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UGA / Nutrition and Food Sciences / FDNS 4630 / elaborate rules regarding food and drink for followers of hinduism are

elaborate rules regarding food and drink for followers of hinduism are

elaborate rules regarding food and drink for followers of hinduism are


What food is most frequently prohibited?

Elaborate rules regarding food and drink for followers of Hinduism are meant to do what?

What results from violating the laws of health for the Adventists?

1. Fastest growing ethnic group- Latinos 2. True concerning changing demographics: Mix of ethnic origins is shifting,  population is getting older 3. Culture- belief, attitudes, values, and practices of a community of individuals 4. The need for humans to experimenWe also discuss several other topics like suppose that there are diminishing returns to capital
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t with food choices but at the same time, be  conservative (that’s why we go through assimilation): omnivore’s paradox 5. Taste, well being, convenience- affect consumer food choice model 6. Which habits are the least likely to change? Food habits 7. Foods that are eaten sporadically and are an indicator of individual food habits peripheral foods 8. All of the above are measures of acculturation 9. The term stir-fry replaced melting pot, flavor principles are preparation and  seasoning of food 10. Americans believe in personal control over fate 11. Iceburg: much of what affects communication is unseen and not readily apparent 12. High context culture: indirect communication preferred, nonverbal cues are  significant 13. In CRASH, S= sensitive 14. Method used that is culturally sensitive- respondent driven interview 15. Kosher meal plan is not part of the efforts at the UGA dining hall 16. Religion related food habits are the least variable of culturally based foods –NOT  TRUE 17. First 5 books of Hebrew bible- torah 18. Most Jews are Ashkenazi 19. Kashrut is dietary laws for Judaism 20. Blood from any animal isn’t allowed in Judaism 21. Two examples of specific religious guidelines about how to slaughter meat kosher and halal 22. Easter is not a fast day 23. In Greece, eggs are dyed red 24. Most Mormons are in Utah 25. What results from violating the laws of health for the Adventists? Sickness  26. Not one of the 5 pillars of Islam- self-indulgence 27. Haram foods are unlawful or prohibited 28. Month of fasting- Ramadan 29. Elaborate rules regarding food and drink for followers of Hinduism are meant to  do what? Lead to purity of mind and spirit, not religious freedom 30. In India, fasting practices vary according to caste and family, degree of  orthodoxy, age and sex. 31. What food is most frequently prohibited? Meat (meat taboo) 32. It’s NOT TRUE that the rule of non-violence (ahimsa) doesn’t extend to animals 33. True- religions evolved within a culture, they have health and dietary rules, and  they’re associated with overall health status 34. NOT TRUE_ non-kosher ingredients are not allowed in diet as well as medicine 35. NOT TRUE- diabetes mellitus prevalence is low in India because vegetarianism is  widely practicedPopulation in general- food ways  Individual’s choices- food habits Kosher foods are: meat, dairy, and pareve The U symbol means kosher The M means Halal When a smaller group, a minority, moves into a larger dominant culture, the process  in which the minority group fully merges- assimilation; the process leading to  assimilation is acculturation Halal is in the Quran (Koran) 6 driving forces: demographics, government programs, women in the workplace,  new technologies, nutrition science, and media (preferred sources shift from books  and magazines to television, internet) Marvin Harris said: Certain animals benefit the community more alive than dead An animal competes with people for food An animal is inappropriate to raise in a regionFinal: MLC 101 December 12th 8 AM- 11AM 200 points Includes all materials taught in the semester Materials before exam: only from the Exam (about 35% of Final Exam) (If she didn’t  ask about it on Exam 1, it wont be on the final) Materials after Exam 1: all lacture materials Multiple choice and T/F: 53 questions (3 points each) Short Answers: 8 questions (5-6 points each) Dec 7. Accumulative points will be on ELC Dec 13th: Final grade will be on elc By Friday Dec 16th: Final grade check; appointment by email required  Introduction, Religion, Region ???? 3 parts of course The table of the summary of religious food ways is on the exam Regional America, Central America, Mexico/Latin America, Africa, India,  China/Korea, Great Britain/GermanyIndia In India, religion is the biggest influence on their food way. Hindus are the majority Indians provide all of the food together. Rice/flatbread is in the center North vs South Dal (very good protein source); used very heavily- lentils Animal products- depends on their religion- Hindu- no beef; Islam- no pork Always have water- in Hindu, water is a nectar When they come to America, although they don’t gain too much weight, they’re  exposed to a higher risk of chronic disease, metabolic syndrome Africa Before they moved to America????After Focus on Western Africa- most current The new world foods became their flavor principle and were introduced to them  before their move to America Fufu Once they arrived in America, had to adjust their food ways So they ate sweet potatoes, corn, collard greens, whatever was available (became  soul food), pork, pork fat Nutritional status: more associated with their socioeconomic status, not ethnicity  because they’re well assimilated Higher obesity rate compared to USA average, especially for women Native Americans/Alaska Natives Pre-European/Post-European contact Pre-European contact: very diverse, each of the 10 (9?) regions had different culture  and time periods As a result of cultivation, they had three sisters (corn, squash, and beans) Post-European contact: government food, moved together in the reservations,  instead of diversity, there were more similar foods.  Currently, bad health status Europe Northern and Southern  We focused on Great Britain, Germany, Netherlands, and Scandinavian countries  became the foundation for American cuisine (Short Answer Question) First major influence: Great Britain (simple food) Which region has the largest white population? Midwest; Their description was- no  thrill, homemade food France: paradox England and France: both considered northern Europe, but different characteristics Southern Europe: foreign influence, more contact to Asia, India, Africa Spain- lots of Islamic influence in their cuisine Italy- Northern vs SouthernGerman- hearty, but bland (some distinct touch), sauerkraut, lots of preserved food,  lots of fish as well, sausages Scandinavia- strong, very characterized flavor, from dairy products or preservation  (video of preserved fish) Asia China: Chinese food way influenced many Asian countries Fang (rice and grains) Cai (vegetables, meat, other) Pork is most common meat Yin and Yang concept Wide regional variation in China Soy sauce + rice wine + ginger root (however, lots of variation in each region) Korea: lots of fermented food Fang and Cai concept Although low obesity rate, high diabetes and stomach cancer because of salty,  fermented food Latin America Lots of subgroups (4 main) Mexican, Central American, South American, Caribbean High obesity rate Regional Americans 4 regions (each one has 2 or three subgroups)  Whole America is divided into 9 groups More white population in Midwest American Fare Traditional Fare: GB (England, Scotland, Ireland), Germany, Netherlands,  Scandinavia (Sweden, Norway, Finland, Denmark) Ethnic cuisines that are not mainstream (Italian, Chinese, Mexican) So both of those combined became the mainstream American fareNotes for FDNS 4630 CRN15786 (Week 8 9/26-9/30)   Monday:    Explanation of the group project    Wednesday:  Buddhism • Founded by Suddhartha Gautama about 2,500 years ago • 376 million followers worldwide • 2.1 million followers in US • Buddhism was a protestant revolt against orthodox Hinduism Similarities with Hinduism -Reincarnation -Path to wisdom requires controlling bodily desires -Spiritual liberation of soul Differences with Hinduism -No caste system -Avoid extremes in life; follow The Middle Way (Avoid the extreme of sensuality and indulgences in worldly pleasures. Avoid  extremes of austerity, mortification, and self-torture) Practices of Buddhism Nirvana (Moksha in Hinduism) • State of calm insight • Achieved when one perfects Buddha’s teaching Encourage a monastic lifestyls Monks: the ideal Buddhist • Follow a simple life • Mediate • Own no property • Obtain food by begging • Are usually vegetarian • Eat only before noon Three ideas explain Buddhism: Four Noble Truths, Noble Eightfold, Five  Precepts Basic concept in Buddhism: suffering Four Noble Truths: 1. Dukkha: The Noble Truth of Suffering -All Life is characterized by suffering -Persons suffer when they experience birth, old age, sickness, and death 2. Samudaya: The Noble Truth of Cause of Suffering -Suffering is caused by a person’s cravings for life and attachments to  pleasure, wealth, power, and even ideals and beliefs 3. Nirodha: The Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering.-Liberation comes with the end of the craving -Liberation from suffering can be done by yourself. You do not need God or  priests. 4. Magga: The Noble Truth to the Path Leading to the Cessation of Suffering. The  way out is the Noble Eightfold Path Noble Eightfold Path:  Right Mindfulness, Concentration, Effort (Mental development/Meditation)  Right view, Intentions (Wisdom) Right speech, action, livelihood (Ethical Conduct Morality) “This is the Buddhist Wheel of Law”- represents the Eightfold Path Korea has a rice cake that looks like the Eightfold Path Practical code of concept (Five Precepts) Right speech and Right action have been extended into these precepts • Abstain from taking life (similar to ahimsa) • Abstain from taking what is not given • Abstain from all illegal sexual pleasures • Abstain from lying • Abstain from consumption of intoxicants Two Major Buddhist Traditions Theravada Buddhism (Southern) (more orthodox) • Myanmar, Laos, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam (south and west) • Most orthodox; most closely follow teachings from Buddha, no emphasis on  deities, meditation is important; more about yourself) Mahayana Buddhism (Eastern) • China, Japan, Korea, Vietnam (north), Taiwan • Originated in response to orthodoxy of Theravada, Buddha is a divinity,  meditation is important; more about population, public Primary reason for eating: enlightenment and survival General dietary recommendations- great diversity (depending on the sects and  country) 1. Eat in moderation 2. Eat only foods that nourish and prevent illness 3. Do not eat raw foods 4. Eat slowly, chew and taste the food- swallow mindfully 5. Avoid alcohol and other intoxicants 6. Eat only between dawn and dusk (mostly followed by monks) 70% of US Buddhists say Buddhism influences dietary choicesVegetarianism is common • Some are vegans • Some lacto-ovo vegetarians  • Some abstain from red meat and poultry, but eat fish (Cambodia- fish only) • Some abstain from poultry and fish, but eat red meat • Red meat only, maybe poultry but never fish (Tibet) 5 contemplations while eating 1. The food is a gift from universe 2. May we eat it in mindfulness so as to be worth 3. May we transform out unskillful states of mind and learn to eat in moderation 4. May we take only foods that nourish us and prevent illness 5. We accept this food so that we may practice the path of understanding and love Fasting Fast days vary with tradition 4 traditional fast days per month New Moon, Quarter moons, Full moon Monks fast every day after noon Fasting is abstaining from solid foods with some liquid permitted Among meat eaters- abstinence from meat Why fast? Method of purifications, self-control Holy Days Vesak- most holy day- Buddha’s birthday Dharma day- Buddha began teaching Sangha- he first full moon day of March Nirvana day- Buddha completed Nirvana, upon the death of his physical bodyRegional Influence: India Asian- Origins in any people of the Far East, SE Asia, or Indian subcontinent Native Hawaiian/other Pacific Islanders- origins in original people of Hawaii, Guam,  Samoa, other Pacific Islands 3rd largest minority groups- 5.3% pop Asian population ranking- 2010 US: 1. Chinese 2. Asian Insians biggest group in US 3. Filipino 4. Vietnamese 5. Korean Georgia 1. Asian Indian 2. Korean 3. Vietnamese 4. Chinese 5. Filipino India South Asia (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan) Asian Indian Immigration Patterns 1. 1820-1920 (mainly agragarian Sikhs) 2. 1960-1970s (well-educated urban professionals) 3. Current (well educated Indian professionals, less educated rural individuals) Most have come from northern India- led to American perception of Indian foods  based on this region India • 1/3 the land mass of US• 3x the US population (more than 1 billion) • People as diverse as climate and geography  (India is culturally complex) • Government recognizes 15 languages • Actually 300 spoken with 700 dialiects • Many speak English as a second language • Hindi is national language Indian Foodways Major influences: Natural resources present and history- climate, topography, rivers, coast Local traditions and customs (regionality) This is where you see influences of  previous conquerors Status (caste system and untouchables Religion/faith (tradition) (most important) Major Religious groups in India Hindu 83-85% Muslims 10-11% (mostly in north India with typical dietary restriction) Sikhs 2% (mostly in north India, about 25% of US Asian Indians, earliest immigrant  to US) Christians 2% (most in Goa on west coast, various protestant denominations and  Catholics, Catholics due to strong Portuguese influence here) (In Goa- Hindus are  66% however 25% are Christians) Buddhist >1% (more important in other parts of Asia despite origins here. But  continues to gain new adherants) Parsi (diet is mostly non vegetarian, diet is a blend of Indian and middle  eastern/Persian fare with some British influences) Sikhism Rebellion against Hinduism/Islam Not a strong dietary law (more focused on every day life and society) Rejects: Celibacy, rather a contributing member of society Caste system (everyone is equal in eyes of God) Blind religious rituals (fasting, pilgrimage, sacraments) Defining Characteristics of Indian Cuisine • Pronounced use of spices -Much heavier use than is typical of mainstream American cuisine -Spices have either a preservative or antiseptic quality • Prominence of flat bread-Many different kinds -Dominantly wheat (N) or rice (S) based on varying with region • Greater use of dairy produces that any other place in Asia -In general, lactose intolerance is high among Asians; only India has a high  dairy use (North Indian- lower lactose intolerance than the South. South is  still lower than East Indian) But most of the dairy products that they use are  fermented -Yogurt, paneer (soft cheese), buttermilk, are key components • Use of pureed vegetables, yogurt, cream, coconut milk, ground nuts, or  combination to thicken sauces -Most cultures use wheat, corn, or other starch sources to thicken soups,  stew, and gravies -In India, common thickeners are.. Friday:  Differentiating factors- spices and condiments • Seasonings • Preparation • Vary regionally and with specific dish • Used for medicinal purposes Flavor Principles North- cumin, ginger, garlic + variations South- mustard seed, coconut, tamarind, chili + variations Seasonings -Tolerance for high levels of spices far exceeds that of mainstream America -Multiple seasonings agents used in a single dish (12 in meat dishes in North are not  unusual) -Most spices and few herbs Preparation -Whole, ground, raw, toasted -Sometimes more than one form in the same dish - Masala: mixture of seasonings (spices) Wet: fresh spices ground and cooked with liquid (water, coconut milk) and then  blended in (south) Dry: fresh spices cooked in hot oil or dry roasted than added (north) - Masala Dabba: spice box What is curry? Curry powder- the spice blend commonly found in US an dis a ready to use Masala.  It’s not a curry. Curry is the dish’s name. A mixture of spices (Masala) with vegetables - Spices blended for specific applications - Spice blends reflect regional preferences From mild to fieryNorth- mild, sweet, creamy, and nutty South- fiery, pungent, and coconutty If not vegetarian, may contain chicken, fish, mutton, pork A well-balanced Indian meal combines: 6 “basic” tastes- sour, bitter, pungent/spicy, briny/salty Traditionally these were to be balanced in an Indian meal. Combining various  tastes/textures is believed to prevent the onset of disease 5 textures -Foods that need no chewing -Foods that are licked -Foods that are sucked -Foods that are drunk Typical Indian Meal Rice/flat bread, Dhal, Vegetable dishes, Animal Foods, Fried wafer, Chutney and  pickles, Salads, Salt, Water, Desserts and sweets -Meal centerpiece is a large serving of rice or bread -Accompanied by many spicy dishes -None is a ‘main dish’. They all have equal importance Flat bread Roti or Chapati- grilled then charred Puri- deep fried party food Paratha- grilled (layered fat via folding or coiling dough Homemade flat breads- staple in North. South uses bread too (made from flour) but  their staple is flat bread Naan- leavened wheat dough enriched with yogurt, ghee, egg Dosa (L) (rice flour pancakes) and Idli (steamed, leavened rice bread) Rice based breads common in South Rice is common in south and central region Eaten throughout meal Plain or flavored  with coconut, lemon, tamarind Mixed with yogurt Wheat is the dominant grain in the North Rice is the dominant grain in the south Basmati rice is popular in the US- in India, it’s only popular in the north Dahl (lentils in Hindi): Indian comfort food Many varieties that differ in color, flavor and texture Most meals contain at least one dhal dish plus other dishes that use dhal in  combination with vegetables or meats -curries, breads, pancakes, snacks, salads, etc. Dahls are used to balance the flavor of a mealDesserts and sweets -Usually served with the meal -Often eaten first as an appetite stimulant -Many are milk based-yogurt, milk, or coconut milk as ingredients but may contain  lentils, nuts, raisins -Typically very sweet Animal food -Animal muscle foods are more important in the diets of Muslims, Parsees, and Sikhs -Regionality: meat consumption is least common in the South Red meats: beef if rarely eaten due to Hindu influence Fish: important on East and West coast Milk/buttermilk: cooking medium (coconut milk used in South) Yogurt: used for flavor, consistency in curries, cools hot and spicy foods Fried wafer: a savory with a crispy texture -Often crumbled over rice to add texture -Also consumed as a snack -Made from split peas or lentils and salt, maybe fried Vegetable dish: always cooked, boiled, stuffed, mashed, fried Thickener Salads include yogurt based (Raita) or fresh vegetable-based Typically prepared with a souring agent, oil, and spices; makes taste more smooth Salt is always included Boiled and filtered water is the preferred beverage with the meals (Water identified  as nectar in Vedas) Indian meals Seating -Meals are eaten while seated on low stool or pillow or floor -Eat with right hand only Serving -Thali: large plate or platter on which the entire meal is placed -Katoris: small bowls that contain the gravy or sauced items -Banana or plantain leaf may be used to serve the meal in the poorer households 1/3 of the world’s population uses their hands to eat (Africa and India) 1/3 uses knives, forks, and spoons 1/3 uses chopsticksNotes for FDNS 4630 CRN15786 (Week 10/3-10/7)   Monday:  Dr. Alex Kojo Anderson Ghanaian food culture -The diversity of our population calls for appreciation of the challenges and  understanding of the role of cultural foods in health What is food? Something that we consume that provides us with nutrients and  positively impacts health.  Development of food habits • Physical needs for survival • Social needs for security • Belongingness • Status Staple foods Thee basic diet consists of a starchy staple eaten with a soup or stew Southern Ghana: crops, such as plantains, cassava, cocoyam (taro), and tropical  yams, predominate in the South -Cereal and grains predominate in the north  Corn is significant, especially among the Ga, and rice is also popular The main dish is fufu, pounded plantain or tubers in combination with cassava  (used to be mainly southern, not more popular around the country) Light soup- vegetable soup Palm nut soup Ground nut soup Kotonmere soup Soup ingredients include common vegetables and some animal protein, usually  fish and invariably, hot peppers • As with any culture, food is central to the Ghanian life regardless of where  you are in the world. • Chop bars (traditional restaurants) can be found on every corner of  Ghana’s towns and in some major cities abroad too, like London, Atlanta,  and New York -Everyone has a favorite dish and every region has its own specialties Greater Accra Region The main dishes in Accra include • Kenkey with hot pepper and fried fish • Banku with fried fish and pepper with okra or ground nut soup • Red red or yokogari bean stew with fried plantain or tatale • Omo tuo (rice balls) served with palm or groundnut soup • Local drinks include asana or maize beer, palm wine, coconut juice and  akpeteshieAshanti Region It is said that is an Ashanti man hasn’t eaten fufu, then he hasn’t eaten that day Fufu with light soup and smoked fish or groundnut soup Banku and grilled tilapia are all staples of the Ashanti diet Western region- where he was born and raised • The main dishes are akyeke (cassava-based- similar to couscous) served with  avocado • Fufu and light soups with mushroom or snails • Popular drinks are coconut juice, palm wine, and akpetshie (99% alcohol) Eastern region- he also comes from here? • The Eastern region is a very diverse region and that is reflected in its cuisine everything is here from fufu to omo tuo to tsintsinga Central region (where slave trade happened) • The main dishes include fante dorkunu (kenkey with fish and gravy) • Fufu and palmnut soups • Jollof rice • Fante fante (palm oil stew with small fresh fish) and tatale (fried plantain  cakes) • Ampesi and oto (mashed yam) Volta region • The regional dishes include akple with okra soup • Fufu with palmnut soup • Abolo with shrimps and one man thousand • Banku with okra soup or pepper • Red red or fried ripe plantain Bron Ahafo Region • Fufu with nkontomrie (spinach) soup • Plaintain with stew Northern region- more muslim • Tuo zaafi, known as TZ, omo tuo or rice ball with groundnut or green leaves  soup • Beans or cowpea with sheanut oil and pepper called tubaani • Koko or millet/corn pottidge eaten with koose (fried bean cakes) • Beverages include pito, a locally brewed beer made form millet, or toasted  millet flour in water Upper West region • Tuo Zafi, omo tuo or rice balls Upper East region- same types of food as upper west, because used to be one big  region Bofrot- doughnut    Wednesday:  Paan • End of meal • Paan is not uniquely Indian -Common in other countries of South Asia/Southeast Asia Diet Summary • Meat eating not prohibited (beef most likely), lamb, mutton, goat, pork,  poultry, fish • Diet is primarily vegetarian -Relies on assortment of lentils/legumes, wheat, and rice buttermilk, yogurt common • Meal pattern: traditionally Vedas say 2 major meals should be eaten (morning and evening) -Today, 3 meals and snacks • Regionality: North, South, Goa and East • North -Use of fresh/dried fruits as well as nuts in meat dishes -Use of dairy products, milk is often a cooking medium -Heavy spice use -Wheat more common as a major starch • South -More likely vegetarian -Coconut milk is used as a cooking medium and dairy milk substitute -Rice or rice-based breads more common as major starch • Goa -West coast, broad religious base -Strong European, particularly Portuguese influence -Only here beef is likely to be consumed -Seafood common, vinegar preferred souring agent • East -Seafood consumed -Mustard oil is preferred Changes with Acculturation in US At arrival (lacto-vegetarian)????2-7 years post arrival (lacto to lacto-ovo  vegetarian)????later: meat consumption (56% of total immigrants eat beef) often no  beef (half of the 56% consume beef) 21% population in India is non-vegetarian Asian Indian Diet Consumption Traditional: mostly plant based (70-80% carb)(10% protein)(10-20% fat) High sodium, high fiber, major animal protein dominantly milk-based Acculturated in US: (52% carb)(14% protein)(34% fat) Region of origin (north vs  south India) effects seen after about 25 years in USChanges with acculturation in US Daily food preparation remains predominately indian -rice, dhal, and indian bread use continues Indian foods reduced with longer residence Ghee: olive oil, butter and margarine Yogurt: ricotta cheese and sour cream Butter- reduced with health concerns Indian savories Asian Indian: Diet and Health Asian Indians and Metabolic syndrome Risk factors: Central obesity Atherogenic dyslipidemia Elevated blood pressure Insulin resistance or glucose intolerance The biggest environment change for your body is diet. Your gene for disposal to a  disease may be turned on or off based on your diet -Asian Indians are predisposed genetically to metabolic syndrome Increases with acculturation in US Obesity: increased risk with lower weight gain than other ethnic groups.  10 lb weight gain in Asian Indians = 30 lbs in white. BMI > 23 is a risk factor; normal  healthy is 20-25 Coronary artery disease: 2-4 times higher than all other ethnic groups at all ages;  5-10 times higher than other groups if under the age of 40 Hypertension, diabetes, certain types of cancer, chronic constipationRegional Influence: Africa (African americans are 2nd largest minority group) Traditional Food Habits: Ingredients and Common Foods West African diet changed significantly due to the introduction of New World Foods  during the 15th and 16th century (before Africans came to the US) New world foods: (still in Africa) • Cassava • Corn • Chilis • Peanuts • Pumpkins • Tomatoes Old World Foods (native West African Foods) • Watermelon • Black eyed peas • Okra  • Sesame • Taro When we think of their flavor principle, we think of the new world foods that were  introduced in Africa In America, adaptations and substitutions were made based on available foods:  West African + British + French + Spanish + Native American ????American Southern cuisine (emphasizing fried, boiled and roasted dishes using  pork, pork fat, corn, sweet potatoes, local green leafy vegetables) Slave Castle in Elmina, Ghana • Ghana- point of departure to America • 1st arrived: 1619 in VA via a Dutch slave ship • African Americans today -Descendants of slaves -Directly from Africa -More recent immigrants from the Caribbean where they were descended  from slaves Majority came from 32 Angola, 13 Nigeria Most from West Africa Cultural Perspective of Africa • 2nd largest continent in the world • Estimated pop 1 billion (2010) • Much of the climate is tropical • Rainfall varies widely • Varied geography • Sahara desert• Many ethnic groups have evolved • Strong cultural identity West African Foodways A typical meal is.. Heavy on starchy foods and leafy greens Light on meat, meat is not centerpiece of the meal Generous on fat Milk is limited (consumed primarily by children) Flavor principle (tomato, peanut, and chile) • The flavor principle today is defined by foods with origin in New World • Peanut includes not only intact legume. Also peanut butter and peanut oil.  Peanut butter is used to tame the flavors of chilis and other spices • Chilis preferred are extremely hot West African Seasonings Creative blends.. spicy, sweet, and hot In addition to chilis and peanut butter • Seeds: plain, toasted, pastes from steamed and fermented  • Tamarind: seed with a sweet and sour flavor • Oils selected based upon their flavors for specific uses • Coconut milk and water: cooking medium • Salt: important Staple foods varied in each locality -Coastal area: corn, millet, rice -Southern region: yams, cassava, plantains -Sahara desert: no farming, herding instead -Camels, sheep, goats, and cattle Local fish, insects, and chickens eaten Food boiled or fried, dipped in sauce and eaten by hand Starchy vegetables (yams, plantains, cassava, sweet potatoes, potatoes) boiled and  pounded into a paste called fufu Palm oil is the predominant fat (sometimes peanut, shea, or coconut oil used) Most dishes preferred spicy (pili pili), thick, and sticky Soup and stews are popular Notes for FDNS 4630 CRN15786 (Week 10 10/10-10/14)   Monday:  Legumes popularo Peanut, cow peas, Bambara groundnuts  o Nuts and seeds frequently used to flavor and thicken sauces Fruits: apples, baobab, guava, lemon, papaya (pawpaw), pineapple, watermelon Coconut milk often used Eggplant, okra, pumpkin common Fish favored, little meat consumed Changes with arrival in New World o Sweet potatoes replaced yams o Corn replaced millet, sorghum, and rice (some times) o Pork fat replaced palm oil o Typical cooking methods -More frying -Stewing -Less steaming FUFU To prepare: pound starch into a paste; cook like porridge; eat! (small cakes/fritters  and fried; dumplings; mixed with stew Food acculturation during slavery: Overall: slaves and slave owners consumes similar foods Except: o Meat consumption was minimal for slaves o “Discarded” meat parts common -Chicken feet -Pig ears, tails, feet -Chitterlings Source was the same but the quality was different Today’s African-American Foodways Reflect: o West African foodways o Slavery o Other immigrants  o Native Americans o Environmental setting Traditional food preparation today Flavor emphasized over texture (over-cooked to accentuate flavor)  Primary seasonings- pork and pork products (For example, fat back, salt pork, bacon, hog jowls, ham hocks) Key cooking methods: boiling, fryingTraditional African-American foods Marketed as soul food (traditional black southern cuisine); down home cooking;  country cooking Soul food is not the same as southern food (soul food is for a specific ethnic group)  (soul food is African American culture that developed in the south) Okra and collard greens can be found in Africa, but they’re considered soul food now  too African-American Foods o Meat source/cuts used distinct o Often high in fat with more pork fat used as seasoning agent o Cooking time a little longer o Key ingredients are African in origin (cowpeas, okra, use of greens) o African Americans are credited with brining leafy greens to the dinner table African Americans eat pork (chops, bacon, sausage), poultry, fresh fish, sugar, and  non-carbonated fruit drinks more often than the general population. Frying is a  popular method of cooking Reasons for reduced consumption of traditional “Soul Food” o Practicality o Cross-cultural experience and intermarrying o Changes of roles within the family o Women’s careers o Health and Nutrition education o Health problems among African Americans Nutritional Status o African Americans’ nutritional intake is similar to that of the general  population o African Americans’ nutritional intake varies more by socioeconomic status  than by ethnicity o Nutrient deficiencies associated with poverty are prevalent in poor blacks o With poverty, calories, iron and calcium are the most frequent  insufficiencies; anemia rates are high as are the rates of obesity and type 2  diabetes o Low intakes of dairy products and vegetables o Many AA’s diets are often low in fruits, vegetables and whole-grain products  (low dietary fiber) o Dairy foods are consumed less  by AA than by whites: 60-95% of adult A are  lactose intolerant o Higher intake of sodium o % of calories from animal proteins for blacks is often greater than for whites  (high intake of fatty meat like bacon and sausage) Health statuso On average, black men live 6.4 years less than white men; black women  live 4.6 years less than white women in the US o Chronic diseases: obesity; diabetes; hypertension; cardiovascular disease;  osteoporosis; anemia o The obesity prevalence is much higher in black population o Obesity in adulthood is a common problem o Adolescents and children are also at risk, especially girls o Fat patterning differs between AA and whites -More upper body fat in AA o High rates of Type 2 diabetes o Genetic predisposition o Lifestyle factors (obesity, sedentary lifestyle, westernized dietary  habits) Diabetes in Africa is not this way- so mostly a result of what they eat here Hypertension is a leading health problem in AA too 43% women, 39% males Hypertension has been found to be a potent risk factor for coronary heart  disease (CHD) in AA Especially in women Higher death rate from strokes- may be due to high rates of high blood  pressure Regional Influence: Native Americans (American Indians and Alaskan Natives) o Origins in the original peoples of America that maintain a tribal affiliation or  community attachment o 4th larget minority grou o Very diverse group; 566 federally recognized tribes as of Jan 2015 and an  unknown number that aren’t federally recognized o Each tribe has its own culture, beliefs, and practices o Navajo is largest; Cherokee is second largest On average o 25-33% of food consumed is traditional; up to 80% in some locales o Traditional foods help Native Americans maintain rituals and values of their  cultures o Fry bread is a traditional food among almost all Native American groups o Before western influence, the tribes all had unique food. Now the tribes have  similar foods Wednesday:  States with the largest numbers: California, Oklahoma, Arizona Largest ethnic groups (more %) in Alaska, Montana, North Dakota, Oklahoma, and  South Dakota About 40% of Native Americans live on reservations Native Americans’ average age is younger than total AmericansNAs are less educated than the total American population (more population who  gets less than a high school degree) This also affects their income (more than 40% of NA are below the poverty level) Fair/poor health, overweight, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, mental distress is  higher o High obesity, diabetes, heart disease all higher (CHD is lower; hypertension is  higher), lactose intolerance is higher, dental caries is higher, alcoholism is  higher but decreasing, infectious diseases- higher o Malnutrition, overcrowding, inadequate sanitation and potable water o According to the CDC, this population has a disproportionally high  prevalence of many health problems, including those related to diet; the  biggest disparities are found among NA who live on reservations Factors contributing to poor health o Cultural barriers (suspicion with traditional spiritual beliefs) o Geographic isolation o Inadequate sewage disposal o Economic factors o Food/dietary choices o About 60% AI/AN access HIS for health services Traditional Native American Foodways Pre-European Contact o A diversity of means was used to meet the food needs o Physical environment and natural resources has a major impact on the way  food needs were met o Geographical location and the particular native American time period in  which they lived at time of European contact (Archaic vs Formative)  influences “traditional foods” Historically, NAs used a diversity of means to meet their needs for food o Gathering- fruits, leafy vegetables, root vegetables, nuts, insects o Hunting- large game, small game, sea mammals o Fishing- finfish, shellfish, both salt and freshwater o In some locales- Agriculture (started in Southwest) (never accounted for  more than 50% of food consumed Physical environment and natural resources had a major impact on the way that  NAs met food needs Ten (9?) Native Americans Regional Cultural Areas (sometimes California and Great Basin are grouped into the same group) Foods used reflect geographical location and the particular time period Archaic Period (begins about 10,000 years ago; ends 4,000-5,000 until 100 years  ago; varies with group and location)Formative Period (Begins 4,000- 5,000 years ago; varies with group and location;  ends with on-going European contact) Archaic Period o Subsistence Activities (gathering, hunting, fishing) o Tools (baskets, milling tools, hunting and fishing equipment) o Social complexity (bands of related people occupational specialization) o Trade Formative period o Intensive, specialized food acquisition strategies (hunting, gathering, fishing,  and AGRICULTURE) o Environmental management strategies- fire! o Trade networks- long distance o Sophisticated socio-political structures o Elaboration of technology- pottery o Agriculture is defining characteristic of the Formative period Three sisters: corn, bean, and squash Agriculture-based staples Sunflowers were always grown whenever agriculture was developed Despite the commonality in agricultural crops, differences were found with cultural  regions Worldview o Food is sacred o Gift of the nature o Sharing food is important o Religion, medicine, and well-being are inter-related -Preoccupation with the cycles of nature -Belief in animate of all beings Attempts to control cosmic powers Native American Religion Influences The Shaman has the power to heal the sick and to communicate with the spiritual  world Traditional Native-American Foodways Post-European contact o Contact with Europeans changed foods consumed, and procurement and  cooking methods (technology, actual foods) o Traditional foods changed when resources for basic needs diminished o Traditional foods changed with forced relocation (ultimately lead to  reservation dwelling) 1. Immediate effects :different geographic/environment conditions ????changes indigenous foods available 2. Area was smaller ????less resources from the land to support more people3. Increased dependence on alternative sources of food Relocations Government Viewpoint “Kill the Indian and save the person” Goal: total assimilation o Opened new land for settlement o Colonized NA on restricted reservations o Instituted detribalization Detribalization Involved: o Adoption of Anglo-religions o Adoption of Anglo-farming practices o Use of Government issued rations -Beef, flour, salt pork, lard, pilot bread, coffee -Intent was for rations to supplement traditional diet Current Governement Food and Nutrition Programs o WIC o School nutrition program o Congregate meals for elderly o Food stamp program o Food Distribution program on Indian reservation- brings food to them Current Nutrition Education Approach Encourage consumption of traditional foods Why- Rich nutrient content; replace less nutritious foods in diet; strong association  with cultural customs Many Americans trace their ancestry to Europe alone Foundations of American Fare: Great Britain, Germany, Netherlands,  Scandinavia (Sweden, Norway, Finland, Denmark) Majority population tends to determine the “mainstream cuisine” Northern and Southern Europeans o Largest American ethnic groups from Northern and Southern Europeo US meals similar to Northern Europe -Large serving of meat, poultry, and fish -Small side dished of starch and vegetable o Each ethnic group brought their own unique cuisine and adapted to the US  indigenous foods Northern and Southern Europe Northern Europe (Great Britain and Ireland) (England, Scotland, Wales, Northern  Ireland) (France) Southern (Italy, Spain, Portugal) Worldview Religion o British (Church of England)  (Methodist, Baptist, Quaker) o Scotland (Protestant/Presbetarian) o Irish (Roman Catholic) o French (Roman Catholic) Great Britain had the first major effect on traditional American fare English food descriptions o Processes a forthrightness and simplicity with respect to raw ingredients o Unimaginative o English cookery is not complex; the preference is for simple fresh foods well cooked and unadorned Proper British meal o Components -Hot meat (beef preferred) Accompanied by potatoes, vegetables, gravy o Prepared by the woman of house; requires more than one cooking technique;  usually a long preparation time o All family members present and seated at table Staple Foods Primary foods: meat, fish, potatoes, flour, butter, eggs Secondary foods: vegetables, fruits Animal protein as the centerpience of the meal Muscle cuts (beef with hot white horseradish) (lamb with green mint sauce) (pork  with sweet apple sauce) Beef (skeletal muscles and variety cuts) (oxtail, tripe, sweetbreads, kidnet, liver,  brains and tongue) Poached salmon (served with cucumber sauce) Other fish prep methods (grilled/broiled, soused, kippered) Other fish: whiting, dover sole, herring, mackerel Wide variety of fish and shellfish used Eggs: frequently consumed Legumes are not frequently consumedVegetables as condiments o Side dish, meal filler o Potatoes, brussels sprouts, cabbage, turnips, parsnips, carrots, asparagus o Well cooked with lots of water and little seasoning o Salad and salad vegetables not popular Fruits as condiments Most fruits are eaten cooked: apples, strawberries and raspberries are favorites Others (pears, peaches, apricots, cherries quince, rhubarb, green walnuts) Irish, Scottish black pudding (sausage) Blood makes it black Popular traditional breakfast item National dish of Scotland: haggis (tradition to eat on new year’s eve) Scottish: very similar to Irish Major differences o Fewer spices o Fewer vegetables o Cooked cheese dishes (rarebit, roasey cheese, molded cream cheese served  with fresh fruit and cream) o Greater variety of quick breads and cakes Irish key seasonings o Main dishes (bacon fat and butter; salt and pepper; onions and leeks) o Breads- caraway seeds o Cakes and fruit cakes- cinnamon, mace, nutmeg Scottish and Irish food descriptions o Prepared with a minimum of seasonings and a maximum of cooking o Preference for few, simple dishes for a meal rather than many courses o Scottish spice shelf is the smallest in the world: salt, pepper, onions and  maybe ginger Key seasonings: English o Salt and pepper o Plus (Onions, thyme, rosemary, sage, savory, nutmeg, curry) English Manners: chew small bites at a time; don’t speak with food in mouth; use  knife and fork; show no interest in food French Cuisine The cooking of France has been divided into classis French cuisine and provincial or  regional cooking 1. Classic French cuisine -Haute or grande cuisine -Elegant, formal-Finest ingredients throughout the country 2. Provincial or regional cooking -Home or local café -Fresh local ingredients Cooking styles: Great Britain, Ireland and France  o Ingredients are not different o Cooking styles very greatly o British and Irish -Simple and hearty -Developed out of rural, seasonal traditions o France -Fresh ingredients -Attention to detail -Technical proficiency Northern and Southern Europe  Southern Europe (Italy, Spain, Portugal) Ingredients and Common Foods: Foreign Influence o Phoenicians and Greeks in ancient times -Olive tree and chickpeas -Fish stew may be of Greek origin o Muslims -Eggplants, lemon, orange, sugar cane, rice, sweetmeats, spices -Marzipan (a sweetened almond paste) and Saffron-seasoned rice are  believed to have Muslim origins o New world colonies had greatest influence  -Tomatoes, chocolate and vanilla, avocados, Chile peppers, pineapple,  potatoes, corn and squash, turkey -Asian and Indian influences Adaptations of food habits o Many US dishes have British/Irish roots o French: Not much influence in general -Creole and Cajun cooking in Louisiana o Influence from British and French on American cuisine; High cholesterol and  fat, low in fiber and complex carbs o In US, most are completely acculturated Friday:  African Americans brought “fresh greens to the table” Scottish cuisine uses a little more dairy product than Irish French Cuisine: each region has their own specific ingredients but they’re all shared.  Italy o Pasta made with or without eggso Hundreds of shapes o Most common is flat noodle Northern Italy o Fresh pastas are more common o Stuffed versions such as ravioli are popular o Frequently topped with rich cream sauces o Uses more butter, dairy, rice, and meat o Garlic is found throughout the nation but more popular in north Southern Italy: agriculturally poorer o Dried, unfilled o Tomato sauce o More olive oil, fish, beans, and vegetables Adaptations of Food Habits o Many US dishes have British/Irish roots o French: Not much influence in general o Creole and Cajun cooking in Louisiana o Influence from British and French on American cuisiins; high cholesterol and  fat, low in fiber and complex carbs o In US, most are completely acculturated Nutritional Status: Recent survey -Potatoes, animal protein, processed foods, margarine, butter, sweets are relatively  high in UK -Added animal fats and oils high in France Obesity rates: US is much higher than all of Europe France has much lower obesity rate than England even though they have similar fat  consumption- French Paradox (40% of their energy comes from fat but they have  low chronic disease) Americans who are of Northern and Southern European decent have the same  nutritional status as the general US population  Germany: major influence on mainstream American cuisine o Germans in the US: Higher in economic achievement and are generally conservative in  attitudinal ratings o Early immigrants primarily Lutheran, Jewish, Roman Catholic, Mennonites,  Amish o Rapid assimilation o Diet not significantly different from U.S. fare Traditional Food Habits: Ingredients and Common FoodsNotes for FDNS 4630 CRN15786 (Week 11 10/17-10/14)   Monday:  France is the size of an average US state Diverse soils, climates, snow in the north and beaches in other areas Lots of varieties of cheese and bread In the north of France, mussels and fries are eaten together Limestone (“chalk”) subsoil and relief o Absorbs heat o Offers drainage o Mineral taste Soil in Champagne is good for wine even though it shouldn’t be able to grow plants Despite a lot of variety, the French meal is well established  Starter: soup, salad Main course: Meat, grain, vegetable Cheese and salad Dessert Water Bread Lasts at least 30 minutes, up to 5 hours There are no packed lunches at school or work 3 meals and a “gouter” 8 A.M. breakfast- not salty; warm beverage; tartines (open faced sandwich); fruit or  yogurt; croissants on weekends 12:30 lunch 16:00: Gouter! (Children’s favorite meal, still consumed by adults; milk, bread,  chocolate, fruits) 20:00 dinner (maybe lighter for lunch; no cheese); still traditional meal Biggest meal is lunch Seated, at a table, with water People eat before and after the news School goes until 7 P.M. French are getting fatter too But not as much and as fast as in other Western countries Especially for children  The diversity of products consumed in France is greater than in the US 16.8 products in two days vs 13.6 Lunches and dinners are preferably different every day Culinary diversity is important France eats more bread and vegetables Energy dense foods are consumed more in the US 3x vegetables in France  Equivalent amount of fatsMore PUFA in US More SFA and cholesterol in France More sugars in US and the source of sugar is different US (beverages, soda) Sugar: 16% of the US intake is in liquid vs 10% in France 4.5x more soda 3x more fruit juice 2.3x more milk Alcohol consumption is equivalent in volume In alcohol unit, France consumes more because wine has more than beer Food frequency 3.9 times per day (France?) vs 5.5 times per day 60% of French population is eating at 12:30 Snacking is not as important in France Eating is an activity and is not done in parallel with other activities Eating at the table is a social norm The longer we sit at a table, the less we’re at risk for overeating and being  overweight The “culture” of food is transmitted to the children The parents choose what and when You have to try everything on your plate; being hungry is okay Are you still hungry? And are you full? Which do the French ask more? Europeans categorize potatoes as a grain The average BMI in the US raises sharply during childhood and adolescence Myths vs. Reality Reality: French eat snails, frog legs and horse meats Reality: Yogurt is very important in meals Reality: Before eating you should say Bon Appetit Myth: French eat brains (used to, not anymore because of Mad Cow) Reality: French toast are called Lost Bread Reality: Meat can be conserved in fat- duck fat Reality: Special pigs are used to find mushrooms- truffles Reality: Food is cheap Myth: French smoke to stay slim Reality: French eat rabbit Reality: French fries are not French- from Belgium Reality: A baguette can only have 3 ingredients (flour, egg, yeast) Reality: many people in France drink their hot beverages from bowls and drink  bread in it Reality: the legal drinking age is officially 18 for strong liquors and 16 for more  alcohol drinks like beer and wine Reality: grocery stores close at 8 and are closed on Sundays Reality: There is no South American food in France Reality: McDonalds prices are 3x as expensive as in US Reality: Desserts are fruit and yogurtMost common cooking method: baking in oven/stewing/ not lots of frying Wednesday:  Virginia D. Nazarea- Department of Anthropology Genetic resources are stored in gene banks all over the world Right now she’s working in Peru in the international potato center In situ conservation- conservation of seeds and plants in place (in fields, farms) Most of the other branches of science prefer conservation in cold storage In vivo- conservation in the acknowledgement of resources in viable complexes- for  everyday practices, aesthetics, taste, textures “If we can live in memory, we would not have to consecrate sites of memory in its  name” Sensual landscapes refer to every day practices, aesthetics, aroma, taste, textures Embodied rather than inscribed, sensory memory can in turn sustain a “wish  landscape” Trans situ conservation- plants that are transported from the homeland into the  adopted country. “To author a sense of place” Landscapes of memory vs Landscapes of loss The Earth is dominated by wounds; restoration ecology heals these wounds Southern seed legacy- although there is a loss of a sense of place in the south, the  response has been that people dig in deeper and seedsave Vietnamese- garden even if they only have a little land. Younger people may not  garden, but they will eat We need to move from a culture of sustainability to “cultures of sustainability” by  acknowledging the plurality of knowledges and practices that contribute to the  conservation of biodiversity The intensity of the garden has to do with intensity of disruption Notes for FDNS 4630 CRN15786 (Week 12)   Monday:  Argentinian diet doesn’t follow MyPlate Recognized by the beef. Have protein every day Chicken, pork, and fish are more expensive than beef Dulce de leche- milk caramel (just milk and sugar) o Used on toast, in tea, cakes Empanadas- Argentina makes them with beef Mate drink- similar to tea; mate plant; use leaves; it has caffeine; everyone drinks it old and young; some people add sugar They have sweet/salty croissants (medialunas) Beef is extremely popular in Argentina and has the second highest consumption of  beef in the worldBeef is often served with chimichuri sauce, made form garlic, parsley, vinegar, and  red pepper flakes They also eat goat BBQs are popular They do not consume rice or beans  They pair beef with bread Gas BBQ grills aren’t popular; they use charcoal and wood They also eat meat covered with egg and bread (influenced by the Germans) They eat a lot of salads- they put olive oil, vinegar, and salt as the dressings Fruits are desserts- temperate fruits (they don’t have mango or papaya)  Oranges, apples, bananas, pears Cheese and a special fruit are a dessert (quines fruit) Flan is also very popular Cocacola life has 50% less sugar (truvia is in it) Obesity: 30% of total population In US it’s in 37%; in Argentina, kids and middle aged people are obese 16-33% of children in Argentina is overweight Studies have shown that Argentina has the highest rates of children that are  overweight  There has been an increase in the consumption of sugary drinks in grades k-8 and in  high school They don’t have doughnuts there Wednesday:  Germany- major influence on mainstream American cuisine Germans in the US Higher in economic achievement and are generally conservative in attitudinal  ratings o Early immigrants primarily Lutheran, Jewish, Roman Catholic, Mennonites,  Amish Rapid assimilation Diet not significantly different from US fare Traditional Food Habits: o Determined by what grows in cooler, damper climates o Meats: Pork is the most popular, ground meat and sausages (Rohwurst,  Bruhworst, Kockworst, Bratwurst) (1500 types of sausages) o Seafood from the Baltic, fresh fish from local lakes o Eggs and Dairy products: Eaten daily, cheese searved at any meal o Rye, wheat, and barley o Potatoes, beans, beets o Cabbage and cabbage family o Dried, pickled, or fermented for preservation o Sour cream, SauerkrautGerman cuisine: Hearty but bland Relies on the flavor of fresh ingredients Distinctive touch: prevalent use of sweet and sour flavors Brown sugar and vinegar or lemon juice often with raisins, cinnamon, nutmeg German seasonings: Herb gardens: woodruff, parsley, chives, dill Other seasonings: anchovies, capers, horseradish, mustard, juniper berries, onions,  etc. Beverages: Beer- main beverage in Germany; food in liquid form Regional specialties (brewpubs) Beer festivals common Wine- Riesling, Gewurztraminer Wine was developed before beer Germany fish: Herring o All parts of meal except dessert o Salad o Jellied o Grilled (broiled) Vegetables: Potatoes, turnips, peas, beans, carrots, mushrooms, white asparagus,  cabbage Preparation: clean, shape and cut, toss in hot butter, add moisture, allow to steam  and make own sauce Fruits: fresh, compotes, fruit soups, jams nad jellies, spreads and fillings for tarts,  yeast doughs Ingredients in meat dishes. Apples, pears, cherries, plums Breads and cereals: Spaetzle, rye, whole wheat, barley, oat, wheat, wide variety of  dumplings Scandinavia: Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland Major influence on mainstream American cuisine Demographics: all assimilated well, most literate, value education Majority who immigrated were Lutheran If not, Protestant churches Traditional Food Habits o Hearty and simpleo Abundant seafood o Limited foods produced on land o Preservation methods of previous centuries used -Fish dried, smoked, or pickled -Milk is fermented or allowed to sour -Preserve foods with salt o Many Scandinavian foods adopted by Americans Most/Least popular Scandinavian foods in US today: Most: Danish pastry, Lefse (w/rakfisk) Least: Lutefisk Scandinavian Foods: natural, robust flavors Seasonings- general (dill*, onions*, juniper berries*, cumin, coriander, anise, pepper) Seasonings- baked goods and pastries (Ginger, citrus peel, cardamom, saffrom, Almonds/almond paste Often due to preparation techniques o Brining, marinating, smoking, pickling o Use of creamy sauces o Use of fermented milk products (clabbered milk, sour cream, buttermilk) Flavor principles: smoking, cultured milk and herb/spice (sour cream and dill) Vegetabes (cold weather vegetables, roots) Fruits (apples, blueberries, cranberries, strawberry), stewed or made in preserves Important fish (grow in cold weather), salmon, herring, cod, sardines, prawns Preferred red meats Norway: lamb, mutton Denmark: pork Sweden: pork, beef Finland: pork, beef, veal, lamb, mutton Breads: often rye, Norwegian flatbreads Nutritional Status: Similar to Americans o Central European diet among highest in animal products, potatoes, sweets,  refined/processed items o Scandinavian Americans may be at increased risk for CVD due to high fat,  high cholesterol dietNotes for FDNS 4630 CRN15786 (Week 13)  Monday:  Asia o Asia has 1/3 of the world’s land mass o 2/3 of the world’s population o Includes parts of Russia, Central asia, and the Middle East o China, Taiwan, Japan, North and South Korea, and the Mongolian People’s  Republic Chinese Foodways o The Chinese had major influence on many other cultures, particularly those  of Asian world, including the meals and foods of Japan, Korea, Vietnam,  Cambodia, Laos, Thailand China o 4000 year old civilization o Varied geography o Population exceeds 1.3 billion people o Numerous ethnic groups (majority “Han” + 55 minorities) o Diverse language with many dialects Chinese in America o 4 million ethnic Chinese in US (2010) o Generally tend to be better educated than average US citizen o Largest Asian group in US o 2nd largest- Filipino, 3rd- Indian Today’s US Chinese population is very diverse o Non-English speaking peasant from rural villages in southern China 65-85  years ago o Urban immigrants via Hong Kong, Macao, Taiwan & main land China; past  35-45 years o Ethnic Chinese via Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia as refugees in 70s and 80s o Immigrants from Hong Kong w/ British transfer in 1997 o 2nd and 3rd generation Chinese Americans Is it Chinese or Chinese-American? Chop suey, fried chicken wings, egg rolls, egg foo young, chow mien, fortune cookies Chinese food was one of the earliest cuisines to gain popularity in the west Worldview: Religion Combination of: o Ancestor worship o Confucianism: A sage who gave order to Chinese society be defining how  people should like and work together o Taoism: Heaven and humanity function in unison and can achieve harmony.  People are subordinate to nature’s way o BuddhismChinese Foodways o Eating is one of the rare joys of living, with food playing a central role in the  protocols and ceremonies of life o The range of individuals is perhaps the most extensive in the world o Cantonese saying “Anything that walks, swims, crawls, or flies with its back  to heaven must be edible o Eat a variety of foods and avoid few Characteristics: Frugality o Few equiptment and utensils: hot pot, wok Characteristics: Cooking methods o Stir frying, deep frying, steaming, slow-cooking, Roasting/BBQ, smoking Characteristics: Division between fan and cai o A balanced meal has appropriate amounts of fan and cai o Meal components o Fan- grains (whole or flour) o Cai- vegetables and meats, mixed (ingredients and flavor) Characteristics: Food Consumption and Selection o Major emphasis on yin and yang foods o Amount and kind of food is related to one’s health o Food is medicine o Diseases are also classified as yin and yang o Yang diseases are treated with yin foods and vice-versa o Even people are yin or yang- linked to individual dietary recommendations Traditional health beliefs and practices: Traditional Chinese Medicine o Adapted to include concept of yin and yang o Balance opposites o Illness develops when imbalance occurs o Excess of yang (acne, rash, hemorrhoids, ear infections, fever) o Excess of yin (anemia, colds, nausea, weight loss, weak blood during growth,  pregnancy, postpartum or old age is treated with yang) Traditional Chinese Meal Pattern: Breakfast North: noodles or steamed dumplings, Crullers (Youtiao), Tea South: Congee, salty side dishes (Duck eggs, pickled vegetables), tea Traditional Chinese Meal Pattern: Lunch North: noodles with condiments South: rice stir-fried with bits of meat and vegetables, dim sum Light version of the evening meal Traditional Chinese Meal Pattern: Dinner Soup: as the beverage (cold beverages are very unusual) Fan: Rice or non-rice grain dish (noodles, pancakes, bun doughs, dumplings) Cai: two of three mixed dishes (vegetables, fruit, pork, fish, poultry) Dessert (not typical): fruitCai foods: Vegetables Preparation o Hot and cold o Lightly cooked but not raw o Quickly boiled in soups  o Stir-fried o Cabbage is most popular o Eggplant, squash, turnip, onions, peas and beans, yam, bamboo shoots o They also use Aquatic vegetables (Americans don’t) chestnut, lotus root o Dried vegetables (lily bulbs) o Fungi o Dry vegetables and then cook (enhanced flavor) Cai foods: Legumes o Soybeans in particular are a major protein source Cai foods: Meats, poultry, and eggs Consumed o Pork: everyday meat o Mutton (north) o Beef (infrequent) o Poultry is often symbolic o Fish and shellfish o Eggs o Meat = pork (90% of total meat consumed) Preparation method o Tough meats—thinly sliced, marinated o Fatty meats- twice cooked (simmered then stir-fried) o Whole-roasted pigs (special occasions) Cai foods: Fruit o Created flavors and textures o With meat and poultry and vegetables (pieces and in sauces, often dried,  sugared or crystallized and/or spiced) o Fruits are also used as desserts Traditional Food Habits: Tea o 3 types of tea o Green: dried, tender leaves, yellow, slightly astringent drink o Black (red), toasted, fermented leaves, reddish drink, common in Europe and  US o Oolong (black dragon)- partially fermented leaves Wide Regional Variation Eight distinguishes regional cuisine (4 main: North, South, West and Central, East  and Coastal) Chinese Flavor Principles Overall Soy sauce + rice wine + ginger rootRice wine is made form fermenting glutinous rice or milled (aged for 10 years;  relatively low alcohol content) Peking (North)  o Add miso/garlic/sesame to the overall flavor principle o Miso: salted and fermented soybeans; lighter the color, the sweeter the flavor o Emphasizes light and subtle flavors are the best ingredients o Bejiing duck is most popular o Richest area Szechuan and Hunan (West) o Add sweet/sour/hot to the overall flavor principle o Hunan- fresh o Szechaun- dried or chile bean paste o Spicy and Hot characterizes Sichuan food (Ma Po Tofu or Kong Pao Chicken) o Hunan cooking is known for spicy zest and also sweet and sour flavors (sweet  and sour chicken) o Rice vinegar- 3 types (white-mild, red, black, all made from fermented rice) Eastern (Shanghai) o Add (heavy use) of rice vinegar/soy sauces/sugar to the overall flavor  principle o Lots of ingredients because good soil and sea (fish too) Canton (South)  o Add black beans/garlic to the overall flavor principle o Traditionally basis of Chinese-American cuisine Unseen quality enhancers Add: Flavor-Texture-Color Dried: shark’s fin, bird’s nest, shrimp, scallops, oysters, sea slug or sea cucumber,  jellyfish Post-immigration o Traditional Yin-Yang concept maintained o US Acculturated Diet (55-60% kcal CHO) (20% kcal Protein) (20-25% kcal  Fat) o Traditional Chinese Diet (80% kcal from grains, legumes, vegetables) (20%  kcal from animal protein, fruits, and fats) o Increased incidence in US (diabetes, heart disease, cancers (colon, breast,  prostate))Wednesday:  Asia/Korea Korea is one of the 6 largest Asian groups in the US History of Koreans in the  US o Few immigrated to the US prior to 1900 o 1960s: family of US soldiers who were in the Korean War o Population is growing o Some difficult adjustments have been noted o High achievement in education and professionalism o After 1965, immigration increased o Currently over half have come to the US since 1980 o 58% say that all of their other friends are Korean o 43% of immigrants 18+ speak English very well compared with 53% of all  Asian American immigrants Traditional Food Habits: Ingredients and Common Foods o Influenced by Chinese and Japanese. But Korean cuisine is neither Chinese  nor Japanese o Hearty and highly seasoned -“Jang” and “Jeotgal”: Korean condiments o Sweet, sour, bitter, how and salty tastes combined o Five color important- white, red, black, green, yellow (balances the meal,  makes it healthy; combination of Earth) Jang: fermented foods. Made with soybeans. Ganjang (soy sauce), Doenjang (bean  paste), Gochujang (red pepper paste; spicy) A lot of Korean flavors are salty Jeotgal: fermented foods; made with various seafood such as shrimp, oysters,  shellfish, fish, fish eggs, etc. Rice is the foundation o Must be cooked correctly o Short grain preferred Millet, barley, legumes may be used as extendersNoodles from wheat, buckwheat, mung beans, sweet potatoes and kudzu Vegetables served at every meal o Kimchi: pickled and fermented vegetables served at every meal o Namool: fresh or cooked vegetables o Seaweed: common soup, side dish, dried o There are many types of Kimchi o Fish, shellfish popular o Beef and beef variety cuts, pork and chicken o Milk and dairy products not generally used o Seasonings:  Jang and Jeotgal, garlic, garlic, ginger root, black pepper, chile  peppers, spring onion, toasted sesame Rice is the main dish Everything else is an accompaniment (panchan) Kimchi is always offered Individual bowls of rice and soup Panchan (all other dishes) shared Chopsticks and spoons Special Occasions New Year: Tteokguk (rice cake soup) Thanksgiving (fall harvest festival): Songpyeon (rice cake) Personal life cycle o 100th day celebration (Baek-il): Baekseolgi (rice cake) o First birthday (Dol) o Birthdays: Miyeokguk (Seaweed soup) (calcium, iodine and dietary fiber;  cleans blood, recover from childbirth) o Wedding (ghosts don’t like red) o Ceremony for dead (don’t use red color) o Each personal life event has specific food items Nutritional Status o Obesity rates lower in foreign born than in Korean Americans, but still lower  than US; the obesity rate is increasing o Men more likely than women o Acculturation increases risk for obesity especially for men, not women o Type 2 diabetes: compared to the obesity rate, Koreans have much higher  type 2 diabetes; so does India because of rice o Stomach cancer: high stomach cancer rate because of their food (salty and  fermented)Hispanics/Latinos o Largest minority group (16.9% pop; about 50 million) o Population is growing at 4x the rate of the overall US population o Mexican is the largest group Hispanics tend to be geographically concentrated  Most settle in border states- reflects Mexican immigration Mexicans settle in West and South Puerto Ricans tend to settle in NYC where more than ¼ public school kids are  Puerto Rican Cubans tend to settle in South Florida (more than half of all Cubans in US live in  Miami area) Central and South Americans are more dispersed Characteristics of Hispanic population o Younger than US pop overall: over 65=5% o Larger households: more than 5 members o More likely to have never been married (more males that haven’t been  married) o Less educated (less than high school 57%) Mexicans lowest. Cubans highest  education level) o Lower incomes: poverty level is highest among Puerto Ricans followed by  Mexicans o Vary in acculturation Stages of Acculturation o Unacculturated (Born outside the US and spent less than ½ life in US) o Semi-acculturated (Born outside US and spent more than ½ life in US)(Born  to US immigrant parents) o Acculturated (Born to US parents who were born in US) o Key consideration in understanding Hispanic food consumption behavior o Unacculturated and semi-acculturated Hispanics seek and find own cultural  foods: like to cook from scratch and favor fresh foods o Acculturated Hispanics: calorie-dense, fast prepared and frozen foods similar to general Americans) Immigrants, now US citizens Legal US residents, remain citizens of country of origin Undocumented or illegal aliens Hispanic-Americans- 2nd or 3rd generation Latin American Food Pyramid: illustrates the actual dietary patter- relatively  constant across country of origin However, Hispanic subgroups differ in food staples, seasonings, and preparation  methods 4 Hispanic subgroups: Mexican, Central American, South American, Caribbean Notes for FDNS 4630 CRN15786 (Week 14)  Monday:  4 Hispanic subgroups: Mexican, Central American, South American, and Caribbean  In GA, the largest hispanic group is Mexican by far but increasing numbers of  individuals from Central and South America Origin of GA’s Mexican population: Come primarily from Michoacan, Jalisco, Guanajuato (Perception of Mexican food is based on the foods of central west Mexico) Traditional Mexican food habits • Influences -Indian (mostly Aztec): Corn is the staple grain -Spanish: cinnamon, garlic, onion, wheat, lemon, hogs (protein and fat  source) -Some French and Viennese -Islamic culinary traditions via Spain Food profile • Dishes flavored with tomato sauces and rich chili pastes • Seafood, poultry, and pork are commonly consumed • Thin cut meats for cooking • Stew, moles, and braised meats and poultry are common • Staples: corn, rice, and beans • Common spices and herbs: cinnamon, cloves, cilantro, thymes, marjoram,  epazote (Mexican oregano) Mexican Meal pattern Breakfast: tortilla, refried beans Lunch and dinner: similar: tortilla, rice, maybe bread, meat, salsa Tortilla, rice, beans and chili peppers are part of nearly every meal 150 different chili peppers are consumed Mild to hot (vary in form, fresh, toasted, dried) Tortillas- still consume when acculturated Traditional flat bread of Mexico Flour tortillas- lower fiber, more fat Tend to eat 7-8 per meal with ¼ cup beans each Vegetables: tomatoes, onions, cabbage, corn, lettuce, potatoes, avocado, chayote,  nopalitos People think that Mexicans don’t consume enough vegetables- because usually not  as a side dish • Vegetables are seldom served as a side dish• Almost always in stew or in salsa • Perception is often that few vegetables are eaten (may not be the case;  nutritionists often miss the vegetables in stew or salsa) Traditional food habits • One-dish meals are typical: Caldos (soups), Sopas sacas (casseroles), Gordos  (similar to dumplings) • Famous for stuffed foods: Flautas, tacos, enchiladas (Fill tortillas with anything) Therapeutic uses of food • Hot/cold theory: disease is caused by an imbalance between hot and cold • Meals balanced between hot and cold foods are thought to be health  promoting • Rice (hot) • Soun (made with hot and cold) • Beans (cold) Unbalanced meals may cause illness • Similar to Asian countries • Illnesses treated with a diet rich in foods of the opposite classification • Hot illnesses- treat with a cold substance (food/drink) • Cold illnesses- treat with a hot substance (food/drink() American foods adopted • Most quickly accepted (pies, cakes, cookies, sugar cereals, oatmeal, soda) • Longer residence.. add (Aged cheese, peanut butter, flour tortillas, apples and  grapes, canned fruits) Meal patterns change but core foods remain tortillas and beans Central American • Tomatoes and onions are used to flavor foods; chilis used sparingly • Pork, chicken, and beef used in stews or grilled or roasted • Raisins, olives, red pimientos, hard-boiled eggs, and chocolate are often used • Rice, beans, and corn are staples South American • Annatto, coriander (cilantro), onions, tomatoes, and green peppers provide  flavorings to meat dishes • Seafood, poultry and pork consumed • Potatoes, corn, and rice are staples (not a lot of beans) • Argentina: beef dominant (Hong Kong consumed the most beef per capita) Caribbean Islanders Not all Caribbean Islands have a strong Spanish influence (At least not as strong as Cuba and Puerto Rico) However, all were influenced by the SpanishThere are some major differences in seasonings and food preparation from island to  island On most islands, the population today is dominantly of African descent- a stronger  African influence is seen on those islands Cuba and Puerto Rica are the exceptions- where individuals of African descent are  the minority Spanish and African- main influences Caribbean  • Seafood, pork, and poultry are dominant; roasted, grilled, or fried • Garlic, coconut milk, and adobos provide flavoring • Preferred root vegetables include yucca (cassava), malanga, and yams • Okra, black-eyed peas and pigeon peas are common • Flavoring greens (collards, spinach, turnips) with smoked meats is popular Country/Region of origin food preference profile Cuba and Puerto Rico (core foods) Cuba: rice, black beans, roast pork, plantains, yuca (cassava) Puerto Rico: rice, red beans, roast pork, plantains Key seasonings Cuba: Adobo, sofrito, annatto seeds, coconut milk, mojo, tamarind Puerto Rico: Adobo, sofrito, annatto seeds, coconut milk, chili pepper sauce, sazon  (seasoned salt) USDA Health Eating Index (CSFII Data) 100=perfect diet 81-99= good diet 51-80= needs improvement Across all Hispanic groups in US but dominantly Mexican Population: Non-Hispanic White: 63.41 Hispanic Spanish Speakers: 65.11 Hispanic English Speakers: 62.73 Encourage retention of traditional foods When Hispanic people follow their traditional diet, they eat healthier than non  Hispanic white. Diet is worse with acculturation Diet-health problems in comparison to non-Hispanic whites Greater: Obesity, Diabetes, Anemia, Lactose intolerance, Constipation Less: Coronary heart disease cancer (varies with type) (lower for breast, prostate, higher for stomach, lung)Regional Americans 6 culinary regions: ethnic, tex-mex, fried and elaborate, hybrid, baked food, fish and  game (they grouped similar foods) The way we will follow it in our class: Four regions (Midwest, northeast, west, and  south) with nine subdivisions  Wednesday:  FINAL Exam: Dec. 12th 8-11 A.M. Dec 5th: Review and Final exam information Final includes all the materials presented during the semester including guest  lectures The Northeast is divided into two areas: New England: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island,  Vermont Mid-Atlantic: New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania The Northeast: Regional Profile • Varied climate and geography • Native American and Colonial immigrants from Europe (England, Germany,  the Netherlands, France, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Poland, and etc) • African Americans form South • More recent immigrants from Caribbean, Central America, Africa, and Asia • 18% of total US population • 2/3 of Puerto Ricans; 1/3 Asian-Americans; nearly half of all American Jews The Northeast: Traditional Fare • New England: seafood is promonent; Freshwater fish from lakes and rivers;  corn and beans important; maple sugar sweetens many foods • Mid-Atlantic: Warmer weather and fertile lands; Coastal waters- clams,  oysters, mussels, scallops, crabs; wheat grows we The Northeast: New England (less seasonings than Mid-Atlantic) • Influence of Native American and British • Lots of fish and shellfish: Codfish cakes (Massachusetts), Shad (Conneticut),  Lobster (Maine), clams, oyster, scallops (clam chowder, clambakes) • Often made with cream, avoid strong seasonings • Corn dishes significant • Beans eaten regularly: Baked beans • Breads: dense with homemade yeast (Boston brown bread) • New Hampshire famous for butter, Vermont famous for cheese • Specialties today: Vermont (fried apple turnovers/apple pie with cheddar  cheese; New Hampshire (apple pie with maple syrup); Blueberry pie in  MaineThe Northeast: Mid-Atlantic • Influenced by New England fare • Dutch (lots of milk, butter, cheese, wheat) and German (Pork, chicken stews  and soups with noodles or dumplings, many fruits and vegs pickled or  preserved) immigrants • More pork and dairy, more baked goods • Stronger seasonings • Italians brought pizza and spaghetti with tomato-meat sauce The Northeast: Health concerns • Healthier than average in New England • Closer to national norms in Mid-Atlantic • Heavy drinking in MA, NH, RI, and VT • Penn has high death rates from heart disease, stroke, and cancer The Midwest: Regional Profile East North Central: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin Immigrants from: Germany, Switzerland, Scandinavia, Central Europe, Cornwall  area of England West North Central: Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota,  South Dakota. Immigrants from: Germany, Scandinavia, Poland • Great plains region • Known for agricultural productivity (Wheat, corn, fruit) • America’s breadbasket • 21% of land area • 22% of US population • Largest percentage of whites in the nation The Midwest: Traditional Fare • Considered typical American Cuisine • No frills homestead and farm food • Meat with sides of vegetables, potatoes, fresh bread. Beef and pork preferred • Robust soups and stews • Midwestern hospitality: large amounts of food rather than serving  unavailable high-status foods The Midwest: East North Central • Wisconsin leading producer of milk, sweetened condensed milk, butter, and  cheese • Swiss farmers • Colby, brick are original Wisconsin cheeses • Armour, Swift, Oscar Meyer, Louis Rich, Kraft, Fleischmann, Kellog, Post • All developed in Midwest The Midwest Health Concerns• Higher rates of heavy drinking in Michigan and Minnesota, Highest rate in the  nation • Deaths from heart disease and stroke high in Iowa and North Dakota (Not as  high as Penn) The South: Regional Profile South Atlantic: Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North and South Carolina,  Virginia, West Virginia East South Central: Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, Tennessee West South Central: Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Texas Missouri is a border state • Varied land, varied climate • More agricultural and rural, plantation system • Plentiful fruits, nuts, game, fish and seafood • 36% of Americans live in the South • Above-average numbers of African Americans • 56% of all blacks live in the south • Many with British, Scotch Irish, Cuban, and Cajun ancestry • Notable for high numbers of Protestant Christians The South: Traditional Fare • Traditional foods from Native Americans, European settlers, African slaves  that created southern fare • Foods reflect the bounty of the plantation and scarcity of the slave diet • Corn dishes, pork, sweet potatoes, and greens The South: South Atlantic • Hot breads: Cornbread, biscuits • Pork is favorite meat • Fried chicken with gravy • Seafood in the coastal areas • Maryland known for its shellfish: oysters, crabs etc • Florida known for seafood: shrimp, conch The South: East and West South Central • Early fare similar to Atlantic states but with more French influence • Pork and corn key ingredients • Creole cuisine unique to New Orleans • Blend of French, Spanish, African, English, and Native American • Celery, Tomatoes, bell peppers, onions, garlic are the hallmark flavorings • Cajun fare created by French Acadians, Gumbos, jambalayas etouffees • TX uses more beef • Tex-Mex Cuisine: a fusion of American and Mexican cuisine • Bourbon from KY, Whiskey from TN The South: Health concerns • Health risk indicators higher than the rest of the nation• Florida and West Virginia • Average or above average in ever health risk and mortality category • AL, AR, KY, MS, OK similar profile • Except heavy drinking is below average • Rates of obesity highest in the nation • Lack of leisure time exercise, diabetes, LBW, mortality rates area of concern  in several states • Death reates in WV particularly high, exceeding the national average: heart  disease (30% higher), stroke (20% higher), cancer (25% higher) The West: Regional Profile Mountain states: Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah,  Wyoming Pacific States: Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, Washington • Largest region in the nation • Diverse landscape and sclimate • First whites were explorers, trappers, miners, traders • Spanish and Mexicans from the South • Russians from the North • Chinese and Japanese form the West • English Scots, Welsh, Danes, Swedes, Slavs, Italians and Greeks from the  Midwest • 22% of Americans live in the West • 40% adhere to Christian faith: Mormon in Utah, Roman Catholic in New  Mexico The West: traditional fare • Historically food was poor and expensive • Chinese and Mexicans brought highly seasoned foods and chili peppers • Italians, Japanese and some Greeks introduced seafood specialties and  teriyaki The West: Mountain States • Varies between North and South • ID, MT, UT, and WY influenced by Native American and European settlers • AZ and NM foods shaped by the limitations of the desert and Native  American, Spanish and Mexican influences • Game meats are favorites, recreational hunting prevalent • Poultry in Utah, Pork in Montana • Potatoes from Idaho famous • NM is leading producers of chili peppers The West: Pacific States • Native Americans who lived near the Pacific lived on clams, mussels, fish  with local greens and berries • Inland areas, acorns were the foundation of the diet• Oregon and Washington: abundant game, greens, wild mushrooms, berries • CA produces over half of the fruits and vegetables consumed nationally • Dairy is important throughout the area • CA is known for wine, WA for white wine • AK seafood, game, wild berries, roots, sheep, cattle and reindeer, potatoes,  cold weather crops Pacific states: health concerns • People in the West are healthier than the national average • ID, NM, UT, WA all are average or below in EVERY health risk and mortality  category • High rates of heavy drinking in AZ, CA, and NV • Obesity rates lowest in the nation in CO • Death from stroke 25% above US average in Oregon What defines and Ethnic Cuisine? • Key ingredients • Spices, herbs, flavorings (flavor principles) • Cooking equipment (preparation method)  • Presentation styles (visual appeal, eating styles) • Product name

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