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FSU - POS 3122 - Study Guide

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FSU - POS 3122 - Study Guide

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background image Week Two   DSOM Ch. 1  Collective Action Problem   -Contractual State- Citizens come together and agree on ways to govern the society   -USA uses social contract model   -2 Games within this problem are The Prisoners Dilemma & Coordination Dilemma/Stag Hunt   The Prisoner's Dilemma   -Sometimes, you get two NASH equilibriums. In that case you really have no solid way of knowing what outcome is 
the most likely.  
Weak Political Parties   -Political parties in the United States are so weak because of open slate, closed primaries, and federalism   "PIE" Equation   -Preferences x Institutions = Outcomes   -(Preferences times Institutions equals Outcomes   Why Do We Have State Governments?   -Delegates responsibilities and resources to appropriate actors   -Enable policy variation and experiment and experimentation *states are the laboratories of democracy*   -Justice Brandeis   -Provides resources for minorities   Policy Capacity- the ability a government has to respond effectively to change, make decisions efficiently and 
responsibility, and manage conflict  
Federalism    -relationship between the national and subnational governments    -federalism allows for action between jurisdictions, going...    State to fed    State to state    State to local      Improved Revenue System    -diversified between states    -equitable (property tax breaks for poor/elderly)    -new revenue to overcome reduced taxes   
background image Ex: specialty license plates, state gift cards, merchandise    -diversification between states and how they raise money through taxes for their government can be things like 
specialty license plates, state gift cards, merchandise  
Diffusion of Innovations    -states look to neighbors for advice and information    -successful solutions spread from one jurisdiction to another    -states can emulate, or imitate other states successes    National-State Conflicts    -as state operations expand and political capacity increases, conflict is bound to occur    -unfunded mandates such as Obamacare conflict with balanced budget requirements    -immigration enforcement in Arizona 2010 established the 'show your papers act', which ended up getting denied by 
supreme court after getting challenged from the National Government     
Remaining Challenges    -fiscal stress such as the 'great recession' of 2008-2011    -inter jurisdictional conflict between states and federal governments    -political corruption    States Tackle Problems    -3 characteristics of states    States and communities are very diverse    States essentially compete with each other for resources    States are resilient in the face of adversity    Week Three   DSOM Ch. 2   Government falls under 3 general forms   Unitary Systems- China, UK, Japan. Most political power is in the national government   Confederations- Switzerland, Belgium. Most power is subnational   Federations-USA, Germany, Russia. Balanced between the 2   -Federalism is checks and balances   Unitary Systems   -most power in the central government, local governments hold limited power   -not usually found in states with lots of ethnic cleavages  
background image Confederations   -weak central government   -members see themselves as members of a subnational unit, "im a Floridian" vs. "im an American"   -harder to create a national consensus on laws, etc.   Federation    -compromise between these two systems, America   -each level can make policy within their jurisdiction without permission   -highest level of government holds supreme power, but over time powers can be devolved back to the states   -citizens essentially hold dual citizenship, for ex. A Floridian and an American  What is Federalism   -gov powers in the US is split geographically between nation, state, and local   -federalism: the structural (constitutional) relationship between national gov and its constitutive states   -intergovernmental relations: interactions among the federal gov, state gov, and local gov   -federalism is not mentioned in the constitution   Sovereignty & State Variation In A Federalist System   -federalism in theory establishes "2 governments, 1 for the whole, 1 for the parts"   -when national and state gov have no interaction, it's called a layer cake   -when the national and state govs interact (like the American way) its called a marble cake   Unitary Systems   -centralized power   -vests power in national gov, leaving subnational (state and local) govs as administrative appendages that carry out 
national policies  
Ex: France, Israel, China, Sweden, Kenya    Confederate Systems   -decentralized power   -opposite of unitary, institutional structure whereby the national gov is subject to the control of subnational, 
autonomous governments.  
-2 confederacies in the US   Articles of confederation (1781-1789)   Civil war are Confederate states of America (1861-1865)   -advantages of confederations  
background image Closer to/more familiar with the interest and needs of their constituents, local officials are better representation   Decentralized decision making encourages policy experimentation and find solutions to local problems   More avenues for expressing opinion, meaning democratic participation increases   Policy responsiveness enhanced when dispersed in multiple units   Subnational units are able to provide and manage gov services more efficiently than if the national gov did it   -however, since there is so much variation it leads to differential power relations among states and between national 
and state governments.  
Why Federalism? America's Founding   -tensions of American federalist system can be traced back to late 18 th  century   The Articles of Confederation   -1777, second continental congress approved   -country's first constitution was the articles of confederation   -states national gov was wholly reliant on the states for its operating expenses   The Federalists   -many founders (including George Washington) were appalled and wanted to amend the articles   -May 1787, congress called a constitutional convention to amend constitution   -restructured federal govs institutional design, scrapped the Articles and replaced them with a federalist system, alter 
relationship between state and national gov, now shares power with states  
-federalist supporting this wanted a strong central gov, but authority would be checked with separation of powers   -The Federalist Papers: John Jay, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton, pamphlet made to increase public 
support for new constitution  
-stated new constitution would provide internal checks and balances in the fledgling nation and would structurally 
limit the supremacy of the national gov by creating competitive state governments   
The US Constitution & Historical Development of Federalism   -question still lingering was 'who had more authority the Union or the states'?    Federal Powers Under the US Constitution   National Supremacy Clause   The Commerce Clause   The Necessary and Proper Clause   The Full Faith and Credit Clause   Privileges and Immunities Clause (Article IV & the 14th Amendment)  The National Supremacy Clause  
background image -stipulates the US Constitution and National laws and treaties are 'the supreme law of the land, anything in the 
constitution is notwithstanding.  
Aka: Constitution and federal laws trump state laws   Cherokee Nation vs. Georgia   -established Indian nations as domestic dependent nations   Worcester v Georgia   -national gov has the authority to enter into agreements with sovereign Indian tribes   Indian Gambling Regulatory Act   -most common negotiation between states and Indian tribes has to do with casino gambling   -1988   -requires tribes to enter compacts with state governments specifying type of gaming permitted on their land, and any 
compensation given to the state gov  
The Commerce Clause   -states congress has the power to regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with 
the Indian Tribes.  
The Necessary and Proper Clause   -been a key component in the centralization of power by congress over time   -also the Elastic Clause   -enables congress to expand on the 17 preceding substantive clauses the Article 1, Section 8   -congress implied powers give the national legislative body authority to make all laws that shall be 'necessary and 
proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers"   
The Full Faith and Credit Clause   -requires states to mutually accept one another's public acts, records, and judicial proceedings; and gives congress 
the authority to oversee the manner and effect of the reciprocity among the states  
-ex: DOMA, Defense of Marriage Act passed by Bill Clinton in 1996, it gave states the power to refuse to recognize 
a same sex marriage from another state   
Privileges and Immunities Clauses: Article IV and the 14 th  Amendment   -ensures that residents of one state cannot be discriminated against by another state when it comes to fundamental 
matters, such as pursuing one's professional occupation.  
-includes a provision that was upheld by the Dred Scott vs Sanford decision.   -Alaska Hire Law: restricts the occupational opportunities of nonresidents interested in working in the states oil 
industry  
-the provision made to the 14th amendment in 1868 was intended to bar discrimination by the states against their 
own citizens, aka former slaves  
background image -supreme court ruled the 14th amendments privileges and immunities clause does not protect the privileges and 
immunities of a persons state citizenship, only his or her national citizenship  
State Powers Under the US Constitution   -Anti Federalists expressed their discontent at the 1787 Constitutional Convention over the increased powers of the 
federal government, wanted strong state governments 
-state powers under the Constitution include...   Bill of Rights   10th Amendment   The Bill of Rights   -major goal of bill of rights was to ensure the protection of individuals from the  national government and still 
protect the autonomy of the states  
The 10 th  Amendment   -explicitly limits the powers of national government vise versa the states   -aka the Reserve Clause   -gives states broad authority, "the powers not delegated the US by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, 
and reserved to the States"  
Federalism Today   -federal preemption occurs when the federal gov takes regulatory action that overrides state laws   -pros and cons   -advocates say it is necessary to create a uniformity of laws and regulations so as to avoid a confusing and  inconsistent patchwork of standards across the states.    -critics claim that it leads to less flexibility in regulations and the delivery of public services, hurts the  ability of states to experiment practices, limits ability of states to coordinate their economic development priorities 
with their regulatory policies, and diminishes the protections that states are able to craft for its citizens.   
The Gradual Erosion of Federalism   The Shifting Sands   -the reason for constant shifting and gradual expansion of the power of the national gov is due to the fact that the 
authority of the federal and state gov is not clearly demarcated in the Constitution  
-John C Calhoun created the concept of nullification, which stated that a state was justified in rejecting national 
legislation and could render federal laws void and unenforceable if it refused to accept them.   
Centralization and Devolution   -Devolution: decentralization of power and authority from a central government to state or local govs   Leads to tremendous amounts of diversity across states regarding different laws between all states   -Centralization: empowering a national governing authority with unitary control and authority  
background image -the level of devolution or centralization relies on multiple factors...   After national crisis', there is a huge power shift toward centralization   When people call to redistribute the nation's wealth in an effort to create greater equity in society, perceive a 
need to establish national standards, and make efforts to create more efficiencies in the implementation of 
public policy, shifts toward centralization  
When citizens clamor for public policies that are better tailored to fit their specific needs or when there is 
growing distrust of elected officials in federal government, power shift to devolution  
Creeping Centralization: The Political Evolution of Federal Power   -authority of federal gov relative to the states grew during the 19th and 20 th  centuries   The New Deal, WW2, and Cooperative Federalism   -the three high points of federal governmental power in the 20th century   -The New Deal, aka the great depressions fireside chats, FDR in power    -WW2 the government was in a lot of control of the economy for the war efforts   -coop federalism: responsibilities for all functions of gov are shared between all levels   -categorical grants: utilized by congress to entice the state governments to cooperate with federal gov (more    The Great Society and Coercive Federalism   -block grants: used by congress to spread a wide swath of programs across the nation   -coercive federalism: John Kincaid characterized the time period of the 1960's with tons of national federal 
programs  
The Continued Expansion of Federal Powers during 1970s   -Nixon admin pushed for more block grants and changes to the way federal grants were administered   -General Revenue Sharing (GRS): grant in aid program where the fed gov provides financial aid to subnational 
units, but doesn't say how those units are to allocate the funding  
-was eventually ended because lawmakers were unable to claim credit for projects paid for by the federal  gov, but implemented by states   New Federalism During Reagan Era   -during the Reagan years, congress aggressively consolidated categorical grants into block grants, cutting them out 
entirely  
-"Big Swap" a proposed theory by Reagan administration where the federal gov would turn over to the states the 
responsibility to provide for education, social services, transportation, and cash public assistance programs in 
exchange for taking over the provision of health services for the poor. States would receive a portion of the federal 
tax revenue. Congress rejected   
The Devolution Revolution?   -unfunded mandates is a public policy that requires a subnational government to pay for an activity or project 
established by the federal gov  

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School: Florida State University
Department: Political Science
Course: State Politics
Professor: Kevin Fahey
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: political science and Politics
Name: State Politics Final Exam Study Guide
Description: consists of week by week what was covered in class (including textbook notes) and small summaries of the main points of all the journal articles
Uploaded: 12/05/2016
46 Pages 137 Views 109 Unlocks
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