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GSU / Communications / COMM 2010 / What tables are to be interrogated by the search?

What tables are to be interrogated by the search?

What tables are to be interrogated by the search?

Description

School: Georgia State University
Department: Communications
Course: Introduction to Information Systems
Professor: Kurt schmitz
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Computer, information, and system
Cost: 50
Name: CIS Final Exam Concepts
Description: This study guide is a completed version of the things to know for the final exam.
Uploaded: 12/05/2016
10 Pages 63 Views 3 Unlocks
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CIS 2010 Study Guide – Key Concepts


What tables are to be interrogated by the search?



Understanding these concepts will be important for performing well on the Final  Exam. Grasping the definition of these concepts is not sufficient. Mastery of the  material involves also understanding the context in which these concepts apply  and the relationship between concepts.

Information Technology vs. Information System

IT Components (Hardware, Software, Data & Networks)

Hardware concepts

• Input devices- devices that provide input into the processing unit,  • Output Devices- devices that send data from a computer to another  device or user.

• Storage Devices- include primary and secondary devices that act as  reservoirs to store output data.


How characters are held as numbers in computers?



• Processing- CPU, which is the brain of the computer. If you want to learn more check out What are the different levels of nurses?

• Input/Output: recognize common and emerging technologies and their  implications. Ex: head tracking, gesture recognition, wearable interface. • Processing: Recognize Moore’s Law and its implications – Gordon Moore  predicted that processor speeds and power would double every two  years. We also discuss several other topics like What refers to the rules of a language?
Don't forget about the age old question of How many members does the house of representative have?

• Storage: Primary- Very fast CPU cache and RAM. Volatile flash memory  meaning information is stored temporarily.

• Secondary- slower than primary storage, less costly, examples: magnetic hard disk drives, floppy disks, CDs, and flash drives.

• Tertiary- consists of an automated robotic mechanism that mounts and  dismounts magnetic tape or optical discs. Frequent backups placed on  these discs and stored.


What is data decision making?



We also discuss several other topics like What are the application of graph?

Software concepts

• Types of Software:  

• System Software- programs that actually make up the operating system • Utility Software- software used to analyze, configure, optimize, or  

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maintain a computer.

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K.Schmitz PhD, PgMP CIS2010, J.Mack Robinson College of Business

CIS 2010 Study Guide – Key Concepts

• Application Software- programs that users run to accomplish tasks • Server Software- works with hardware to provide a network service. • Intellectual Property, copyright, patents, ownership & use models for  software:

o Proprietary Software- software purchased from a vendor where you  receive the software and get a license. Don't forget about the age old question of Who has the power to declare war?

o Open Source Software- software created by a community that  

makes it freely available as long as people abide by the copyright.

o Shareware- software in trial version, which restricts use, but allows  you to purchase full license.

o Freeware- free, obsolete software.

o Public Domain- software that in in the public domain and the public  can use it however they want.

Programming concepts

• Understand the relationship between decimal numbers and binary  numbers. The decimal system uses base 10 (0-9). The binary system uses  base 2 (0 or 1).  

• Understand in general how characters are held as numbers in computers  (don’t try to memorize the ASCII table). Through the binary code  

characters are held as combinations of 0s and 1s.

• Understand the difference between these computer programming  languages Don't forget about the age old question of What is a balance sheet used for?

o Machine computer language- set of instructions executed directly by  the CPU

o Assembly language- takes codes and assembles it according to the  machine code instructions.

o High level computer languages

▪ compiled computer language- translated the entire program  

and creates an executable program.

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K.Schmitz PhD, PgMP CIS2010, J.Mack Robinson College of Business

CIS 2010 Study Guide – Key Concepts

▪ interpreted computer language- takes the most recently  

entered instruction, translates it into machine language and  

executes it.

• Understand the related concepts of:

• Algorithm- formula or procedure for solving a problem

• Script- small, short programs where instructions are simple.

• Program- an elaborate algorithm.

Networking

• LAN- Local area network that connects computer systems.

• WAN- wide area network that connects LANS or small networks across  large distances.

• Intranet- local area network that uses the Internet Protocol

• Extranet- organizations use this to provide specific access to external users using its own intranet.

• Internet- global communication network that allows computer to connect  and exchange information.

• Communication Protocol- HTTP that enables faster communication and  ensure data quality and accuracy.

• Domain Name Services- server-based service that translates human  language Web address or URL into an IP address.

IT Architectures

• Recognize examples of these system architectures and their implications:  o Mainframe- the CPU and primary memory of a computer.

o PC Systems- small systems used on an individual basis and include  traditional desktop systems.

o Local Applications- applications stored on your computer’s hard disk o Client/Server – software stored on a server and accessed by a client. o N-tier architectures- client-server architectures where the system is  

broken down into tiers that vary in different software development  

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K.Schmitz PhD, PgMP CIS2010, J.Mack Robinson College of Business

CIS 2010 Study Guide – Key Concepts

o Peer-to-Peer- each computer in a network can act as a server for the  others.

o Mobile computing- allows transmission of data, voice, and video via  a wireless enabled device.

o Cloud computing – network of remote servers hosted on the  

internet to store, manage, and process data.

IS Components:

• Information Technology Components (Hardware, Software, Data,  Networks)

• People- end users interact with the IS, information systems specialist  develop, operate, and maintain the systems.

• Process- structured sequence of activities to govern the use, operation,  and maintenance of IS.

Data -> Information -> Knowledge -> Wisdom

Field -> Record [tuple] -> Table -> Database

Data Types (alphanumeric- text, number [integer- whole number, floating-point decimal] , date/time- 10/02/2012, Boolean- data with a true or false answer)

Database concepts:

• Data dictionary- defines and manages the data types and dictates how the  database is organized.

• Data cleansing- correcting or removing duplicated, incomplete, inaccurate  data.

• Normalization- making the data consistent with the rest of the data. • Redundancy-unnecessary duplication of data

• Entity Relationships (one-to-one, one-to-many, many-to-many)

Big Data (volume, variety, velocity)

Understand these Data Management and recognize examples

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• Data Warehouse- systems used for data analysis and reporting

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K.Schmitz PhD, PgMP CIS2010, J.Mack Robinson College of Business

CIS 2010 Study Guide – Key Concepts

• Data Marts- subset of data warehouse oriented to a specific business line  or team.

• Extract- data is grabbed from business operational data and prepared for  transfer.

• Transform- data is cleaned and transported from one system to another. • Load- actual transfer of new data to update the data warehouse • Data mining- identifying hidden patterns and relationships in large  databases.

• Structured data- organized data

• Unstructured data- unorganized data

Recognize components of SQL commands (SELECT- informs DBMS what tables  are to be interrogated by the search, FROM- informs the DBMS what tables are  interrogated by the search, WHERE- informs DBMS of the criteria the data  should match)

Differentiate Data based decision making

• Unstructured decisions- requires the decision maker to provide the  necessary insight, judgement, and evaluation.

• semi-structured – only a portion of the problem can be solved using an  established procedure

• structured-decisions- involves established procedures and are repetitive  and routine.

Recognize Types if IS and classify examples

• Executive Information Systems- provide high-level information concerning  KPI of the organization

• Decision Support Systems- translate organizational strategies into  operational targets

• MIS – obtain routine production and exception reports to make  structured decisions

• TPS- records transactions

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CIS 2010 Study Guide – Key Concepts

Understand Porters 5 competitive forces (environment in which IT/IS influence  competitive advantage)

• Threat of New Entrants- new entrants is high when barriers to enter  business are low

• Treat of Substitute Products or Services- if there are lots of choices for  consumers then this threat is high

• Bargaining Power of Customers- when customers have many options they  can choose what they buy

• Bargaining Power of Suppliers- when supply is low sellers have the  bargaining power

• Intensity of Competitive Rivalry- where there are many competitors in an  industry this threat is high.

Recognize the role and purpose of Enterprise Systems:  

• ERP- integrate functional areas in a business into a comprehensive  system.

• SCM- works to increase the efficiency of the supply chain.

• CRM- merges marketing with business processes to strengthen customer  relationships

Systems Development Topics

Systems Development Life Cycle

• Phases: Analysis, Design, Implementation

• Models: Waterfall- sequential steps must be completed, best for short,  well-documented projects,  

• Spiral- recognized the need to review or repeat earlier stages as the  project progresses.

• Prototyping- identifies user requirements, develops prototype, use  prototype, and enhance prototype,

• Scrum- form of agile software that addresses changes and challenges

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• Purpose and types of Feasibility studies. Used to determine if a solution is  

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financially, technologically, or organizationally feasible.

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K.Schmitz PhD, PgMP CIS2010, J.Mack Robinson College of Business

CIS 2010 Study Guide – Key Concepts

• Implementation methods  

• direct implementation- old system immediately replaced, acceptable when only system is not critical

• parallel adoption- old system operates while new system is implemented.

Information Security

Understand and recognize Risk Management Concepts:

• Risks- potential of monetary and non-monetary loss

• Vulnerabilities- weakness is tech, procedures, or people involved with info • Threats- internal and external factors that have potential for attacking information assets

• Attacks- damaging acts.

Understand and recognize forms of digital cyberattacks:

• Denial of Service- a loss of access due to cut cables, malware, or other  forms of attacks.

• Malware- malicious software applications, utilities, or code that could be  a virus.

• Zero Day Attack- a threat or attack that exploits known or unknown  vulnerabilities in software

• Social Engineering- low-tech attacks designed to get someone to reveal  info.

Differentiate actors in cybercrime

• White Hat- authorized hacker who helps organizations protect their  network and systems

• Grey Hat- computer hacker whose services come at a price.

• Black Hat- hacker with criminal intent

• Hacktivist- individual or organization interested in cyber-terrorism for a  cause or purpose,

• Cyber Criminal- individual or organization exploiting computers and  

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networks to generate revenue.

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K.Schmitz PhD, PgMP CIS2010, J.Mack Robinson College of Business

CIS 2010 Study Guide – Key Concepts

• Nation States- government focused or organizations interested in cyber warfare against other nations.

Understand and recognize authentication and its purpose

• Knowledge (e.g., Password) something you know

• Possession (e.g. ID card or badge) something you own

• Identity (e.g., biometrics) something you are

Differentiate these ideas:

• multi-form authentication- different forms of authentication exist to grant  access.

• multi-factor authentication- computer access control where a user is  granted access after successfully presenting several separate pieces of  evidence.

• Authorization- giving permission or authority.

Understand and differentiate these ideas:

• ethics- moral principles, rules of behavior, & underpinning of codes based  on standards of right or wrong.

• Privacy- issues created by the availability of potentially sensitive  information.

• Legality- being in accordance with the law

• fairness approach- values individual moral rationality. Golden rule. • utilitarian approach- assesses outcome to determine the greatest good or  least harm for the greatest number of people.

• common-good approach- values choices and motivations that perpetuate  value for everyone.

• virtue approach- values human behaviors that allow us to act in  aspirational ways.

• rights approach- values rights made by society and individuals weigh  choices of some sort of precedence.

Trends in Digital Innovation

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CIS 2010 Study Guide – Key Concepts

eCommerce

• Differentiate brick-and-mortar from ecommerce. Brick-and-mortar stores  are physical stores where goods are sold whereas ecommerce happens on  the internet.

• Differentiate digital markets from digital goods/products. Digital markets  are where products are sold online whereas digital goods are goods that  are in an electronic format.

• Recognize B2B, B2C and C2C. B2B- Sales between businesses. B2C- from  business to consumers. C2C- consumer to consumer.

Social Networking

• Recognize examples and characteristics of Web 2.0. Enables collaboration  and interaction among users in social media and creates a virtual online  community.

• Business implications of Social Networks: (publicity, market research,  privacy, security)

Cloud Computing

• private-cloud- are owned and run by, or merely dedicated to, the  organization whose data resides on the equipment.

• SaaS- business can access and use software through the internet • PaaS – development of apps can occur quickly and reliably.

• IaaS- resources an IT department needs are located outside of the  organization and are accessible by anyone.

Internet of Things

• Recognize examples. IoT farms, IoT bathroom, IoT water bottles. • Implications for Big Data generation

• Implications for Cyber Security  

Recognize and differentiate Augmented Reality & Virtual Reality.  

• Augmented reality uses digital supplements to bridge a digital and  

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physical experience,

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CIS 2010 Study Guide – Key Concepts

• Virtual reality is a 3D computer generated environment that can be  interacted with.

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