Developmental Psych Exam 3 Study Guide
Developmental Psych Exam 3 Study Guide PSY 0310
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Developmental Psychology Exam 3 Study Guide CHAPTER 9 THEORIES OF SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Psychoanalytic learning social cognition ecological Psychoanalytic theories Freud and Erikson View of child nature development driven by biological maturation Image of child s nature 0 Individual buffeted about by many forces internal and external that he can t control 0 Came out of favor because tenets are untestable o Lasting contributions I Role of early experience I Role of unconscious Freud s Theory of Psychosexual development 0 Every young child has a sexual nature that motivates their behavior and in uences their relationships 0 Psychic energy collection of biologically based intrinctual drives that he believed to fuel behavior thoughts and feelings o Erogenous zones areas of the body that become erotically sensitive in successive stages of development I Mouth anus genitals I Children encounter con icts related to a erogenous zone and their success or failure in resolving con icts affects their development 0 Development starts with a helpless infant with drives I Foremost hunger 0 Stages I Oral stage in the first year the primary source of satisfaction and pleasure is with oral activity I Anal stage 13 years primary source of pleasure comes from defection I Phallic stage 36 years sexual pleasure is focused on the genitalia Identify with same sex parent Masturbate I Latency period 612 sexual energy gets channeled into socially acceptable activities Sexual desires hidden in unconscious I Genital stage begins adolescence sexual maturation is complete and sexual intercourse becomes a major goal 0 Id the earliest and most primitive personality structure I Unconscious and operates to seek pleasure I Ruled by the pleasure principle the goal of achieving maximal gratification maximally quickly Ego second personality structure to develop rational logical problemsolving component of personality I Later in the first year I Arises out of the need to resolve con icts between the id s demands for gratification and the restraints of the real world 0 Superego third personality structure internalized moral standards conscience I Based on internalization adoption of the parents rules and standards for acceptable or unacceptable behavior 0 Fixation if fundamental needs are not met during any of the stages children can become fixated on those needs I Continually attempt to satisfy them I Unconscious and expressed in indirect symbolic ways If oral gratification is not met later in life may have excessive eating nail biting smoking etc Erikson s Theory of Psychosocial Development 0 Accepted the basics of Freud and added social factors 0 Each stage characterized by a crisis set of developmental issues 0 If the issue is not resolved before the onset of the next stage the person will continue to struggle with it o 5 stages I Basic trust vs mistrust first year Issue developing a sense of trust Autonomy versus shame and doubt 135 years Increases in child s competence motor cognitive abilities language Children can make decisions for themselves Want to achieve self control without the loss of self esteem Initiative versus guilt 46 Identify with and learn from parents Setting goals and working to achieve them Industry versus inferiority 6puberty Master cognitive and social skills Can feel competent or inadequate Identity versus role confusion adolescence to early adulthood Discover who they really are identity formation Learning Social Theories View on child nature internal forces and subjective experience role of external factors 0 Child is passive Individual differences are determined by experiences Continuity no stages Mechanisms of change reinforcement Watson s behaviorism classical conditioning 0 Learning through conditioning is the primary mechanism of development 0 Said he could make any of them into a doctor lawyer artist theft beggar etc 0 Classical conditioning experiment I Placed Albert in a room with a rat I Initially reacted positively to the rat I Then rat was paired with a loud noise that frightened Albert I Albert became afraid of the rat himself 0 Systematic desensitization positive responses are gradually conditioned to stimuli that initially elicted a negative response I Helps treat fears and phobias o Inspired the book The Common Sense Guide to Baby and Child Care Skinner s Operant Conditioning 0 Said everything we do in life is an operant response in uenced by the outcomes of past behaviors 0 Attention in general is a powerful reinforce o Intermittent reinforcement inconsistent response to the behavior of another person I Sometimes punishing a behavior and other times ignoring it 0 Behavior modification a form of therapy where reinforcement contingencies are changed to encourage more adaptive behavior Social Learning Bandura 0 Observation and imitation modeling I Skinner and Watson did not think about this 0 Direct reinforcement not necessary I Imitating is inherently rewarding I Observing reinforcement of others is sufficient vicarious reinforcement o Reciprocal determinism children are affected by their environment and also in uence their environment 0 Perceived selfefficacy an individual s beliefs about how effectively he or she can control his or her own behavior thoughts and emotions in order to achieve a desired goal 0 Larger role for child s own dispositions I Can pick and choose what they want to imitate o Bobo studies I Three groups of children observed an adult model receive aggressive behavior One group model was rewarded One group model was punished One group there were no consequences All groups learned the specific aggressive behaviors by observation When there was a positive incentive to hurt the doll more hurt it behavior was learned The group who saw the model rewarded hit the doll in the most new ways followed by the group with no consequences and then when the model was punished Theories of Social Cognition Children are active processors of social information but social abilities are limited by cognitive abilities Children actively seek information about the social world Outcome depends on children s interpretation or construal events not just the events themselves Limited in scope whereas Skinner and Watson wanted to explain everything Dodge s InformationProcessing Theory of Social Problem Solving 0 Accounting for problem behavior 0 Children who get along well with peers I Interpret social cues accurately I Formulate goals that enhance relationships 0 Chilren with peer difficulties hold biased social expectations I Attend selectively to social cues I Misinterpret behavior 0 As children assess a situation and solve social problems they use their knowledge and cognitive abilities o Said that some children have a hostile attributional bias the tendency to assume that other people s ambiguous actions stem from a hostile incident Dwek s Theory of SelfAttributions and Achievement Motivation 0 Achievement motivation whether children are motivated by learning goals seeking to improve their competence or performance goals seeking to receive positive assessments or their competence o Entity theory a person s level of intelligence is fixed and unchangeable Incremental theory a person s intelligence can grow as a function of experience 0 In responding to failure some children show I Helplessfixedmindsetpattern Ability is a fixed trait entity and cannot be improved with effort Give up avoid challenging tasks 0 I Masteryorientedgrowhmindset pattern Incremental view of ability changeable Believe they can succeed if they keep trying Ecological Theories View of child nature children are inheritors of genetically based abilities and predispositions 0 Product of culture Bronfenbenner or product of evolution Bronfenbenner s bioecological model 0 Considers the in uence of all aspects of the environment 0 Microsystem immediate environment 0 Mesosystem interconnections among immediate microsystem settings I Relations between parents school peers o Exosystem environmental settings not directly experienced but affect the person indirectly I Parents workplaces o Macrosystem larger cultural and social context in which other systems are embedded I General beliefs values customs laws 0 Chronosystem historical changes that in uence the other systems 0 Examples I Maltreatment media poverty Evolutionary o Behaviors exist due to selective advantage 0 Parental investment theory Trivers I A primary source of motivation for parents to make such sacrifice is the drive to perpetuate their genes in the human gene pool I Limited resources must be divided among children and self I Dark side parentoffspring con ict I Cinderella effect rates of child maltreatment are higher for stepparents than biological I Abortion ratios Highest among adolescents lt19 years Lowest among 3039 year old women 0 Behavior that serves as an adaptive function Ethology the study of evolutionary bases or behavior 0 Imprinting a form of learning in which the young of some species become attached to a member of the same species usually mother and follow 0 CHAPTER 10 TEMPERAMENT Emotion and control of emotion Emotional intelligence a set of abilities that contribute to competence in the social and emotional domains Emotion neural and physiological responses subjective feelings cognitions related to those feelings and the desire to take action 0 Theorists disagree on the importance of its key components 0 When experiencing fear in response to a growling dog I Physiological arousal I Subjective feelings of fearfulness I Thoughts about new ways the dog may hurt them I Motivation to get away from the dog Emergence of emotional expression Difficult to tell what emotion a newborn is expressing o Theorists have strategies to determine based on pursed lips opened eyes etc Smiling 0 Social smiles those that are directed at people emerge as early as 67 weeks of age usually around third month 0 Between 38 weeks smile at external stimuli o Humans more likely to make infants smile o Emerges 67 months 0 First signs are fear of strangers and separation anxiety 8 months Anger frustration o By first birthday frequently express anger increases until 16 months can control by course of second year Selfconscious emotions secondorder emotions guilt pride shame embarrassment 0 Get in second year of life Will show embarrassment when not center of attention Pride comes around 3 when they succeed in difficult tasks Guilt empathy for others and feelings of regret Shame does not concern others I Feel that they are exposed and want to hide Emotional SelfRegulation The process of initiating inhibiting or modulating 0 Internal feeling states subjective experience of emotion o Emotionrelated cognitions thoughts about desires or goals interpretation of a situation selfmonitoring emotional states 0 Emotionrelated physiological processes heart rate etc o Emotionrelated behavior Important for social competence 0 Skills to achieve personal goals in social interactions while maintaining positive relationships Development of emotional regulation three elements slow Shift from caregiver to selfregulation 0 Initially adults provide distraction and soothing o By 6 months selfsoothing and looking away are behavioral strategies 0 Gradually become better at shifting attention Cognitive strategies 0 Mental distraction o Recasting situation downplay situation or rethink goals meaning of events I Done by older children 0 Younger children mostly distract themselves with play Selection of appropriate regulatory strategies 0 Based on reasoning and experience I Strategies and skills of parents tend to be adopted 0 Improves with age Individual differences in emotion and its regulation Temperament constitutionally based individual differences in emotional motor and attentional reactivity and selfregulation that demonstrate consistency across situations as well as relative stability over time o Genetically inherited characteristics quotconstitutionalquot early appearing 0 Forms the core of adult personality or at least predicts lots of interesting things Infants characterized into three groups 0 O O O 0 Easy babies 40 adjust easily to new situations good daily routines cheerful and easy to calm I Only 18 developed adjustmentbehavior problems 0 Difficult babies 10 slow to adjust react negatively to new events irregular routines I 70 developed behavior problems by school age 0 Slowtowarmupto babies 15 somewhat difficult at first but become easier over time I 50 showed adjustment problems in middle schools I Rest of percentage did not fit into a category More recent research has infant temperaments captured by six dimensions 0 Fearful distress inhibition distress and withdrawal in new situations 0 Irritable distress fussiness anger and frustration especially if the child is not allowed to do what they want Attention span and persistence duration of orienting toward objects or events of interest Activity level how much an infant moves Positive affectapproach smilinglaughing approach people Rhythmicity regularity and predictability of eating and sleeping Agreeableness adaptability Selfregulation capacity to voluntarily suppress an immediate response Temperament very stable over time shown through longitudinal studies Behavioral inhibition a temperamentally based style of responding characterized by the tendency to be particuraly fearful and restrained when dealing with novel or stressful situations 0 As a predictor I Behaviorally inhibited children prone to depression phobias social withdrawal at older ages Goodness of fit the degree to which an individual s temperament is compatible with the demands and expectations of his or her social environment 0 Parents create childrearing environments that recognize each child s temperament while encouraging more adaptive functioning Children s maladjustment and social competence predicted by their temperament and parents childrearing practices Kagan longitudinal study behavioral inhibition 0 At age 6 months tested fearful or excited by a new experience I 20 upset novelty I 40 comfortableexcited 0 Bring back every couple of years I 30 children in extreme groups retained their temperamental styles Dunedin Study 0 Negative unregulated children I As adolescents More problems getting along with others Illegal behaviors I As 21 year olds Trouble having roommates Unemployed Less social support More prone to anxiety I As 32 year olds Poorer physical health and wealth More likely to use substances Criminal offenses and gambling OOOO Causes of individual differences in temperament Heritability 2rMZ rDZ MZ monozygotic DZ dizygotic Heritability more in uential than shared environment Nonshared environment more in uential than either Parental Socialization of emotional reaction regulation Socialization children acquire the values standards skills knowledge and behaviors that are regarded as appropriate for their present and future rule in a culture 0 Parents direct and indirect in uence on children s standards values and ways of thinking feeling Parents expression of emotion 0 Model howwhen to use emotion 0 Parents expression of positive emotion predicts same in children I Children better at emotional understanding low aggression high selfesteem 0 Parents expression of negative emotion predicts same in children I Lower social competence prone to internalizing disorders lower selfregulation 0 Parents reactions to children s emotions socializes 0 Parents explicit discussion of emotion and emotion regulation CHAPTER 11 ATTACHMENT Attachment an emotional bond with a specific person that endures across space and time Gives sense of comfort and security Background 0 Spitz looked at orphanages and wartime WWII separations I Longterm outcomes of adolescents adults who had early separation o Midcentury thought on parentchild bonding I Freudpsychoanalysts drive reduction Children love mother for satisfying their oral drive I Watsonbehavioristsassociation Children love mother for the pleasure of eating while being with her I Both theories about food Bowlby s Theory Crucial role of mother figure Freud Crucial role of timing Freud and ethologybiology Role of biology in forming attachment ethology o Childparent bond evolved as a way of ensuring child s care and safety evolutionary perspective 0 Child has set of inborn behaviors that ensure closeness of parent imprinting ducks look for a mother figure at birth I Genes for wanting to care for young get passed on as the children survive and do well and reproduce Cute behaviors evolve Incorporated Freud s theory but said that children are motivated and use their primary caregiver as a secure base 0 Secure base the presence of a trusted caregiver provides an infant with a sense of security which makes it possible for them to explore the environment Bowlby s four phases of attachment 0 Preattachment birth to 6 weeks I Signals and behaviors to keep mother nearby Grasping smiling crying gazing into eyes No distress with an unfamiliar adult 0 Attatchmentinthemaking 6 weeks to 68 months I Preference for mother I Develop trustanticipation I No stranger anxiety or separation anxiety yet 0 Cleartcut attachment 68 months to 1824 months I Separation anxiety universal peaks around 15 months Protest on parent s departure follow parent I Secure base behavior and social referencing Social refrencing use of parent s or other adult s facial expression or vocal cues to decide how to deal with novel ambiguous situations I Greet parent actively seek contact 0 Reciprocal relationship 1824 months and up I Understanding of comings and goings goals and motives I Separation protest declines I Verbal negotiation to keep parent present Ex Let me just show you this toyquot o If all goes well I Child develops an enduring tie attachment I Internal working model of attachment Mental representation of relationship between self and caregiver 0 Can mentally say I know that mom loves mequot Guides children s interactions with caregivers and other people in infancy and at older ages Foundation of future relationships acts as a model Harlow s Monkeys 1959 Test of behaviorist theory drive reduction and psychoanalysis oral drive versus a broader theory of attachment based on comfort trust and security 0 Had monkeys with a wire mesh mother with bottle satisfaction of food oral drive and monkeys who had a terrycloth mother comfort 0 Result terrycloth mothers won I Showed that comfort wins over food 0 Further tests in stressful situations I Terrycloth mother is comforting wire mesh is not Longterm implications for people 0 Children who were securely attached as infants I Have better relationships with peers More regulated sociable and socially competent Better emotional understanding More prosocial behavior I Are less aggressive and antisocial I Have higher academic achievement more involved at school I Better adult relationships Ainsworth The Strange Situation Extended Bowlby s theory Attachment should result in secure base behavior separation anxiety stranger anxiety and ability to be comforted by caregiver 12 years of age Measured attachment by 0 The extent to which an infant is able to use his or her primary caregiver as a secure base 0 How the infant reacts to brief separations from and reunions with the caregiver Strange situation test a procedure to assess infants attachment to their caregiver 0 An infant accompanied by a parent is placed in the lab playroom with toys 0 Place the child in seven episodes approximately 3 minutes long Episode Events Attachment behavior assessed 1 Exeperimenter introduces parent and baby to None playroom and leaves 2 Parent is seated while baby plays with toys Parent as secure base 3 Stranger enters is seated and talks to parent Reaction to unfamiliar adult Parent leaves room Stranger responds to baby and Separation stranger anxiety offers comfort if upset 5 Parent returns greets baby and offers comfort if Reaction to reunion necessary Stranger leaves room 6 Parent leaves room Separation anxiety 7 Stranger enters room and offers comfort Ability to be soothed by stranger 8 Parent returns greets baby offers comfort if Reaction to reunion necessary and tried to reinterest baby in toys Ainsworth s Findings 4 patterns of attachment 0 Secure attachment I Use parent as secure base I May cry when parent leaves I Prefer parent to stranger I Upon reunion actively seek contact and reduce crying I High quality unambivalent relationship with attachment figure I Recovers quickly from detachment distress o Insecureavoidant attachment I Unresponsive to parent when present I Not distressed when parent leaves I Treat stranger same as parent I Upon reunion avoid or slow to greet parent I Fail to cling to parent I Indifferent toward caregiver o Insecure Resistant ambivalent attachment I Stay close to parent rather than exploring I Cry intensely upon departure I At reunion display angry resistive behavior I Not easily comforted by parent 0 Disorganizeddisoriented attachment I No consistent way of dealing with stress of situation I At reunion show variety of confused contradictory behaviors Look away while being held Approach with at depressed expression I May cry unexpectedly after being calmed down I Con ict want to approach mother but regard her as a source of fear American Children 0 Secure attachment 62 o Avoidant attachment 15 o Resistant attachment 9 o Disorganizeddisoriented15 Cultural variations in attachment Strange Situation behaviors are similar across cultures 0 China western Europe Africa securely attached 53 insecure resistant 18 and insecure avoidant 21 All insecurely attached Iapanese infants are insecure resistant none exhibited insecure avoidant o Idea of oneness between mother and child Factors that affect attachment Parental sensitivity responsive caregiving when an infant is distressed or upset and engaging in coordinated play with the infant 0 Positive exchanges 0 Thought to be promoting of secure attachment 0 Parents of avoidant infants tend to be intrustive and ovestimulating OR emotionally unavailable 0 Resistant infants tend to receive inconsistent care 0 Disorganized attachment associated with fear of parents abuse Opportunity 0 Orphanage studies Spitz 1946 I After removal from mothers babies showed variety of physical and emotional problems if they did not have a consistent caregiver 0 Critical period Romanian orphanage children adopted in Britain I Low quality orphanage I Growth and intellectual functioning 6 months 624 months 2442 months got increasingly worse I Children were able to develop close relationships with parents if adopted by age 46 months however For those adopted at 6 months 20 of 6yearolds showed abnormal attachment behavior 0 Excessive desire for adult attention treating strangers similarly to parents 0 Failure to use social refrencing insensitivity to emotions of others 0 Few friendships Infant characteristics 0 Difficult temperament and parenting interact 0 Experimental manipulation van den Boom 1994 I Chose infants for study with temperaments high in irritability at birth I Parents randomly assigned to sensitivity training group learned how to react positively to infants Treatment group I Control group had no training I At 18 months 72 of intervention group were securely attached whereas only 26 of the control group were securely attached Childcare affecting attachment 56 of mothers of infants work 0 Daily separations o Interacting with other people 0 Group care Attachment suffered only if both 0 Family factors parent sensitivity income education 0 Child care risks more than 10 hours multiple arrangements poorquality care CHAPTER 12 THE FAMILY How do parents socialize Directly directly teach children rules strategies and skills 0 Explicitly informadvise them on various issues Indirectly indirect socialization through their own behaviors with and around their children 0 Unintentionally demonstrate skills information rules and model behavior As social managers manage their children s experiences and social lives including exposure to various people activities and information 0 Especially when children are young Family dynamics the way in which the family operates as a whole All members in uence each other Family functioning is in uenced by social and economic factors Dynamic change over development Life changes can alter dynamic Members are interdependent Family functioning is in uenced by the social support that parents receive from kin friends neighbors and social institutions schools and churches Must be looked at developmentally always changes as children get older Biological characteristics and parental behavior contribute to the nature of family interactions Function of a family Survival Socialization the process through which children acquire the values standards skills and knowledge that are regarded as appropriate for their culture Parenting style parenting behavior and attitudes that set the emotional climate in regard to parentchild interactions such as parental responsiveness and demandingness Two key factors 0 Control degree of parenting control and demandingness o Warmth degree of parental warmth support and acceptance Diana Baumrind said 77 of parents fit into one of four basic patters of behavior based on the dimensions of warmth and control 0 Authoritative warm and demanding I Rules and expectations are appropriate and clearly communicated I Firm enforcement I Does not yield to coercion I Considers child s wishes and solicits opinions I Warm involved responsive I Promotes positive self regard I Educational standards set and enforced I Allow children autonomy within their limits I Ex When child steals a toy pulls child aside and says Remember our rule about taking other peoples things Now think about how to make things rightquot I Children of authoritative parents are Competent selfassured and popular with peers Adolescents relatively high in social and academic competence selfreliance and coping skills and low in drug use and behavior Cheerful happy friendly Stresscoping Cooperative with adults and other children Achievementmasteryoriented o Authoritarian colddemanding Firm enforcement of rules Show anger and displeasure View child as basically antisocial Child s opinions typically not considered Often harsh punishment Little positive support Limited shared activities Threats punishment Obedience and authority expect their children to comply without question Ex When a child steals a toy Haven t I warned you about taking other people s things Return that toy now or you will not be able to watch TV tonight I m tired of you disobeying mequot Children tend to be Fearful moody Vulnerable to stress At risk for depression Aggression or withdrawal Difficult adolescence rebellion or depression 0 Permissiveindulgent warm and permissive Rules not enforced or clearly communicated Yield to coercion nagging whining Few expectations for mature behavior Hide impatience or anger Ignore or accept bad behavior Generally emotionally warm and loving Ex Does not intervene when a toy is stolen would be affectionate with child in other situations not as detached Children tend to be Impulsive and aggressive Low in selfreliance and selfcontrol Quick to anger Aimless Often domineering Immature Low in school achievement 0 RejectingNeglecting Parents Uncaring neglectful selfish inconsistent Sometimes leads to reportable abuseneglect Do not set limits or monitor their children s behavior Are not supportive of them Focused on their own needs Ex When child steals toy will not pay attention as she does in most situations Infants have Disturbed attachment relationships Adolescents Antisocial behavior Poor selfregulation Internalizing problems Substance abuse Risky behaviors Low academic and social competence The child as an in uence on parenting Attractiveness o Mothers of more attractive infants are more affectionate and in uencing Children s behavior and temperaments o Consistent with active child theme 0 Disobedient angry or challenging children make it more difficult for parents to use authoritative parenting than more compliant children 0 Temperament and parenting interact goodness of fit I Difficult parenting and low support 0 Birdirectionality of parentchild interactions the idea that parents and their children are mutually affected by one another s characteristics and behaviors CHAPTER 13 PEER RELATIONSHIPS Children have unique benefits from friendships Practice in complex play cooperation negotiation Peer norms emotional display Feedback aids skill development Long term gains from friendships 5th graders with a best friend viewed as more competent less aggressive more popular 23 year olds who had a best friend in 5th grade 0 Doing better in college 0 Better relationship with family 0 Fuller social life 0 Fewer runins with the law 0 Less psychopathology Emotional gains from friendship Support and validation come with discussion of emotions Schoolage children with a supportive friendship report less loneliness Ease periods of school transition 0 Children with friends as they enter kindergarten are more positive about school 0 Entering middle school they are more likely to increase sociability and leadership Buffer against unpleasant experiences especially if there is a best friend Early in life important relationships are parents friends romantic partner 0 Switches to friend romantic partner parent adolescence 0 At adulthood romantic partner friend parents Development of friendship 02 years Before 12 months children play mainly nonsocially with peers 12 years occasional imitate each other take turns share toy s By age 2 peer preferences 0 Joint play goals 0 Cooperation Development of friendship 25 years Peer interactions play move from mostly nonsocial to more social 0 Nonsocial activity solitary play looking on I Parallel play play near others with similar materials not trying to in uence others behavior 0 Social interaction I Associative play separate activities but exchange toys and may comment on each others behavior I Cooperative play common goal Development of friendship school years Ages 68 what makes him your friend 0 Someone you like and like spending time with but friend as a handy playmatequot 0 Defined by actual activies playing and sharing 0 Instrumental and concrete Ages 810 0 Mutual trust and assistance 0 Based on kindness and trust 0 Companionship loyalty beginning to be important Ages 11 adolescence o Intimacy mutual understanding 0 Loyalty sharing feeling relieving psychological distress o Trustfeedback Sociometric Status status in the peer group A measurement that re ects the degree to which children are liked or disliked by their peers as a group Five categories 0 Popular many positive and few negative nominations o Rejected many negative and few positive I most risk 0 Neglected few positive or negative nominations I unnoticed o Controversial many positive and many negative 0 Average about 13 I Average number of positive and negative Popular children 0 Prosocial type wellliked not necessarily high status I Tend to be cooperative friendly sociable helpful and sensitive to others 0 Antisocial type I Children who are well liked by peers tend not to be particurally aggressive I Children labeled popular or quotcoolquot tend to have above average aggression and use it to obtain goals I Relational aggression excluding others from social group and attempting to harm others relationships Rejected children will be overly aggressive 4050 or withdrawn 1025 0 Aggressive type I Prone to hostile threatening behavior I Prone to physical aggressions disruptive behavior delinquency I Aggressive behavior itself may cause rejection I May ultimately form peer group with other aggressive children 0 Withdrawn type I Socially withdrasm fearful timid I May be victimized I Feel lonely isolated I Withdrawal in 5th grade predicts further withdrawal through 8th grade 0 Cognitions of rejected children I Rejectedaggressive children More likely to be motivated by getting even Less skilled at finding good strategies for problem solving High confidence in social skills overestimate their likeability 0 May cause them to try to interact not monitor outcome of behavior I Rejectedwithdrawn children low confidence in social skills blame selves for social failure Neglected children 0 Less sociable 0 Less disruptive than other children 0 Not particularly anxious or inhibited Controversial children 0 Aggressive disruptive prone to anger o Cooperative sociable good at sports funny 0 Group leaders 0 Viewed as arrogant and snobbish Stability of sociometric status Popular rejected stable in short term Neglected controversial more likely to change in short term Average more stable over time 2 years after 5th grade 23 of popular rejected controversial and neglected changed status Longerterm outcomes 0 Rejected children more likely to be held back suspended from to be truants to drop out and to have problems with the police CHAPTER 14 MORAL DEVELOPMENT Kohlberg s Theory Sequences through which children s moral reasoning develops Discontinuous and hierarchial stages Assessed by presenting children with hypothetical dilemmas o The reasoning behind their answers is important not the choice itself Three levels 0 Preconventional fear of authority selfcentered I Stage 1 punishment and obedience orientation I Stage 2 what is right is what is in one s own best interest of involves equal exchange between people 0 Conventional social relationships social duties and laws I Stage 3 doing what is expected by people who are close to the person or what is expected in a given role I Stage 4 right duty is filling one s duties upholding laws and contributing to society 0 Postconventional life more important than law ideals moral judgement I Stage 5 right behavior involves upholding rules that are in the best interest of the group I Stage 6 commitment to selfchosen ethical principles that re ect universal principles of justice When laws violate these principles individuals should act in accordance with these principles rather than the law Issues with Kohlberg o Are these realistic dilemmas o Are children saying what they actually would do in such situations Prosocial behavior voluntary behavior intended to benefit another helpingsharingcomforting Starts around 1315 months Steadily increases prominent around 2325 months Fostering prosocial behavior 0 Modeling I Children imitate prosocial behavior if there is respect and a warm relationship 0 Opportunities 0 Parenting style I Authoritarian lack of sympathy in children I Reasoning about feelings of others most effective especially within warm relationship with parents 0 Inductive relationship 0 Role of frequent harsh punishment I Child learns not to display it around punisher I Chronic sense of personal threat I Risk for depression aggression abuse I Models aggression I Adult may feel vindicated Antisocial behavior behavior that is hurtful or apathetic toward others stealing and in icting psychological or physical harm Development of aggression 0 Physical aggression emerges around 18 months peaks at 24 months 0 Decreases or becomes verbal as skills and strategies develop Preschool con ict 0 Possession I Instrumental aggression aggression motivated by the desire to obtain a concrete goal a toy I Relational aggression gossip exclusion Elementary school age 0 Relational aggression continues instrumental drops 0 Aggression due to hostility and selfdefense increases 0 Covert antisocial behaviors develop Early onset 0 Children who are aggressive as youngsters tend to stay aggressive in adolescence and adulthood o Aggression covert antisocial behaviors most risk Roots of antisocial behavior 0 Biology and genetics I Difficult temperament I Cognitive impairments leading to lack of regulation 0 Aggressive antisocial behavior also associated with I Social cognition impairments Hostile attributional bias Generate aggressive solutions to problems Expect aggression to solve problems I Harsh discipline authoritarian style I Parental con ict modeling behavior 0 Gene x environment interaction I The effect of one variable depends on the level of the other I The effect of the environment ie impact of maltreatment has different effects depending on which allele the child has The moral sense a sense of right and wrong is intuitive not reasoned and innate Unconscious moral intuitions and subsequent rationalizations CHAPTER 15 GENDER DEVELOPMENT The gender binary Social categorization as male or female Sex biology Gender differences Some gender differences in assertion and affiliation o Assertion tendency to take action on behalf of the self through competitive independent or aggressive behaviors I Traditional male role 0 Affiliation tendency to affirm connection with others through being emotionally open empathetic or cooperative I Traditional female role Activity level and prefrences Aggressive behavior Roles in society Cognitive abilities and academic achievement Career paths and trajectories Biological in uences on gender differences Androgens male hormones lead to development of male genitalia o Affect brain development and organization I Set up long term differences in hormone production and hormone reactions to environment I Male brain more lateralized 0 Usually genetic sex hormones and gender identity are consistent not always Intersex conditions shed light on in uence of hormones o CAH congenital adrenal hyperplasia high androgen level during genetic female s prenatal development I Can lead to male external genitalia I Or more physically active play less sedentary Cognitive and motivational in uences on gender differences Stress children s active gender self socialization 0 Active process during development whereby children s cognitions lead them to perceive the world and to act in accord with their expectations and beliefs Kohlberg o By 30 months gender identity become aware of gender 0 34 years gender stability gender is stable over time o 77 years gender constancy I invariant in spite of superficial changes in appearance or activities I subsequent emergence of gendertyped interest Gender schema theory 0 Schema organized mental representation 0 Children s understanding of gender develops through construction of gender schema I Incorporates everything one knows about gender Personal experiences Gender stereotypes and essentialist statements from adults Messages from media I Motivation for gendertyped behavior begins at gender identity state 2 years 0 Owngenderquot schema same as mequot or not 0 Causes bias in processing and remembering information about gender I More attention memory for neutral toy labeled own gender than other gender I Attracted to toys used by own gender peers revulsion to opposite I Better memory when information is gender consistent Social Cognitive Theory 0 Tuition direct teaching 0 Enactive experience tracking feedback to behavior 0 Observation parents family media men s and women s roles in family 0 Gender socialization in home I Parents frequently assign different chores to boys and girls I Conversations between parents and children Parents more likely to offer explanations to boys than girls Fathers are more instructional with boys than girls More likely to comment on girls physical appearance than boys 0 Media and sterotypes I More major characters in TV shows are males than females Limits of external in uences crossgender identity 0 Most children s gender identification is consistent with the observable genitalia and gender socialization I Children with discrepant gender identity are often impervious to parental attempts to socialize them differently Will prefer other gender activities Milestones in gender development Infants and toddlers o By the latter half of their second year I Children begin forming gender related expectations about the kinds of objects and activities that are typically associated with males and females 0 Between second and third birthdays I Most children know which gender group they belong to and by age 3 use gender terms in their speech I Their behavior also becomes genderdifferentiated particuraly in sextyped play Preschoolers 0 Sex typed play increases 0 Gender segregation I Virtually universal I Promotes further selfsocialization of gender differences I Avoid peers to violate gendertypical patterns of behavior Middle childhood 0 By 7 years I Attained gender constancy o By 910 years I Show a clear understanding that gender is a social category and that gender roles can be social conventions not biological outcomes Gender typed behavior In middle childhood 0 Boys value self assertion I Peer groups re ect norms of dominance selfreliance and hiding vulnerability 0 Girls value affiliation or a balance of selfassertion and affiliation I Peer groups re ect norms of intimacy collaboration and emotional sharing Adolescence o Crossgender interactions and friendships are somewhat more common than they are in ch dhood 0 Understand that norms about gender roles are social conventions but may nevertheless endorse the conventions o Genderrole intensification OR exibility I Males have less exibility Gender exibility and asymmetry Males avoid femininestereotyped activities 0 Asymmetry in acceptability o Fathers play an active role in instilling male behaviors in their sons and enforcing the avoidance of feminine behaviors o Tied to men s dominant status in society Parents peers and teachers are more tolerant of girls who engage in masculine activities than boys who engage in feminine activities
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