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NCS / Engineering / PSY 200 / What is social development?

What is social development?

What is social development?


School: North Carolina State University
Department: Engineering
Course: Introduction to Psychology
Professor: Christopher mayhorn
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Intro to Psychology
Cost: 50
Name: Psychology200_006MayhornReviewSheetforExam4__1_.pdf
Description: Exam 4
Uploaded: 12/05/2016
9 Pages 29 Views 5 Unlocks

Psychology 200-006 (Mayhorn) Review Sheet for Exam #4 

What is social development?

The fourth and final exam will cover materials from the textbook (Chapters 9, 10, 15, & 16) as well as the lectures. The majority of the test material (80%) will come directly from the lecture with the remaining 20% coming from the textbook. A number of questions are applied….this means that you will have to be familiar with concepts and be able to apply them in specific situations.

Be familiar with the following concepts: 

Social Development: how early patterns of development affect later behavior

Emotional development

● Attachment: emotional bond and long-term feeling of closeness between people - i.e. bond between caregiver and infant

● 4 Phases of attachment:

- Babies respond to anyone

What is innate infant behavior?

- Babies respond to parents in special ways

- Attachment to parent is clear - babies stay close to parents and experience anxiety when separated from parent

- Ideally: secure attachment no longer needs presence of parent

● Innate infant behavior

○ Cuddling: infants usually adjust their posture to mold themselves and get closer ○ Looking: signal to parent, young infants seek eye-to-eye contact w/ parents

○ Smiling: it is an effective reinforcement for anyone especially parents

○ Crying: sound of infant crying is distressing and want to eliminate it

● Ainsworth’s Strange Situation

○ Securely attached: (65% of children), child explores when mother is present, is distressed when mother leaves (stranger comes and mother leaves to talk), greets mother with enthusiasm when she comes back

What is temperament?

○ Insecurely attached: anxious (10-15%), does not explore even when mom was present, stays by mother’s side (clingy), very upset when mother leaves, clingy when she returns ○ Insecurely attached: avoidant (20-25%), distant and aloof throughout (didn’t need to be around mom), little distress when mother leaves, ignores her when she comes back ■ Disorganized (rare attachment): infant shows more fear than affection, least If you want to learn more check out What is agenda-building?

securely attached - may indicate an abusive relationship

Temperament: nature aspect, reaction patterns an individual is born with, can be genetic and constitutional

● Sociability: can tell if the child likes interactions with others or likes to be alone ● Emotionality: more likely to be fearful, anxious

● (i.e - longitudinal studies done were found correlated, 5 year old wants to stay alone is most likely similar to when he/she is 20 and wants to be left alone)

● If securely-attached, more likely to be successful in later relationships

● Early patterns of socialization that affect you later in life

Moral Reasoning and Development

● How we interact with/in society?Don't forget about the age old question of Comparative process is called what?

● Morality: system of learned attitudes about social practices, institutions, and individual behavior that allows us to judge behaviors as right and wrong

● Moral dilemma: pits one moral value against another

Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development

● German boys were brought in and asked what they would do and why

● Ex. brother dilemma, heinz dilemma

Levels of Morality:

● Level 1 - preconventional morality: moral reasoning based largely on expectation of rewards and punishments (age 7-10)

○ Stage 1: child obeys rules to avoid being punished - brother’s dilemma response 1 father would spank him or brother would beat him

○ Stage 2: child will behave correctly to their benefit

● Level 2 - conventional morality: reasoning based on conformity and social standards (10-16 age) ○ Stage 3: behaves certain way to get approval of others: brother’s dilemma: father and brother won’t trust him

○ Stage 4: individual behaves morally to avoid guilt, follow what law says - Heinz dilemma: boy says let judge decide We also discuss several other topics like What is the difference between the supply chain and the value chain?

● Level 3- postconventional morality:

○ Stage 5: some laws are better than others, but for society’s sake, we have to comply with those laws: Heinz dilemma - he did it for the wife’s health however it was against the law ○ Stage 6: people will be guided by their own conscience - human life is above financial gain, it is our duty to save human life, only 10% get to this level


● Situations were not common to children own life, most of them wouldn’t break into the store for their wife

● Scoring is subjective or some people might argue one or the other stage

● Fixed-stage progression: people go from one step to the next, but it was found that people may skip stages and go back or regress

● Are we likely to act consistently in terms of behavior? Thought and action may be different ● Gender differences and cross-cultural differences If you want to learn more check out Clay minerals are classified as what?

● Role of situation: people act differently in different situations

Development of psychology: study of behavior throughout the lifespan (everything from infancy to adulthood- how is behavior changing based on our age?)

Cohort effect - a group that developed at the same time (group of 20 year olds vs. group of 80 year old - different behaviors- may look like development, but actually is cohort)

-Cross-sectional studies/Longitudinal studies

Piaget’s Theory of Child Development:

Schemas: based on previous experience, we determine how we see the world, a general idea used to organize the world and guide our behavior/expectations

 Assimilation: apply old schema in a new situation, old schema is applied to new experiences or problems (ex. All expenses trip to Austrailia, decide to go to Sydney zoo, look at cave where there is a tiger, in your head you have a schema for cats, you look in there the animal is sleeping, you have it in your head that there is a feline, another cave has a lion, you assimilate into feline, go to next cage and see

very funky and weird animal and is not any of these things, it is an anteater, therefore you cannot assimilate and have to create new schema - learned: encountered new information)  Accommodation: modify/ change existing schema or create new schema to fit new experiences or problems Don't forget about the age old question of What are barrier islands, and why are they important?

-each stage is qualitatively different which is Piaget talked about

-if kids is thinking about something, it will be different from other stages

 Stages of Development

● Sensorimotor Stage( birth to approx. 2 years)

○ Behavior changes from reflexive behavior to primitive thought

○ (early month) lack of object permanence - once you remove an object that you can’t immediately sense, a child may not know that it exists ex. Hold up paper and a pen behind it. Child has no concept about the pen behind it. It has no response

○ Begin to develop symbolic thinking, continuing development of processes, adding fatty tissue of myelin, then you have increased motor development and then increased cognitive development

● Preoperational stage (About 2 to 7 years)

○ -rapid development of language ability and ability to represent things symbolically ○ -egocentric thought - children are not very award of the environment If you want to learn more check out Give an example of microeconomics.

○ Lack ability for conservation: children do not understand that objects maintain their physical properties

○ Collective monologues: one person is on stage and it is basically like they are talking to themselves.

● Concrete-Operational Stage ( 7 to 12 years)

○ Emergence of logical abilities

○ Increase in ability to empathize with others

○ Requires them to think about situation with somebody else

○ Aware of cause and effect.

○ Can’t think about abstract/ expectations

● Formal-Operational Stage (About 12 years to adulthood)

○ Use if an essentially adult form of logic and symbolic representation >>> solving problems

○ Child learns to formulate a set of alternatives and to these these against reality ○ Self-consciousness: adolescent egocentrism

Why does Development occur? Causes of Cognitive Development:

● Cognitive disequilibrium: results when children encounter unexpected feedback from environment and it makes children uncomfortable, they cannot easily assimilate to their existing behavioral schemas

Criticisms of Piaget

● Piaget did not always define terms operationally and it became difficult for others to interpret the importance of his generalization

● Later theorists have said that Piaget’s theory underestimates abilities of young children ● Many of his studies lack proper controls

● Theorists have argued that Piaget did not go far enough and stopped too soon - suggesting post-formal operations where individuals find multiple ways of looking at problems develop more flexibility in outlook

Age-related changes associated with:

 Working memory: simultaneous storage and processing of information - declines with age ex. Only brought 20 to grocery store… might try to add up while remembering numbers  Episodic memory: specific episodes of your life, memories of personal facts, information you have experienced first-hand ex. I went to the Boston Science Museum in the 5th grade … most recent memories do not decline with age, typically older adults remember their older experiences however might have difficulty storing new memories

 Semantic memory: general knowledge of the world, general idea that relates to bigger ideas, (Ex. who is the NC State mascot), facts, not autobiographical, remains intact in older adults, might be difficult retrieving these memories, tip of tongue phenomenon - ways to overcome (give youself cues) more common in older people

 Procedural memory: how to… drive a car, etc.

Autobiographical Memory: remains good for older adults, who was in your high school class? Or second grade class

Flashbulb memory: arousing, emotional events memories

 Crystallized intelligence: general knowledge that has been acquired. Ex- general knowledge about the world, vocabulary -reliant on semantic working memory, does not decline in older adults, might actually be better

 Fluid intelligence: refers to online processing ex. The ability to perform mental operations - computing math in your head, reasoning through a complex pattern, reliant on working memory, decline in older adults


Three defining characteristics of skills: 1.) level of proficiency on a specific task, 2) actions are well organized and economical of effort, 3) acquired through training and practice, not innate or instinctive

-older adults maintain their old skills; ex. Pilots, typing, driving

-learning new skills, older adults do improve with practice, but they are slower to acquire new skills and may not reach the same level as younger people

-older adults were able to learn the atm in Dr. Mayhorn’s study if they were given proper training -learn slower than younger adults and made more errors, never reached same efficiency as younger adults Reasons underlying decline of cognitive abilities in old age

- Behavioural patterns seem to be related to the areas of the brain that show the most changes with age ex. Degeneration of neurons occurs more in the hippocampus than in other parts of the brain, tissue damage due to neuron damage

Erikson’s Ages of Human Development

Reliability: consistency of test scores

● based on correlation, closer the correlation is to +1, the more reliable the test, important because we always see consistency in life, ex. Two different tests and correlating test would be somewhere between 0 and +1, closer it is to +1, the higher the reliability is

Three types of reliability

 Test-retest: people take the same test on two different occasions and their scores are correlated, problems: probably will do better the second time - practice effect, logistical and logical problems  Alternate forms: two versions of the test given ex. Version A given and Version B of tests are given, assuming that they are consistent/similar with another, but may not be the case (one version may be harder than the other), can have logic issues

 Split-half: give one test, then divide the test into two halves and correlate the two halves; ex. Odd vs. even, problems: fatigue-effect if a lot of questions, probably not a good idea

Validity: testing what you think you are testing

 Content: does the test cover what it is supposed to cover? The degree to which a test is representative of the domain it is supposed to cover

 Predictive: how well your test predicts future performance - ex. SAT, ACT, can take a test and it will predict your performance at a later time, ex. Undergraduate experience: how much does the SAT show your performance? 1 semester of performance, SAT is an easy score/set of data that we can look at… it puts everyone on the same playing field

 Construct: does the test measure the hypothetical construct of interest; ex. Depression, it is something we cannot physically measure such as intelligence, something internal, we see application to animal models

-look for highly reliable test that is not valid - ex. If you had a large brain, you must be born intelligent, can’t measure it well, but you can get your head measured or use hat size, if you look at adults, their heads will not change so it is more reliable - however is that valid? No

Intelligence: goal directed, adaptive behavior

-history of intelligence testing: Piaget started working with Alfred Binet, their job was to make different tests that would identify different capacity to learn within French children

Statistical properties of IQ: IQ = Mental Age/Chronological Age X 100 (Ex. 8/6 x 100 = 133) ● IQ is now determined by comparing one’s score to a standardization sample of people your own age

○ Average IQ = 100 and the standard deviation is 15

○ Scores below 70 is associated w/ mental retardation

○ Scores above 140 associated w/ genius

● Known as Flynn effect

Theories of Intelligence:

● Tests are just a tool, can’t diagnose based on test alone

Dangers of Misuse of Intelligence Test

● Eugenics Laws of early 1900s

● Immigration Laws

To prevent abuses of testing we must

(1) Create fair tests (i.e., reliable and valid)

(2) Understand the purpose of testing

(3) Monitor test use

(4) Use tests only for the purpose for which they developed


-Spearman’s g Factor: a general factor that represents intelligence

Cattell: concept that there are two components to g factor (Fluid Intelligence- innate and reliant on working memory, ability to process info online and Crystallized Intelligence- reliant on semantic memory)

Sternberg: Triarchic Theory has 3 categories: Analytical intelligence, creative intelligence, and practical intelligence

Gardner: Theory of Multiple Intelligences (8 categories) -

-Linguistic ability to communicate languages ex. Translator

-Logical-mathematical: ability to solve numeric or reasoning problems; ability to think abstractly ex. Engineering

-Musical: ability to create or perceive rhythmic patterns, ex. Band

-Spatial: ability to perceive and mentally manipulate objects, visualizing things in your head, mentally rotate things, ex. Dentist, doctor

-Bodily-kinesthetic: ability to control fine motor movements ex. Dancer, gymnast, surgeon -Interpersonal: ability to understand others and functions effectively in a social situation ex. Cars salesman

-Intrapersonal: ability to self-monitor and develop sense of identity; metacognition - knows limitations -Naturalist: ability to recognize patterns and differences in the world

* We have different intelligences living in different parts of the brain, clinical data: superhuman in one area, but less than normal or normal in other areas, Carl 41 years old and retarded with IQ of 48, when you talk to him he would walk off, but he had calendar calculation - if you told him a date, he knew what day of the week it was, there were two twins with mild retardation who were mildly retarded, thomas was able to play many music pieces by memory)

Factors that Contribute to Mental Retardation (& general intelligence)

-Infection or intoxication: alcohol consumed during pregnancy - fetal alcohol syndrome, lead poisoning ingested by young children ex. Lead paint on toys

-trauma: physical abuse or accidental head injury

-nutrition: severe malnutrition early in life can impact intellectual development in young children -brain disease: meningitis, brain swelling

-prenatal/perinatal factors - before or during the birth process there might be some damage, ex. Folic acids may be prescribed in prenatal, for perinatal, there could be lack of oxygen (umbilical cord wrapped around), dropping baby

-chromosomal abnormalities - down syndrome to due to extra chromosome

-other environmental influences -stimulus deprivation, ex. Child is locked in a room without light

*nature vs. nurture in twins studies, correlation much higher, then can look at variance, Misconceptions about intelligence testing

(1) Intelligence tests measure innate intelligence

(2) IQs never change

(3) Intelligence tests provide perfectly reliable scores

(4) Intelligence tests measure all we need to know about intelligence

Definitions of abnormal behavior:

Five Ways to Define Abnormal Behavior (Rosenhan - 1973)

● Statistical Deviation: deviation from what is normal, if normal is whatever most people do, then one definition of abnormal behavior is any behavior that is rare, is what most people doing even normal? Ex. Nazi soldiers

● Violation of Cultural standards: any action that violates the standards of a society or ethnic group, ex. Women wants medical education - may be considered wrong based off of a specific culture ● Maladaptive Behavior: some persons define abnormal behavior as any behavior that is maladaptive for the individual

● Emotional Distress: person suffering, second-guessing, insecurities

● Legal Definition: Impaired Judgment and Self Control: in law the def. Of abnormality is basically insanity and they don’t have control or can’t distinguish right from wrong and control his/her behavior

● All have issues*

● Rosenhan 1973 - study where there were 8 people: 3 women and 5 man with different professional experiences, gave them instructions to go to a hospital and behave completely normal, complained that they heard voices say: empty, hollow, and thud, they were all admitted to psychiatric care (from 7 to 52 days), when people were released, their permanent file said they were schizophrenic in remission, no professionals found if they were faking however, the other patients knew

DSM-IV (five axes)

- Major Disorders/ Clinical syndromes

- Milder long-term disturbances (mental retardation & personality disorders)

- General medical conditions

- Psychosocial and Environmental Problem

- Global Assessment of Functioning Scale

 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)

- Focus is on symptoms that an individual has an individual has so that clinician can look for a pattern of symptoms that is typical of a particular disorder

Causes of mental disorders

-Biological models - emphasize biological factors like genetics, hormonal imbalance, brain function, neurotransmitter problems

-Psychological models - most mental disorders are caused by psychological and social problems Schizophrenia: refers to a group of psychotic disorders, breakdown of personality, withdrawal from reality, emotional distortions, disturbed thought process, split from reality

Four categories of symptoms of Schizophrenia:

1. Disorder of cognition: disorder of thought, disturbance of attention, losing contact with reality, delusions- very complex ideas that tend to be irrational, very bizarre thought processes (Types of delusions: Persecution- associated with paranoia or Grandeur- belief that you are someone famous)

2. Disorders of perception: auditory hallucinations, about 75% of schizophrenics have this, there are also visual, but less common

3. Disorders of emotion: flat affect (lack of emotion, monotone), rapid shift in emotional state (ex. Laughing at a funeral)

4. Disorders of Motor Function: bizarre poses where people might freeze (catatonic schizophrenic), agitated excitement (ex. tapping their leg)

Causes of Schizophrenia

● Biological causes: genetic predisposition (certain groups more likely), schizophrenia may be due to an excess of dopamine activity in the CNS, structural defects in the brain (enlarged ventricles, certain fluid filled spaces are larger than they should be)

● Psychological causes: family interactions (ex. Parental feedback - if parent is inconsistent, child doesn’t know what to expect - difficult to differentiate reality) and cognitive processes (distracted and try to cover everything)

● Diathesis-stress model: genetic predisposition, you may be born with it, but it may sit there until something in the environment may trigger it (model pulls nature and nurture together) Mood disorders: class of disorders marked by emotional disturbances that may spill over to disrupt physical, perceptual, social, and thought processes - can occur at various points of your life  Unipolar: people experience emotional extremes at one end of the mood continuum - they are troubled by depression (ex. Person is fine and then depressed for a while and then is fine, etc.)  Bipolar: 1% of population has been diagnosed, experience emotional extremes at both ends, going through periods of both depression and mania, excited one minute, but depressed another time  Seasonal Affective: mood disorder that is especially prevalent in the winter months when hours of sunlight are reduced

Causes of Mood disorders

● Biological Causes: genetic predisposition, serotonin in short supply in depressed individuals, melatonin is important with seasonal affective disorder and general depression

● Psychological Causes: Beck’s cognitive theory (patient’s beliefs about the world cause them to be depressed), learned helplessness (depressed people no longer think they have control over what happens to them so they simply stop trying)

Anxiety disorders: primary symptoms involve profound fears or anxiety

 Phobias: irrational fear of some particular object or event

 Obsessive-compulsive: a condition with repetitive thoughts and actions

-obsession - persistent intrusion of unwelcome thoughts, images, or impulses

-compulsion - irresistible urge to carry out certain acts or rituals that reduce anxiety *ex. Case study: 13 year old admitted to psychiatric ward for repetitive behavior, becomes abusive when family members go in his room, etc., tutored at home by father b/c he can’t go to school b/c he constantly worries*

-Biological causes: abnormally active brain, neurotransmitter serotonin may be involved, limited data and evidence

 Panic disorder: where people have severe anxiety attacks at one time

 Generalized anxiety: anxiety is not focused on any one thing but is anxious all the time Post-traumatic stress: a debilitating anxiety that occurs following a traumatic event such as war, rape, or some other violence

Dissociative disorders: break from reality and is a way of coping with a traumatic event that the individual cannot deal with

 Dissociative amnesia: an individual is suddenly unable to remember a period of his/her life  Dissociative fugue: an individual wanders away from home and can be gone for extended periods

 Dissociative identity: known as multiple personality disorder

** why would you create another personality when something bad happens? Floyd called it defense mechanisms because you are avoiding or escaping it*

You should be able to: 

Identify independent, dependent, and confounding variables

Be able to identify the stages of moral (Kohlberg) and cognitive (Piaget) development Discriminate between different developmental research methods

Identify different types of reliability and validity

Discriminate between different theories of intelligence

Be familiar with the operation of the DSM-IV in clinical situations

Identify different types of psychopathology based on the symptoms

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