased government regulation ● There is the matter of employee morale; companies with good policies and a good reputation tend to have less employee turnover ● A good corporate reputation also favorable affects the bottom line. ■ American businesses and their leaders need to act in 3 main areas: 1. To adopt ethical principles 2. Pursue transparency and disclosure 3. Make trust a fundamental precept of corporate governance ■ Four key factors that have to be considered at all times when making a decision: 1. Political 2. Technological 3. Social 4. Economic ○ MEDIA/CUSTOMER RELATIONS: ■ MEDIA RELATIONS: ● Media are a major source of Public information and perceptions about the business world and individual companies ● This volatility leads corporate executives to be defensive about how journalists cover their business, bc they feel too much emphasis has been given to corporate misdeeds and exaggeration of impacts on the environment and workforce even when companies devote effort to minimizing emissions, spills, and accidents ● Many corporate execs have several ongoing complains about about media coverage: ○ Inaccuracy, incomplete coverage, inadequate research, and prep for interviews, and an antibusiness bias. ● Fact driven messages ● Corporate reputation needs to remain untarnished or enhanced by the type of media coverage that an organization receives. ■ CUSTOMER RELATIONS: ● The front line of PR because of WOM (word of mouth) ○ How a company talks to its customers is among, if not the most critical communication it has. ● SLAPP: Strategic Lawsuit Against Public Participation ● Reaching Diverse Markets: two sides to most arguments 16ORK GUIDES ○ Strategic conflict management:​ how diverse markets perceive companies and how these companies work with these markets. ● Consumer Activism: a more serious and complex threat to corporate ​ reputation, which can also affect sales, is consumer activists who demand changes in corporate policies ○ PR staff must defend the company against what it believes are unfounded allegations and to simultaneously assure the public that company policies do provide for the humane/environmental/etc treatment of whatever. ○ PR professionals also represent the external communication climate to management in a way that calls for redoubled efforts to do what is right. ○ At the strategic level, a company weighs the potential impact of the charges or allegations on potential customer reaction and possible effect on sales before deciding on a course of action. ○ Be proactive, and if you can’t, be reactive. ○ Dos: ■ Work with groups who are more interested in solutions that getting publicity ■ Offer transparency. Activists who feel you’re not open aren’t likely to keep dealing with you. ■ Turn their suggestions into action. Activists want results. ○ Don’ts ■ Get emotional when dealing with advocacy groups. ■ Agree to work with anyone making threats. ■ Expect immediate results. Working with adversaries takes patience - establishing trust takes time. ● CONSUMER ACTIVISM/BOYCOTTS ○ One of the biggest things going on in our country rn ○ Boycott​: a refusal to buy the products or services of an offending company. ● EMPLOYER/INVESTOR/MARKETING COMMUNICATION ○ EMPLOYEE RELATIONS: ■ Employees have been called an organization's “ambassadors.” ■ PR department concentrates on communicating with employees just as vigorously as it concentrates on delivering the corporate story to the outside world. ■ Many employee issues must be addressed by a company, and PR professionals often are involved in counseling not only what policies should be created but also how they should be implemented and communicated ■ Another issue is sexual harassment ■ Layoffs and outsourcing present a major pr challenge. ● PR people must tell their employees when layoffs occur and humanize it and manage the employees that remain. ● Outsourcing white collar jobs: offshoring ○ INVESTOR RELATIONS (One of the most difficult of all corporate jobs): ■ A great deal of government regulations. 17ORK GUIDES ■ Another major component of keeping a company’s health and wealth is communicating with shareholders and prospective investors ● Investor relations (IR) is at the center of that process ○ Goal: combine the disciplines of communication and finance to accurately portray a company’s prospects from a investment standpoint ● Individuals who specialize in investor or financial relations, according to salary surveys, are the highest-paid professionals ○ MARKETING COMMUNICATION/MARKETING PR: ■ many companies use the tools and tactics of PR to support the marketing and sales objectives of their business ■ Integrated marketing communication (IMC)​: companies manage all sources of info about a product/service in order to ensure maximum message penetration. ■ Product Publicity: creative product publicity is a cost-effective way of reaching ​ potential customers. ■ Product placement: ​the appearance of a product as part of a movie or TV program, thereby helping to promote the brand. ● Branded entertainment or product integration ■ Cause-Related Marketing:​ profit making companies collaborate with a nonprofit organization to advance the latter’s cause and, at the same time, increase the former’s sales. ■ Corporate Sponsorships: ​Events, unlike causes, are money-making operations in their own right, but a large part of the underwriting often comes from sponsorship provided by other corporations. ● Four benefits of corporate sponsorships: 1. They enhance the reputation and image of the sponsoring company through association 2. They give product brands high visibility among key purchasing publics. 3. They provide a focal point for marketing efforts and sales campaigns 4. They generate publicity and media coverage. ● Sponsorships can be more cost effective than advertising. ● On occasion, a company will sponsor an event for the primary purpose of enhancing its reputation among opinion leaders and influential decision makers. ■ VIRAL Marketing:​ the buzz about a product/service. ● Word of mouth is powerful. ● The primary purpose: stimulate impulse purchases or downloads, but increasingly, pass-it-on techniques on the web are also intended to help PR professionals meet goals for reputation management and message dissemination. ● Cohort Communication: some viral m ​ arketing firms devise ways to stimulate the natural spread of recommendations through financial incentives. ● Detractors worry that viral marketing is too easily recognizable as commercial manipulation, except among hard-core enthusiasts. ● Payola: in the radio industry when DJs are paid to play certain tracts. 18ORK GUIDES ● Viral marketing companies argue that the technique will work only when the idea, the movement, or the product earns genuine support. ● ENVIRONMENTAL RELATIONS: ○ Corporate concern for the environment and sustainable resources ○ Sustainability and Clean Capitalism. ○ Work with NGOs who work with environmentalism, sustainability, health, infant mortality ○ Current trend:​ favors cooperation and partnerships among these former adversaries. ○ Greenwashing: the covering up of questionable environ ​ mental records with glitz and product marketing ■ PR professional ensures that companies avoid phony green initiatives ○ Must have exemplary social and environmental policies ● Micky noted this Summary too. CHAPTER 20: GLOBAL PR ● GLOBAL NATURE OF WHAT WE DO​: ○ Aka international pr ■ The planned and organized efforts of a company, institution, or government to establish and build relationships with the publics of other nations. ○ Development in other nations ■ Pr as an occupation and a career has achieved its highest development in the industrialized nations. It develops more rapidly in nations that have: ● Multiparty political systems ● Relatively free press ● Considerable private ownership of business and industry ● Large scale urbanization ● Relatively high per capita income levels, which also impacts literacy and educational opportunities ■ Working in china has challenges because the state owns the press. ● Fastest growth area in PR because the Chinese government worked very hard to bring the olympics and the business expo to beijing ● MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES: ○ Foreign Corporations in the United States ■ Corporations and industries in other countries frequently employ pr and lobbying firms to advance their products, services, and political interest in the US. ■ On a global level, there is intense lobbying to influence negotiations on a global climate change treaty. 19ORK GUIDES ○ US Corporations in Other Nations ■ The corporate headquarters usually decides what key messages will be communicated worldwide, but relies on PR staffs and local PR firms in each country to ensure that the messages are properly translated and implemented. ■ There is a need to better communicate to the world’s people the economic advantages of globalization. ● PR professionals are best suited to explain the benefits of globalization to three key groups: ○ Company management ○ Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) ○ International institutions like the United Nations ■ Corporations ● The first group is the companies themselves, which must realize that international capitalism has a bad connotation. ● INTERNET AND SOCIAL MEDIA: ○ Can allow us to affect each other all over the world. ○ Both managers and employees must act locally and think in global terms. ● NUANCES OF COMMUNICATIONS ACROSS REGIONS ○ Cultural differences ■ Objectives: to compete successfully and to manage conflict effectively, but the task is more complex on an international and intercultural level. ■ PR practitioners need to recognize cultural differences, adapt to local customs and understand the finer points of verbal and nonverbal communication in individual nations. ● Experts in intercultural communication point out that many cultures, particularly non-Western ones, are “high context” communication societies ■ Account for cultural dimensions: ● Power distance​: measures how tolerant a society is about unequally distributed decision-making power. ○ Countries with a low acceptance include Austria and the US. ○ Countries with a high acceptance of power distance include Mexico and France. ● Individualism​: as contrasted with collectivism, pits loyalty to one’s self against loyalty to a larger group. ○ Countries in Asia and Latin America gravitate toward collectivism, ○ while the US, Canada, and most European countries, gravitate toward individualism. 20ORK GUIDES ● Masculinity/femininity​: contrasts competitiveness (traditionally masculine) with compassion and nurturing (traditionally feminine). ○ Masculine nations include Australia, Germany, and Japan ○ Feminine nations include Sweden and Spain. ● Uncertainty avoidance:​ measures how well a society tolerates ambiguity. ○ Nations that have difficulty tolerating uncertainty include Japan, Belgium, and Greece. ○ Nations that tolerate ambiguity include Great BRitain, the US, and Sweden. ● Long term versus short term orientation:​ measures a society’s willingness to consider the traditions of the past and carry them into the future. ○ China and other East Asian nations tend to have long-term orientations in terms of a process or plan evolving over a number of years. ○ The US, in contrast, has a short-time orientations. ○ Americans, for example, get impatient if recovery from a recession takes more than one or two years. ■ Americans and others not only must learn the customs of the country in which they are working, but they also should rely on native professionals to guide them. ■ Giving the “Ugly American” a makeover ● Read a map ● Dress up ● Talk small ○ Talking about wealth, power, or status - corporate or personal - can create resentment. Bragging about America’s greatness is a real turnoff ● No Slang ● Slow Down ● Listen as much as you talk ● Speak lower and slower ● Exercise religious restraint ● Exercise political restraint ● Learn some words in the local language ● NGOs: ○ Act as certification bodies ○ Work from morals rather than from capital ○ They expend considerable energy to get international support for their programs and causes. 21ORK GUIDES ● PUBLIC RELATIONS BY GOVERNMENTS: ○ Much effort and billions of dollars are spent on the tourism industry to attract visitors. ○ Conflict and war between nations also lead to extensive pr efforts by both sides to influence world public opinion that their actions are justified. ○ How to deal with the US ■ Advance political objectives ■ Assess probably US reaction to a projected action by the country ■ Advance the country’s commercial interests ■ Assist in communications in english: it is the language of business and finance ■ Help win understanding of and support for specific issues that undermine the country’s standing in the US and the world community. ■ Modify laws and regulations inhibiting the country’s activities in the US. ■ Register with the Department of Justice ■ Include the establishment of an information bureau to provide facts and published statements of favorable opinion about the country. ○ Some of the toughest problems confronting PR firms who work for foreign governments include: (aka Reputation Management)​ ■ Deciding whether to represent a country whose human rights violations may reflect adversely on the agency itself. ■ Persuading the governments of such nations to alter some of their practices so that the favorable public image sought will reflect reality ■ Convincing the officials of a client country in which the government totally controls the flow of news internally that the American press is independent from government control and stressing that the officials should thus never expect coverage that is 100% favorable. ■ Deciding whether to resent a nation whose president allied with enemies of the US. ○ American Public Diplomacy: major dissemination of information around the world. ■ Public diplomacy is an open communication process primarily intended to present American society in all its complexity so that citizens and governments of other nations can understand the context of US actions and policies ■ Another function is to promote American concepts of democracy, free trade, and open communication around the world. ● One major vehicle of communication is the Voice of America (VOA)​, created in 1942 - radio network founded during the cold war ○ Streaming from WWW ○ Radio, news, tv ○ American propaganda 22ORK GUIDES CHAPTER 21: NONPROFIT, HEALTH AND EDUCATION ● NONPROFIT SECTOR: AKA CHARITIES ○ Massive ○ Serve the public interest: foster good will and are the beacons of social responsibility ○ Competition, Conflict, and Cooperation: they often compete with each other for members, funds, and other resources ■ Can come into conflict with other organizations whose values are different ● MEMBERSHIP ORGANIZATIONS ○ Purpose: ​mutual help and self improvement and to promote the professionalism of their members, endorse legislation, and support socially valuable causes. ○ Professional Associations: set the standards for professional performance, establishing codes of ethics, determining requirements for admission to a field, and encouraging members to upgrade their skills through continuing education. ● LABOR UNIONS VS TRADE GROUPS ○ LABOR UNIONS: ​Advocate on behalf of employees, whereas trade associations typically represent the interests of management. ○ TRADE GROUPS: ​membership usually consists of manufacturers, wholesalers, retailers, or distributors in the same field. ● ACTIVISM/ADVOCACY ○ ACTIVIST GROUPS​: subcategory of advocacy groups ■ Examples: Greenpeace, National Wildlife Foundation ○ ADVOCACY GROUPS: advocate to promote their own ​ causes, but may be perceived as lobbying for the good of the whole society. Their causes are often in conflict with one another. ■ The principal ways in which they work to achieve their goals are lobbying, litigation, mass demonstrations, boycotts, reconciliation, and public education, fundraising ● HEALTH: HOW THE PUBLICS VARY ○ Hospitals: ■ four basic elements: Patients, medical and administrative staffs, news media, and the community as a whole. ■ Two primary roles: 1) to strengthen and maintain the public’s perception of the institution as a place where medical skill, compassion, and efficiency are paramount, and 2) to help market the hospital’s array of services such as surgery and cancer treatment ○ Health agencies​: private and governmental health agencies, which serve the public interest by providing health care, funding for health initiatives, and oversight. ○ Health Campaigns​: prevent and respond to diseases, and promote health and quality of life. ■ Audience targeting: much of the health information that women receive is from public relations sources targeting this population. ■ Internet helps growth. 23ORK GUIDES ● FUNDRAISING AND DEVELOPMENT Aka Development or ad ​ vancement ○ May try to catch minnows​: hundreds of small contributions ○ PR professionals participate directly in fundraising by organizing and conducting solicitation programs or by serving as consultants to specialized development departments in their organizations. ○ May employ professional firms on a fee basis = liaison function ○ Motivations for giving = intrinsic sharing/ego satisfaction/peer pressure ○ Fundraising methods = corporate and foundation donations, structured capital campaigns from a patron or founder, direct mail, event sponsorship, tv solicitations or telephone solicitations ○ Endorsements and Tie ins (3 types of commercial money raising are the most common: 1. Licensing use of an organization’s name to endorse a product and receiving payment for each item sold 2. Sharing profits with a corporation from sales of a special product 3. Operating a business that generates revenue for the organization. ○ Online and social media . SUMMARIES CHAPTER 10 Strategic Conflict Management ● By defining PR as strategic management of competition and conflict, a fresh and vigorous approach to PR is envisioned. ● PR is positioned to earn influence within organizations by focusing on achieving objectives. The Role Of PR in Managing Conflict ● Some of the most crucial roles played by PR professionals involve the strategic management of conflict ● The Contingency theory argues for a dynamic and multifaceted approach to dealing with conflict in the field The Conflict Management Life Cycle ● Strategic conflict management can be broadly divided into 4 phases, with specific techniques and functions falling into each phase ● The life cycle emphasizes that conflict management is ongoing and cyclical in nature. Issues Managment ● Issues management is a proactive and systematic approach to predicting problemes, anticipating threats, minimizing surprises, resolving issues, and preventing crises ● The 5 steps in the issues management process are issue identification, issue analysis, strategy options, an action plan, and the evaluation of results. Conflict Positioning and Risk Communication ● Risk communication attempts to convey information regarding risk to public health and safety and the environment 24ORK GUIDES ● It involves more than the dissemination of accurate information ● The communicator must begin early, identify and address the public’s concerns, recognize the public as a legitimate partner, anticipate hostility, respond to the needs of the news media, and always be honest. Crisis Management ● The communications process is severely tested in crisis situations, which can take many forms. A common problem is the lack of crisis management plans even when a crisis is “smoldering.” Reputation Management ● One of an organization’s most valuable assets is its reputation. ○ This asset is impacted by how the organization deals with conflict, particularly those crises that generate significant media attention. ● Using research to monitor reputation and making realistic responses after crises have passed can minimize damage to an organization’s reputation. ● More important, returning to the proactive phase of conflict management to improve organizational performance will ultimately improve the organization’s reputation. CHAPTER 13 he internet: Pervasive in Our Lives ● The worldwide adoption of the internet and the www has taken less time than the adoption of any other mass medium in history ● The internet is the first major revolution in communication since the invention of the printing press ● The internet has democratized info in the respect that nearly anyone can now send and receive vast amounts of info without journalists or editors serving as gatekeepers and mediators of that content The WWW ● PR practitioners are heavy users of the internet and the web. THey disseminate info to a variety of audiences and also use the internet for research ● The new media, including the web, have unique characteristics: ○ Easy updating of material ○ Instant distribution of info ○ An infinite amount of space for info ○ The ability to interact with the audience ○ Webcasting, the streaming of audio and video in real time over a website, is now used by the majority of organizations for everything from news conferences to employee training. The rise of Social Media ● The second generation of the internet, called web 2.0 has given rise to “social media” in which most of the internet’s content is consumer generated. ○ Web 2.0 provides PR professionals with the opportunity to participate in social networking sites to get feedback and also to build relationships ● Blog have become mainstream in terms of numbers and influence. From a PR standpoint, there are three kinds of blogs: ○ Corporate ○ Employee ○ Third party 25ORK GUIDES ● MySpace and Facebook are the most popular social networking sites. Increasingly, organizations are establishing a presence on these sites. PR materials, however, need to be low key and creative to engage the audience ● YouTube is the premier social networking site for posting and viewing videos. The clips, however, must be creative, interesting, and somewhat humorous to attract an audience. ● Twitter is now extensively used by organizations to communicate with their customers ● Texting, Flickr, and Wikis are now part of the PR toolbox ● Podcasts are gaining in popularity. They can be either audio or video, but they must provide useful and relevant info in a conversational way. The Next Generation: Mobile-Enabled Content ● The next generation of the Internet (Web 3.0) will see the further development of smartphones as minicomputers. The cost of mobile-enabled content will go down, which will enable more consumers to send and receive vast amounts of info. CHAPTER 14 The News Release ● The news release is the most commonly used PR tactic ● New releases are sent to journalists and editors for possible use in news columns, and they are the source for a large percentage of articles that are published. ● News releases must be accurate, informative, and written in journalistic style. ● Online news releases are similar to traditional news releases, but the format is condensed and single-spacing is used. ○ Most widely distributed news releases are now sent by email or posted on organizational websites. ● Multimedia news releases harness the capabilities of the internet and social media by embedding photos, video, links, social tags, etc.,, into the basic news release. Publicity Photos ● Often accompany news releases to make a story more appealing ● Must be high resolution and well composed ● Can be made more interesting by manipulating the camera angle and lighting and by showing scale and action. ● Color photos are now commonly used in most publications. Media Kits ● Aka press kit ● Traditionally a folder containing news releases, photos, fact sheets, and features about a new product, event, or other newsworthy projects undertaken by an organization. ● Electronic press kits (EPKs) are now commonly used and are produced on CD, emailed, or placed on organizational websites. ● Usage: mostly online now and become part of the website or news release. Mat Releases ● A form of news release that primarily has a feature angle instead of hard news 26ORK GUIDES ○ They provide consumer info and tips in an objective manner, with only a brief reference to the client that is distributing the info via a distribution firm such as Family Features. ● These canned features appear in the food, travel, automotive, and business sections of a newspaper ● Looks like a news article today. ○ Paid for by PR. ● Clients go for quantity more than quality. (lots of hits) ○ Mat Releases get picked up now. ○ Lots of work now because you hire the photographers, stylize everything, visualize it, write, work with graphics and designers to lay it all out. ○ Benefit: a controlled message ● In between a news release and advertising. Media Alerts and Fact Sheets ● Advisories, or alerts, let journalists know about an upcoming event such as a news conference or photo or interview opportunities. ● Fact sheets give the five Ws and H of an event in outline form. Fact sheets also can be used to provide background on an executive, a product, or an organization. The Art of Pitching A Story ● PR personnel “pitch” journalists and editors with story ideas about their employer or client. ● Such pitches can be telephone calls, email, or even text messages and tweets. ● A good pitch is based on research and a creative idea that will appeal to the journalist or editor. Distributing Media Materials ● Electronic news services such as Business Wire provide an efficient way to distribute news releases around the world. ● Online newsrooms are often part of an organization’s website. THey allow the media and the public to access news releases, photos, videos, and other PR materials. Media Interviews ● Journalists often seek interviews with sources, and the role of the PR person is to facilitate their requests. ● PR personnel often do media training to ensure that sources give competent media interviews. News Conferences ● Such events should be held rarely and only when there is major news or intense media interest. ● PR personnel are usually in charge of logistics and arrangements for news conferences ● Online news conferences are popular because journalists in different locations can easily attend. Media Tours and Press Parties ● Company executives often go on a media tour to visit editors in various locations and discuss a new product, such as the iPad ● Press parties are primarily social events that allow an organization’s executives to meet journalists and develop working relationships CHAPTER 15 27ORK GUIDES The Reach of Radio and TV ● In today’s society, radio and tv reach the vast majority of people on a daily basis ● The average american spends about 37 hours per week watching tv, which is more than the time spent with any other medium, including the internet. Radio ● Radio releases, unlike those for print media, must be written for the ear and should be no longer than 60 seconds. ● A popular format is the audio news release (ANR) which includes an announcer and a quote (soundbite) from a spokesperson. ● Public service announcements (PSAs) are distributed by nonprofit organizations that wish to inform and educate the public about health issues or upcoming civic events. ● PSAs should be written in various lengths to give maximum flexibility for broadcast use. ● A radio media tour (RMT) involves a spokesperson being interviewed from a central location by journalists across the country. Each journalist is able to conduct a one-on-one interview for several minutes. Television ● The video news release (VNR) is produced in a format that television stations can easily use or edit based on their needs. ● VNRs are relatively expensive to produce, but they have great potential for reaching large audiences through TV stations, websites, or even Youtube Channels. ● B-Rolls, the compilation of video clips and soundbites, are increasingly preferred by tv news departments. ● TV PSAs must have audio and visual elements. ● Satellite media tours (SMTs) allow tv newscasters to interview a spokesperson on a one-to-one basis. ● With a news feed, an organization arranges for coverage of a particular event, and tv stations across the country can watch it in “real time” or receive an edited version of it for later use. Guest Appearances ● PR personnel often book spokespersons on radio and tv talk shows. The guest must have a good personality, be knowledgeable, and give short, concise answers. ● Booking a guest on a talk or magazine show requires a creative pitch to get a producer’s attention. Product Placements. ● Companies are increasingly making deals with producers to get their products featured on tv shows or movies. NOnprofit organizations also lobby to have scripts mention key health messages and deal with various social issues. ● Radio and tv stations often cosponsor a civic event with an organization,which leads to increased visibility for the station and the civic organization. CHAPTER 17 Today’s Modern Corporation ● Giant corporations have operations and customers around the globe 28ORK GUIDES ● The public is often distrustful of these large entities bc of their perceived wealth and power ● Corporate financial scandals in recent years have further eroded public trust. ● Corporations must make special efforts to win back their credibility and the public’s trust, and to tell the story of what corporations contribute to quality of life. ● The concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) is high on the list of PR priorities ● PR plays a role in corporate transparency and ethical principles of conduct to improve corporate governance Media Relations ● The public’s perception of business comes primarily from the mass media. ● Corporations must build a rapport with business editors and reporters by being accessible, open, and honest about company operations and policies. Customer Relations ● Customer service, in many ways, is the front line of public relations. ● Customer satisfaction is important for building loyalty and telling others about the product or the reputation of the company. ● PR professionals solicit customer feedback as often as possible and act to satisfy customers’ needs for communication and service. ● The US population is becoming more diverse. ● Companies are now establishing communication programs, as well as marketing strategies, to serve this growing diverse audience. ● Special interest groups exert pressure on corporations to be socially responsible. ● Companies cannot avoid activist groups; they must engage in dialogue with them to work out differences. ● Consumer boycotts also require PR expertise to deal effectively with a group’s demands. Employee Relations ● Employees are the “ambassadors” of a company and are the primary source of information about the company ● Employee morale is important, and a good communication program does much to maintain high productivity and employee retention. ● THe cardinal rule of corporate communications is to first talk to employees in person before announcing a layoff to the public. ● Many companies ease the impact of a layoff by providing a severance package. ● Offshoring is a rising concern of American workers, and companies must be sensitive to possible criticism. Investor Relations ● PR professionals who work in investor relations must be knowledgeable about communication and finance ● Quiet period: when a company is going public, all employees are required to remain quiet about what the company is doing. ‘ ● This highest-paying field in PR requires extensive knowledge of government regulations. Marketing Communications: ● Companies often take an integrated approach to campaigns, with PR, marketing, and advertising staffs working together to complement each other’s expertise 29ORK GUIDES ● Product publicity and product placement are part of marketing communication. ● Cause-related marketing involves partnerships with nonprofit organizations to promote a particular cause. ● Another aspect of marketing communication is corporate-sponsorships. Environmental Relations ● A new trend line is for corporations and activist organizations to have a dialogue and engage in collaborative efforts to change situations that damage the environment or violate human rights. Corporate Philanthropy ● Companies give about $15B a year to worthy causes ● Corporations select a charity that is complementary to their business and customer profile. ● Corporate philanthropy is part of an organization’s commitment to be socially responsible. CHAPTER 20 What is Global Public Relations? ● PR work today involves dealing with employees, customers, vendors, communities, and government officials in multiple nations ● PR is a well-developed industry in many nations around the world. ○ China, in particular, has a rapidly expanding PR industry that is getting more sophisticated every year. ○ Pay for play in China because journalist don’t make anything. International Corporate PR ● In the new age of global marketing, PR firms represent foreign interests in the US as well as the interests of American corporations around the world. ● The practitioner must deal with issues of language and cultural differences, including subtle differences in customs and etiquette and event ethical dilemmas such as paying for new coverage. ● A great deal of PR work for companies and governments involves lobbying a nation’s elected officials or governmental agencies for favorable trade agreements ● Nations also use global PR to enhance their global image and gain influence in various regional and international groups. ● NGOs are now major players in setting the agenda for discussion of global issues and influencing the policies of corporations and governments. ● NGOs are widely believed to be more credible by the news media and the public on such issues as labor, health, and the environment, partly because they are perceived as lacking the self-interest ascribed to governments and corporations. ● There is increasing evidence that giant corporations are adopting a more accommodative stance on cooperating with activist NGOs to form more socially responsible policies PR by Governments ● Most governments seek to influence the foreign policies of other countries as well as the opinions and actions of their publics ○ These communications can range from promoting tourism to influencing trade policies and promoting foreign investments. 30ORK GUIDES ● US PR firms work for foreign governments, helping them advance their political objectives and commercial interests, counseling them on probable US reactions to their proposed actions, and assisting in communications in English ○ War and conflict between nations usually results in a barrage of PR activity on both sides to justify their actions. The Russia-Georgia conflict, as well as the Israel-Palestine impasse, are examples. ● The US governmental refers to its international information efforts as public diplomacy, which involves activities to enhance understanding of AMerican culture and promote US foreign policy objectives. ○ The Voice of AMerica (VOA) radio broadcasts are part of this program. Opportunities in International Work ● As global marketing and communications have expanded in recent years, so too have opportunities for international PR work. ● Fluency in a foreign language is a valued skill but not a prerequisite; also important is a background in international relations, global marketing techniques, social and economic geography, and cross cultural communications. CHAPTER 21 The nonprofit Sector ● Nonprofit organizations have been given tax-exempt status because their primary goal is to enhance the wellbeing of their members or the human condition. ● Fundraising is a mor {R task of these groups, in which they create communication campaigns and programs, and require all staff (including volunteers) to handle their fundraising work. ● For many nonprofit organizations, partnerships among members are necessary for their common interest. Competition among nonprofit agencies for their share of donations is intense. ● Many nonprofit groups advocate differing positions resulting in ongoing conflict with one another. Membership Organizations ● A membership organization is made up of people with a common interest, either business or social. ● Such groups include professional associations, trade groups, labor unions, and chambers of commerce. Advocacy Groups ● Advocacy groups work for social causes such as the environment, civil rights, gun ownership, or the pro choice movement. ● The efforts include lobbying, litigation, mass demonstrations, boycotts, reconciliation, and public education. Social Service Organizations. ● Service groups and philanthropic, cultural and religious organizations all fall into the category of social service organizations ● Their PR goals include developing public awareness, getting individuals to use their services, creating educational materials, recruiting volunteers, and fundraising. Health Organizations ● Hospitals and health agencies are the two major organizations serving the public’s health needs. 31ORK GUIDES ● PR professionals help communicate information about medical advances, the availability of health services, and potential health risks. Educational Organizations ● PR at colleges and universities involves both development, or fundraising and enhancing the prestige of the institution. ● The office of development and PR may conduct meetings, publish newsletters, and arrange tours. ● The audiences for communication include alumni, students, prospective students, faculty and staff, governmental, and the general public. Fundraising and Development ● Fundraising is a critical issue for nonprofit organizations. Depending on their mission and strategy, nonprofits seek donations from large corporations or foundations or small contributions from individuals. ● Recruiting volunteer labor is often crucial to making up for lack of operating funds and involving the community in reaching the nonprofit’s goals. Quiz reviews: ● China ​has the second largest national economy in the world. ● English ​is the primary language of more than 50 nations. It is the language of global business. ● Helping hands considers child labor to be one of the biggest problems in Asian countries. The organization puts together an influential group to lobby western governments to put pressure on the governments in these countries. In this scenario, Helping Hands is an example of Non Governmental organization. ● When certain religious organizations are at loggerheads with groups advocating secular values, the two parties are said to be in conflict. ● Advocacy groups ​can have a significant effect on the community and depending on the cause, can be either negative or positive. ● Conflict theory ​believes that controversies help shape public opinion ● Persuading people to replicate a good deed that is done by others is called social proof. ● Persuasion ​is a dialogue between points of view where public relations personnel use a variety of techniques to reach and guide their audiences. ● Baby boomers ​are considered to have grown up in the age of prosperity. ● Millennials ​were the generation first to grow up with computers, mobile phones, the internet, and social networking sites. ● The process of striving for the same object, position, or prize as others is called competition​. ● An organization’s response can vary from pure advocacy to pure accommodation. This can be represented by a contingency continuum. ● What can be described as an organization’s response to a threat, and can change depending upon a number of factors? Stance​. ● Invention of new techniques has made media relations more conversational ​and less formal. ● Customer relations is important because bad experience about a product or service can easily spread through word of mouth​. 32

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