Bold : all terms are from chapter 12-18
1. Acquisitive Model- a model of bureaucracy that views top level bureaucrats as seeking to expand the size of their budgets to staffs to gain greater power 2. agenda building: for a policy to first be examined it bust be on the agenda — this usually require a policy demand which is a claim made by an individual or group that requires some type of action to deal with perceived problem
3. amicus curiae: “friends of the court” are briefs filled by the persons or groups who are not parties to the case but who have interest in the outcome
4. appointment power: The authority vested in the president to fill a government office or position. Such positions include those in the executive branch and the federal judiciary, commissioned officers in the armed forces, and members of independent regulatory commissions.
5. common law: laws that were created based off a past court ruling that must be used in present court cases
6. discretionary spending: spending includes things like the FBI, tansportation, environment, commerce, and those like it so that the government can have some discretion on how much they can spend a year Don't forget about the age old question of Franz boas leads reaction against the paradigm based on what?
7. executive agreements: is an agreement between the heads of government of two or more nations that has not been ratified by the legislature as treaties are ratified 8. action reaction syndrome: this is basically a cycle where the government implements and action which then causes a reaction by the affected people which then the government counters with another action bringing the cycle back to the start !
Don't forget about the age old question of What is the difference between the supply chain and the value chain?
9. bureaucracy: a large organization that is structured hierarchically to carry out specific functions
10.Civil Service Commission: was a government agency of the federal government of the United States and was created to select employees of federal government on merit rather than relationships, got rid of the spoils system
11. containment: a U.S diplomatic policy adopted by the Truman administration to contain communist power within its existing boundaries
12.diplomacy: the process by which states carry on political relations with each other; settling conflicts among nations by peaceful means
13.Executive Office of the President: this is the organization established by FDR to assist the president in carrying out major duties
14.affirming a case: to declare that a court ruling is valid and must stand If you want to learn more check out Which micronutrients increase or decrease in availability when soils become more acid?
15.appellate jurisdiction: a court having jurisdiction to review cases and issues that were originally tried in lower courts
• white house office: includes the key personal aides and personal advisers; Chief of Staff, Legal Counsel, Press Secretary (often taken from the campaign staff)
• Council on Economic Advisers: three member council that advises the President on economic matters and prepares an annual economic report for Congress
• Office of Management and Budget: is invalid in spring review and fall review of agency budget requests, OMB prepares a budget for the President that he then presents to Congress, OMB also supervises the administration of the budget
• National Security Council: link between the presidents key foreign and military advisers. The NSC advises the President on domestic and foreign matters involving national security. Includes the President, the VP, the Secretaries of State, Treasury, and Defense, as well as other informal members We also discuss several other topics like What are barrier islands, and why are they important?
17.capture: the act by which an industry being regulated by a government agency gains direct or indirect control over agency personnel and decision makers resulting in less competition and higher prices when its supposed to be the other way around.
18.concurring opinion: a separate opinion prepared by a judge who supports the decision of the majority of the court but who wants to make or clarify a particular point or to voice disapproval of the grounds on which the decision was made Don't forget about the age old question of Give an example of microeconomics.
19.dissenting opinion: a separate opinion in which a judge dissents from (disagrees with) the conclusion reached by the majority on the court and expounds his or her own views about the case
20.executive orders: a rule or order issued by the president to an executive branch of the government and having the force of law.
21.federal budget deficit: government expenditures that exceed receipt 22.Federal Reserve Board: is the governing body of the Federal Reserve System. The seven members of the board of governors are appointed by the president, subject to confirmation by the Senate
23.fiscal policy : the federal governments use of taxation and spending policies to affect overall business activity
24.impeachment: is a process in which an official is charged with unlawful activity while in office and generally leads to their removal from office
25.independent regulatory agencies: an agency outside the executive department charged with making and implementing rules and regulations
26.initiative: Citizen petition of a measure put on the ballot
27.isolationism: a policy of abstaining from an active role in international affairs or alliances, which characterized U.S foreign policy toward Europe during most of the 1800’s after President James Monroe passed the Monroe doctrine which stated that 1) European Nations should not establish new colonies in the Western Hemisphere 2) European nations won’t intervene in the affairs of independent nations in the western hemisphere 3) The United States should not intervene with the affairs of European Nations We also discuss several other topics like What are the impacts of humans on water?
28.mandatory spending: spending on things like social security, medicare/medicade, food stamps, interest on the debt, and those similar in which the government is required to fund
29.federal budget surplus: occurs when the revenues of the federal government exceed expenditures
30.independent executive agencies: a federal agency that is not part of a Cabinet department that reports directly to the president
31.interventionism: is a term for a policy of non-defensive (proactive) activity undertaken by a nation-state, or other geo-political jurisdiction of a lesser or greater nature, to manipulate an economy and/or society
32.judicial activism: a doctrine holding the supreme court should take an active role by using its powers to check the activities of governmental bodies when those bodies exceed their authority
33.jurisdiction: the authority of a court to decide certain cases. Not all courts have the authority to decide all cases. Two jurisdiction issues are where a case arises as well as its subject matter:
General: exists when a courts authority to hear cases is not significantly restricted. A court of general jurisdiction normally can hear a broad range of cases
Limited: exist when a court’s authority to hear cases is restricted to certain types of claims, such as tax claims or bankruptcy
34.foreign policy: a nations external goals and the techniques and strategies used to achieve them/ foreign and domestic policy goals are designed to protect the nations independence and political economic integrity; policy concerned with the safety and defense of the nation. Purpose of it is to engage in diplomacy, to provide foreign aide, to promote trade, to keep peace, to promote national safety
35.government corporations: an agency of government that administers a quasi business enterprise. These cooperation's are used when activities are primarily commercial. You cannot buy stock in these cooperation's and they do not pay taxes on their profits. Two of the most largely known corporations are AMTRAK and U.S Postal Service
36.Hatch Act: is a United States federal law whose main provision prohibits employees in the executive branch of the federal government, except the president, vice president, and certain designated high-level officials of that branch
37.iron triangle: the three way alliance among legislators, bureaucrats, and interest groups to make or preserve policies that benefits their respective interest 38.judicial restraint: a doctrine holding that the supreme court should defer to the decisions made by the elected representatives of the people in the legislative and executive branches
39.justiciable question: a question that may be raised and reviews in court 40.line-item veto: the power exercised by governors to veto specific sections or items of bills while signing the rest into law (44 have it for appropriation bills, 19 have it for any legislation) but then the legislature of the state can go in and overturn the veto with a 2/3 vote
41.loose constructionist: a judicial philosophy that looks to the context and purpose of law when making an interpretations
42.majority opinion: a court opinion election the views of the majority of the judges 43.merit system: is the process of promoting and hiring government employees based on their ability to perform a job, rather than on their political connections 44.Monopolistic Model: a federal, state, or local government unit established to perform a specific function. Administrative agencies are created and authorized by legislative bodies to administer and enforce specific laws
45.national debt: the national debt carried by the government is $19.8 Trillion 46.negotiated rule making: is a process in American administrative law, used by federal agencies, in which representatives from a government agency and affected interest groups negotiate the terms of a proposed administrative rule. 47.Pendleton Act: an act that established the principle of employment on the basis of merit and created the Civil Service Commission to administer the personnel service. Placed a limit on the spoils system
48.pocket veto: a special veto exercised by the chief executive after legislative body has adjourned. Bills not signed by the chief executive die after a specific period of time. If congress wishes to reconsider such a bill, it must be reintroduced in the following session of congress
49.policy evaluation: the policies must then be reexamined to see the outcomes. Have the laws accomplished what they were intended to or have they had unanticipated effects
50.policy trade off: this is when the cost of one policy outweighs another so they have to decrease expenditures in one program to increase the expenditures in another (or
they could increase a tax or in the deficit). The cost is usually borne by one group and the benefits received by another
51.precedent: a earlier court cases decision that sets the future decisions for cases like it
52.Presidential Veto: this is the power for the president to say no to legislation which is then returned to congress. Then congress can either change the bill and send it back to the president or override the veto with a two thirds rolls call vote of the members present in both the house and the senate
53.privatization: is the process of transferring an enterprise or industry from the public sector to the private sector. The public sector is the part of the economic system that is run by government agencies.
54.Senatorial Courtesy : in federal district court judgeship nominations, a tradition allowing a senator to veto a judicial appointment in his or her state 55.monetary policy: the utilization of changes in the amount of money in circulation to alter credit markets, employment, and the rate of inflation * the federal reserve board has power over monetary policy btw * <—- test question
tight: monetary policy that makes credit expensive in an effort to show the economy
loose: monetary policy that makes credit inexpensive and abundant, possibly leading to inflation
56.policy adoption : a specific strategy is chosen from alternatives discussed; congress must now enact legislation that the president must sign
57.policy formulation: proposals for dealing with the issues are discussed with the public officials and the public
58.political realism: bases decisions on whats best for the American economy and security of the nation ahead of morality
59.Presidential Succession: compromise they worked out established the President pro tempore of the Senate as next in line after the Vice President, followed by the Speaker of the House of Representatives.
60.referendum: an electoral device whereby legislative or constitutional measures are referred by the legislature or placed on the ballot to be voted on (generally used for controversial or “important” matters)
61.roles of the President:
• chooses the chairperson of the party’s national committee and tries to promote cohesion with the party
• help raises money and campaigns for candidates
62.moral idealism: bases policy desicions on the ‘morally’ right decision, examples: Bush invading Iraq, Obama supporting the Libya and Egyptian democratic movement
63.National Security Council: link between the presidents key foreign and military advisers. The NSC advises the President on domestic and foreign matters involving national security. Includes the President, the VP, the Secretaries of State, Treasury, and Defense, as well as other informal members
64.original jurisdiction: of a court is the power to hear a case for the first time, as opposed to appellate jurisdiction, when a higher court has the power to review a lower court's decision
65.patronage: is the support, encouragement, privilege, or financial aid that the president bestows to the citizens
66.policy implementation: the policy one decided on must be enforced and this means the executive branch must now write regulation and the courts must interpret the laws
67.recall: a procedure enabling voters to remove an elected official from office before his or her term had expired. Used in 18 states not SC (involves petitions and generally 10-40% of the vote in the last election)
68.remanding a case: to send a case back to the court that originally heard it 69.rule of four: is a Supreme Court of the United States practice that permits four of the nine justices to grant a writ of certiorari. This is done specifically to prevent a majority of the Court from controlling the Court's docket
70.stare decisis: to stand on decided cases; the judicial policy of following precedents established by past decisions. Basically it obligates judges to follow the precent set by their own courts or previously higher courts
71.strict constructionist: a judicial philosophy that looks to the letter of the law when interpreting the constitution or a particular statue
72.sunset legislation: laws requiring that existing programs be reviewed regularly for their effectiveness and be terminated unless specifically extended as a result of these reviews
73.Weberian Model: a model of bureaucracy developed by the german sociologist Max Weber, who viewed bureaucracies as rational, hierarchical organizations in which decisions are based on logical reasoning
74.State Department: negotiates treaties, develops foreign policy, and protect citizens abroad
75.Sunshine Laws: a law that requires all committee directed agencies to conduct their business regularly in public session so that an openness is present, after 9/11 the sunshine act now exist at all levels
76.unanimous opinion: a court opinion or determination on which all judges agree 77.write of certiorari: an order issued by a higher court to a lower court to send up the record of a case for review
78.social security policy: universality, protection against poverty, protection against inflation, progressively, generational sharing, equal benefits for equal earnings 79.treaties: a formally concluded and ratified agreement between countries 80.whistleblowers: a person who informs on a person or organization engaged in an illicit activity
CAPS: all terms are important from the past chapters and test questions are guaranteed
1. BILL OF RIGHTS- is the collective name for the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution. Proposed following the battle over ratification of the U.S. Constitution, and crafted to address the objections raised by Anti-Federalists, the Bill of Rights amendments add to the Constitution specific guarantees of personal freedoms and rights, clear limitations on the government's power in judicial and other proceedings, and declarations that all powers not specifically delegated to Congress by the Constitution are reserved for the states or the people
2. CHECKS AND BALANCES: a major principle of the american system of government whereby each branch of government can check the actions of the others 3. CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964: this act outlawed discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. It ended unequal application of voter registration requirements and racial segregation in schools, at the workplace and by facilities that served the general public.
4. COMMERCE CLAUSE : the section that gives congress that power to regulate trade among the states and with foreign powers
5. CONGRESSIONAL OVERRIDE: occurs when the U.S. Congress passes a bill into law in spite of a president's veto. Although presidents have the power to veto bills passed by Congress, the House and Senate have the constitutional right to override the veto
6. CONNECTICUT COMPROMISE: the compromise between the New Jersey and Philadelphia plans that created one chamber of congress based on state population and one chamber representing that states equally. This is also known as the Great Compromise
7. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE HOUSE AND THE SENATE:
The House of Representatives- is a 435-member body that meets in the south end of the Capitol building. Its members are chosen from districts apportioned by population - and are elected every two years. The Constitution specifically provides that the House
has the sole power of impeachment, or of legal removal from office of federal officials that have committed "high crimes and misdemeanors," and also directs that any bills that raise revenue must originate in the House.
The Senate- is a 100-member body that meets in the north end of the Capitol building. Each state has two Senators, no matter how large or small the state might be, and Senators are elected for six-year terms. The Constitution directs that the Senate shall conduct impeachment trials, and that it should provide "advice and consent" to Presidential appointments and on treaties. The Senate is designed to be a bit more removed from the popular will than the House, to be, as Washington reportedly put it, the "cooling saucer" to the House's hot teacup.
8. EASTONS DEFINITION OF POLITICS: defines politics as “the allocation of values for a society”
9. ELASTIC CLAUSE: this is the clause that established the implied powers of the national government
10.ANTI-FEDERALISTS: An individual who opposed the ratification of the new constitution in 1787 because they opposed a strong central government 11. ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION: the textbook defines a confederation as a political system in which states or regional governments retain ultimate authority except for those powers they expressly delegate to a central government. A voluntary association of independent states. In which the member states agree to limited restraints on their freedom of action. Our professor provided us with a chart that explains the first form of government that the actuals articles define. It starts with the States ——> Officers: Congress appointed officers to do some of the executive work——> Committee of the States: a committee of representatives from all the states was empowered to act in the name of congress between sessions—-> Congress: congress had one house. Each state had two to seven members, but only one vote. The exercise of most powers required approval of at least nine states. Amendments to the Articles required consent of all states. Weaknesses of the articles were that they could not collect revenue from the states, could not raise an army, amendments to the article required a unanimous consent of congress, did not establish a national court system, no executive to administer the government, and no authority to regulate commerce. Some of the strength though were that they settled land disputes among the states over western land, passed the northwest ordinance of 1787 that established government for new territories, could declare war and conduct foreign policy, and opportunity to try out some of the principles set forth in the declaration of Independence
12.CLOTURE: the term used to describe the procedure for ending a debate and taking a vote
13.COMMITTEE STRUCTURE OF CONGRESS: committees of congress provide things like division of labor, specialization and reelection. The types of congressional committees are
standing committees (permanent)
subcommittees (more specialized)
select committees (created to accomplish a specific task)
joint committees (contain both representatives and senators)
conference committees (resolve legislative disagreements between the house and senate)
Rules committee (specific to the House, this committee establishes rules for debate once a bull makes it to the floor of the house
14.CONCURRENT POWERS: powers held jointly by the national and state governments
15.CONFERENCE COMMITTEE: a special joint committee appointed to reconcile differences when bills pass the two chambers of congress in different forms 16.CONGRESSIONAL COMMITTEES: committees of congress provide things like division of labor, specialization and reelection
17.DELEGATE ROLE: When members of Congress cast votes based on the wishes of their constituents
18.ELECTORAL COLLEGE: a group of persons, called electors, who are selected by the voters in each state. This group officially elects the president and the vice president of the united states
19.ERA OF GOOD FEELINGS: the years from 1817 to 1825, when James Monroe was president and had in effect, no political opposition
20.EXPRESSED POWERS: Congress may exercise the powers that the Constitution grants it, subject to the individual rights listed in the Bill of Rights.
21.FEDERALIST PAPERS: a series of 85 essays written in defense of the constitution and of a republican form of government. In these essays the writers explained the constitution, the three branches of government, and a theory of judicial review
22.FRONTLOADING: the practice of moving presidential primary elections to the early party of the campaign to maximize the impact of these primaries on the nomination 23.GERRYMANDERING: the drawing of legislative boundary lines to obtain partisan or factional advantage. A district is said to be gerrymandering when its shape is manipulated by the dominant party in the state legislature to maximize electoral strength at the expense of the minority party
24.GRANDFATHER CLAUSE: this was outlawed in the Guinn v. U.S case, but it was a clause that mandated anyone who wanted to vote would have to have some form of
proof that their grandfather voted in previous elections. This made it impossible for freed slaves to vote since before the 13th amendment they had just been slaves 25.HISTORICAL BASIS OF THE TWO PARTY SYSTEM: first a two party system is a political system in which only two parties have a reasonable chance of winning. We in America have a 2 party system because over time the two major parties became so powerful and broad that they closed off the opportunity for other parties to arise. 26.INTEREST GROUPS: an organized group of individuals sharing a common objectives who actively attempt to influence policymakers Types:
Business: these are groups work to influence government policies that affect their respective industries. Such as the U.S Chamber of Commerce which is one of the most well known and more powerful groups who has many members can bring constituent influence to bear on every member of congress. Another would be the National Association of Manufactures who has more than 60 people employed in D.C who can activated to gather many well educated, articulate lobbyist to work congress on issues of concern.
Agricultural: this is the group of farmers and their employees who make up 2% of the population and heavily effect the legislation which is beneficial to their interest through 2 major interest groups. The first one being the American Farm Bureau Federation has several million members. Some of their achievements are getting “fair” prices during the G. Depression. Another is the National Farmers Union who represents smaller family farms.
Labor: obviously there are groups that represent the labor force of America? One group being the American Federation of Labor who then joined with the Congress of Industrial Organizations to congregate a membership of 9 million and an active political arm called the Committee on Political Education. Its YUGE !!!!
Public Employee Unions: these is the interest group that supports the rights of public employees such as teachers, and state/county/municipal employees. One of the largest interest groups is the National Education Association who represents 2.8 million teachers mostly asking for higher pay
Professionals: this group represents the rights of well educated professionals such as lawyers, contractors, and engineers. Each individual interest group within this group is only as powerful as its members are influential. For this reason Lawyers have a special advantage because many members of congress are also lawyers which is great for making connection and being apart of other groups outside of the interest groups
27.JUDICIAL REVIEW: this refers to the power of the U.S courts to examine the constitutionality of actions undertaken by the legislative and executive branches of government. A state court for example may rule a statute enacted by the state legislature is unconstitutional. This same rule applies to acts passed by congress and decisions of the national executive branch! Basically everything - * this decision established the court’s larger power to review the activities of the other two branches of government
28.LASSWELL’S DEFINITION OF POLITICS: defines politics as “who gets what, how and when (and at what cost)
29.LITERACY TEST: potential voters were required to recite, read, or interpret sometimes very hard literature to the satisfaction of the local registrar who was always white. this case was outlawed in the 1965 Voting rights act
30.FEDERAL SYSTEM: this system lies between the urinary and confederal system but in this system authority is divided, usually by a written constitution, between a central or regional government, or subdivisional, governments. These governments both act directly on the people through laws and through the actions of appointed officials. Its
in this system where both governments are considered supreme in their own sphere of authority *simpler terms: the power is shared equally between state <——> national government
31.FILIBUSTER: Way of delaying or preventing action on a bill by using long speeches and unlimited debate to "talk a bill to death"
32.FREE RIDER PROGRAM: the difficulty that interest groups face when recruiting members when the benefits they achieve can be gained without joining the group 33.GOVERNMENT: the preeminent institution in which decisions are made that resolve conflicts or allocate benefits and privileges. It is unique because it has the ultimate authority within a nation
34.GREAT COMPROMISE: the compromise between the New Jersey and Philadelphia plans that created one chamber of congress based on state population and one chamber representing that states equally. This is also known as the Connecticut compromise
35.INSTRUCTED DELEGATE ROLE: a legislator who is an agent of the voters who elected him or her and who votes according to the views of the constituents rather than their own personal beliefs
36.JAMESTOWN SETTLEMENT: this was the settlement where the british government gave the settlers full power and authority to make laws for themselves. This is where the settlers set up a representative assembly which is an important component of the USA’s political system
37.MAYFLOWER COMPACT: was a political statement in which the signers agreed to create and submit to the authority of a government based on the consent of the people. This was important for two reasons: a) it depended on the consent of the afflicted individuals and b) it served as a prototype for similar compacts in American history
38.FEDERALIST: the name given to one who was in favor of the adoption of the U.S Constitution and the creation of a federal union with a strong central government 39.FUNCTIONS OF CONGRESS: lawmaking, representing the people, performing oversight, helping constituents, and educating the public
40.JIM CROW LAWS: mandated that separate facilities be used for white and non whites. There was a very distinct difference between the white facilities and the non white facilities
41.MATERIAL INCENTIVES: a reason for supporting or participating in the activities of a group based on economic benefits or opportunities
42.NECESSARY AND PROPER CLAUSE: grants congress the power to do whatever is necessary to execute specifically delegated powers
43.POLITICO ROLE: when a member of congress attempts to combine basic elements of the trustee, delegate and partisan roles and balancing conflicting factors 44.POWERS OF CONGRESS: congress has the power to make laws, represent members of a home district, provide service to constituents, provide oversight on laws its has enacted, education the public, and providing resolution for conflicts within American society.
45.QUALIFICATIONS FOR OFFICE: natural born citizen of the united states, over the age of 35 and had been a resident of the united states for 14 years 46.REDISTRICTING: the redrawing of the boundaries of the congressional district within each state
47.NEW JERSEY PLAN: this was the plan that favored all states equally and said that the fundamental principle of the Articles of Confederation ( one state, one vote) would be kept, congress would still be able to regulate trade and impose taxes, all acts of congress would be the supreme law of the lans, several people would be elected by congress to form an executive office, and the executive office would appoint the supreme court
48.POLL TAX: this was one of the ways the South denied African Americans the right to vote - this was a tax that was required at voting stations when someone went to vote, and since the african american population did not have a lot of money this tax helped excludes them because of their economic status. this was outlawed in harper v. Virginia state board of education
49.PURPOSIVE INCENTIVES: a reason for supporting or participating in the activities of a group based on agreement with the goals of the group. For example, someone with a strong interest in human rights might have a purposive incentive to join Amnesty International
50.REAPPORTIONMENT: the allocation of seats in the House of Representatives to each state after each census
51.SENIORITY SYSTEM: a custom followed in both chambers of congress specifying that the member of the majority party with the longest term of continuos service will be given preference when a committee chair person is selected
52.SHAY’S REBELLION: by 1784 the country faced serious economic problems and banks were throwing people in jail for owing debts. Many of these people in prison were farmers or veterans of the revolutionary war and couldn't pay their debt because of economic chaos. Angered by this, mobs of musket bearing farmers in Springfield Mass. led by revolutionary war Captain Daniel Shays seized county courthouses and disrupted the trials of debaters. Shay and his men then attacked the federal arsenal at springfield but they were defeated. This rebellion demonstrated that the central government could not protect the citizens from armed rebellion or provide adequately for the public welfare. Called for change of the existing government
53.POLITICAL SOCIALIZATION: the process through which individuals form a set of political attitudes and for opinions about social issues. Families and the education system are two most important forces in the political socialization process
54.RESERVED POWERS: powers held specifically by the states and cant be taken away
55.SEPARATION OF POWERS: the principle of dividing governmental powers among different branches of that government
56.SOCIALIZATION AGENTS: family, school, community culture, and peers. All of which influence your political orientation
57.SUPREMACY CLAUSE: the constitutional provision that makes the constitution and federal laws superior to all conflicting state and local laws
58.UNIT RULE: a rule by which all of a state’s electoral votes are cast for the presidential candidate receiving a plurality of the popular vote in the state 59.VIRGINIA PLAN: this was the plan that favored large states and said the two chamber legislature which contained of a lower chamber elected by the people and a upper chamber chose by the elected lower chamber members from a pool of other representatives. It also said that the number of representatives would be proportional to the states population, including slaves.
60.WHITE PRIMARIES: was one of the ways the south denied African americans the right to vote - political parties were private and they excluded blacks. After 1877, democrats nominated the south and the person who was the party nominee usually won the general election. Because african americans were excluded from the party they could not vote for the party nominee meaning they would have to voice in the winner of the general election
61.SOLIDARY INCENTIVES: reasons or motives having to do with the desire to associate with others and to share a particular interest or hobby with others 62.SPOILS SYSTEM: the awarding of government jobs to political supporters and friends
63.THIRD PARTIES: a political party other than the two major political parties 64.TRUSTEE ROLE: a legislator who acts according to her or his conscience and that broad interest of the entire society
65.STANDING COMMITTEE: a permanent committee in the house or senate that considers bills within a certain subject area
66.TWO-PARTY SYTEM: the system we have in America where we have two majority parties
67.WAR POWERS RESOLUTION: law passed in 1973 spelling out the conditions under which the president can commit troops without congressional approval 68.FIRST AMENDMENT: to the United States Constitution prohibits the making of any law respecting an establishment of religion, impeding the free exercise of religion, abridging the freedom of speech, infringing on the freedom of the press, interfering with the right to peaceably assemble, or prohibiting the petitioning for a governmental redress of grievances
69.FOURTEENTH AMENDMENT: this amendment said that no state shall make or enforce any law that deny the privileges or immunities of a citizen and that no state shall deny life, liberty and property without due process of the law, and they cant deny a citizen equal protection of the law
70.TENTH AMENDMENT: which is part of the Bill of Rights, was ratified in 1791, expresses the principle of federalism, which strictly supports the entire plan of the original Constitution for the United States of America, by stating that the federal government possesses only those powers delegated to it by the United States Constitution. All remaining powers are reserved for the states or the people.
71.BAKER V. CARR: was a landmark United States Supreme Court case that decided that redistricting issues present justiciable questions, thus enabling federal courts to intervene in and to decide redistricting cases. The defendants unsuccessfully argued that redistricting of legislative districts is a "political question", and hence not a question that may be resolved by federal courts.
72.BORWN V. BOARD OF EDUCATION: was one of the most important cases of U.S history. The outcome of this case was the desegregation of public schools, which then led to a societal desegregation. It all started when Oliver Brown was tired of his daughter having to travel 21 blocks away to go to a non white school, when a white school was only 7 blocks away, so he sued the school board and appealed to the supreme court who said that the segregation of public schools was unconstitutional and decided that segregation by races should end with “deliberate speed”. It was this case that made the SCOTUS announce that “seperate but equal” is inherently unequal, and that anything that is separated is naturally going to have have a superior and inferior quality.
73.DREDD SCOTT V. SANDORN: this case was in 1857 and the details are that a slave named Dred Scott sued his owner to obtain freedom on the basis that he had lived in the free state of Illinois for various periods of time. The outcome of the case was that the Supreme court ruled that enslaved people were not citizens and were not entitled to any rights. Many historians agree that it was this event that made the civil war inevitable
74.MARBURY V. MADISON: was the U.S supreme court case that established the principle of Judical Review. This case ended with the decision that even though Marbury was entitled to his commission, that part of the Judiciary Act of 1789 which gave the supreme court jurisdiction in this case was unconstitutional, and thus congress could not pass a law that is prohibited by the constitution. By doing this, Marshall’s opinion established the power of the court to review legislative and executive actions
75.MCCULLOH V. MARYLAND: this was the case about the establishment of a government bank and the resulting taxation of the state of maryland for those who didn't bank with them, and established the Supremacy Clause
Regular: all terms are from past chapters and you should be familiar with them
1. Australian ballot: this is the secret ballot that is created and distributed by the government at the expense of the government. The U.S uses this form of ballot rather than an open, public ballot
2. caucus: a meeting of party members designed to select candidates and propose policies
3. closed primary: a type of primary in which the voter is limited to choosing candidates of the party of which he or she is a member
4. confederal system of government: a system consisting of a league of independent states, each having essentially sovereign powers. The central government created by such a league has only limited powers over the states *Simpler terms: the power goes from the states —-> central government
5. constitution: established popular sovereignty, a republican government in which the people choose representatives, limited government with written laws, separation of powers with checks and balances, and a federal system that allowed for states rights.
6. cooperative federalism: the theory that states and the national government should cooperate in solving problems
7. de jure segregation: this is segregation that occurs because of laws in place (pre Brown v Edu case)
8. delegated power: these are powers held specifically by the national government. They are either enumerated- to coin money, to conduct foreign relations, to regulate interstate commerce, to raise and support the military, to establish post offices, and to declare war, implied-said that congress shall have the power to make all laws which will be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the forgoing powers, and all other powers vested by the constitution, or inherent-powers that are assured to be held by all nations in order to ensure their own survival, like, make treaties, wage war, seek trade, and acquire new territories.
9. democratic party: this party is associated with improving environment, education, welfare, energy problems and health care. Are considered more liberal in which minorities and less educated appeal too
10.distribution of public opinion: this tells us how divided the public is on an issue and whether compromise is possible
11. dual federalism: a system which the states and the national government each remains supreme within its own sphere. The doctrine states that national and states are coequal sovereign powers and that neither of them should interfere with the others sphere.
12.equal protection of laws clause: included in the fourteenth amendment, the clause states that no state shall deny to any person within its jurisdiction "the equal protection of the laws"
13.agenda setting: determining which public policy questions will be debated or considered
14.Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act: is a United States federal law that amended the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971, which regulates the financing of political campaigns.
15.campaign assistance: since most interest groups recognize that the greatest concern of legislators is to be reelected, associations with large memberships can provide workers for campaigns to do things like precinct workers to get out the vote, volunteers to put up posters and pass out literature, and people to staff telephone banks for campaign headquarters
16.civil liberties: those personal freedoms that are protected for all individuals. They typically involve restraining the governments actions against individuals 17.conservatism: a set of beliefs that includes a limited role for the national government in helping individuals, support for traditional values and lifestyles, and a cautious response to change
18.dealignment: a decline in party loyalties that reduces long term party commitment 19.Declaration of Independence: was the document that was drafted by the colonist which states the causes/ grievances of the colonist which were used as reasoning for the separation of the two parties
20.discharge petition: a procedure by which a bill in the House of Representatives may be forced (discharged) out of a committee that has refused to report it for consideration by the House. The petition must be signed by an absolute, all 218, representatives and is used only on rare occasions
21.divided government: a situation in which one major political party controls the presidency and the other controls the chambers of congress, or in which one party controls a state governorship and the other controls the state legislature
22.duties of the Speaker of the House: the presiding officer in the house of representatives. The speaker is always a member of the majority party and is the most powerful and influential member of the House
• Member of Congress: represents voters in his or her congressional district
• presiding officer of the House of Representatives: administers the oath of office to members, calling the house to order, preserving oder and decorum within the House chamber and galleries, recognizing members to speak on the House floor, and making rules about the house procedures. Along with that the Speaker appoints members and chairpersons to committees and the legislation which is assigned to each committee and which legislation reachers the house floor for a vote. The speaker also presides over all joint sessions wth the senate bc they are usually held in the House of Representatives
• leader of the majority political party in the House: the speaker is held responsible for passing legislation supported by the majority party
23.enumerated powers- also known as delegated powers, there are the powers that are granted to congress by the constitution making it very official
24.establishment clause: the clause in the First Amendment of the US Constitution that prohibits the establishment of religion by Congress.
25.amending the constitution: this is the process it takes to makes amends the constitution- 1) proposed by two thirds vote in both chambers or by a national convention called by congress at the request of two thirds of the state 2) ratified by with the legislature of three fourths of the states or the conventions in three fourths of the states
26.authority: the ultimate right to enforce compliance with decisions 27.bicameral legislature: a legislature made up of two parts, called chambers. The two chambers in our government is the Senate and the House of Representatives 28.civil rights: the rights to citizens of political and social equality
29.Civil War: the war between the north and the south over slavery as well as the power of the national government versus the rights of the states. The outcome of this war was that the national government has more power than the states
30.Coercive Acts: also known as the “intolerable acts”, were made in retaliation to the colonist who dumped 350 chest of tea into the boston harbor. The acts placed a blockade around boston harbor and placed the entire state government of Massachusetts under british control. The effect of these acts was to shift the problem from taxes to british authority over the colonies.
31.consensus opinion: the general agreement among the citizenry on an issue 32.continuing resolution: a temporary funding law that congress passes when an appropriate bill has not been decided by the beginning of the new fiscal year on October 1
33.de facto segregation: segregation which is in pace due to past economical and social conditions, occurred after Brown v. Education
34.defendant rights: The Fifth Amendment protects against self-incrimination (the right to remain silent) and double jeopardy: The Right to Remain Silent: Criminal defendants have the right to remain silent. This right protects the defendant from self-incrimination, commonly known as Miranda Rights, during arrest and at trial
35.democracy: a system in which political authority is vested in the people. It has four major systems universal suffrage, majority rule, minority rule, and limited government
36.direct lobbying techniques: a interest group activity that involves interaction with government officials to further the group’s goals. Some examples would be lobbying, building public coalitions, and providing campaign assistance
37.divisive opinion: public opinion that is polarized between two quite different position
38.exclusionary rule: this is a rule that states that courts cant use evidence in a trial that is obtained illegally. This rule was the outcome of the Mapp v. Ohio case 39.free exercise clause: reserves the right of American citizens to accept any religious belief and engage in religious rituals.
40.freedom of press: The right to circulate opinions in print without censorship by the government. Americans enjoy freedom of the press under the First Amendment to the Constitution
41.functions of the media: the media informs the public about the issues and events of our time that that an agenda-setting effect (determining which public policy questions will be debated or considered) the media also provides a political forum for leaders and the public. Candidates for office use the media as a way to sustain interest in their campaign and current office holders use the media to gain support for policies or present a image of leadership
42.House Rules Committee: A city permitted by the state to let local voters frame, adopt and amend their out charter
43.Independent expenditures: non regulated contributions to PAC’s organizations and individuals. The funds may be spent on advertising or other campaign activities, so long as those expenditures are not coordinated with those of a candidate
44.joint committee: a legislative committee composed of members from both chambers of congress
45.leadership in Congress: the speaker of the house, the majority leader, the minority leader, the whips
46.lobbying: the attempt of a person or organization to influence legislation and the administrative decisions of government
47.James Madison: was called the Father of the Constitution for his extraneous efforts towards it and the bill of rights. Also wrote some of the Federalist papers 48.majority rule: who ever wins the most votes wins
49.majority leader: this is referring to the majority leader of the house which is a legislative position held by an important party member. The majority leader is selection by the majority party in caucus or conference to foster cohesion among party members and to act as spokesperson for majority party in the House
50.minority leader: the party leader elected by the minority party in the house 51.factors affecting turnout:
age- many of the time its the elderly that have the most turn out bc they have settled in their life and have more experience with voting that a younger generation does
educational attainment- in general the more education you have the more likely you are to vote
minority status- the low rates that occur in this category could be due to the legal status of the person as well as language issues.
income level- just like education, those with high incomes are more likely to vote than those with less income
two party competition: most competitive states have higher turnouts than those states which a party always wins
52.fiscal year: the govts accounting period. begins Oct. 1-Sept.30
53.full faith and credit: requires states to recognize one another laws and court decisions. It ensures that the rights established under deeds, wills, contracts, and other civil matters in one state be honored in another
54.functions of political parties: the major functions of parties are- • recruiting candidates to run for public office under their party label • organizing and running elections
• presenting alternative policies to the electorate
• accepting responsibly for operating the government
• acting as the organized opposition to the party in power
55.ideology: a comprehensive set of beliefs about the nature of people and about the role of an institution or government. * Ideologies guide political decision making 56.incorporation theory: The view what most of the protections of the Bill of Rights are
applied against the state governments through the Fourteenth Amendment's due process clause
57.indirect lobbying technique: a strategy employed by interest groups that uses third parties to influence government officials. These techniques are aimed to generate public pressure on the government through rallies, boycotts, or marches
58.legitimacy: rightful and entitled to compliance and obedience on the part of citizens 59.limited government: limiting our government with documents, like the constitution, or a common belief
60.Locke’s philosophy: created the concept of natural rights. This is the viewpoint that people have the right to life, liberty, and property and that governments are established to secure these rights and rest on the consent of the governed.
61.majority whip: the assistant to the majority leader who's function is to assist the floor leader, ensure member attendance, count votes, and generally communicate the majority position
62.minority whip: the assistant to the minority leader who's function is to assist the minority leader on the floor, count votes, and ensure attendance of minority leaders
63.minority rights: everyone has rights, even those as minorities
64.fall review: The time every year when, after receiving formal federal agency requests for funding for the next fiscal year, the Office of Management and Budget reviews the requests, makes changes, and submits its recommendations to the president 65.federal budget cycle:
A. Executive - request phase, staff puts in their requests
B. Legislative - policy makers consider them
C. Implementation - October 1st
D. Audit - September 30th -To ensure that the goal of enacting the budget prior to the beginning of the budgeted fiscal year is met, a budget colander that establishes all key dates in the preparation of the budget should be developed.
66.First Continental Congress: was a gathering of delegates from 12 of the 13 colonies where they discussed drafting a petition of their grievances and sending it to King George, forming their own armies, boycott british goods. They also decided that in every county and city they form a committee whose mission was to spy and report on friends and neighbors who violated the trade ban. It was the formation of these committees which represented steps toward a national government
67.freedom of assembly: the right to assemble or to gather together in a peaceful fashion is a political right that ensures justice in government
68.freedom of speech: government cannot stop us from saying what we think, we have right to criticize and share opinions with others are some exceptions 69.general election: is an election in which all or most members of a given political body are chosen. The term is usually used to refer to elections held for a nation's primary legislative body, as distinguished from by-elections and local elections 70.horizontal federalism: a check against the expansion of government that relies on the checks and balances between branches of government of the same level 71.implied powers: said that congress shall have the power to make all laws which will be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the forgoing powers, and all other powers vested by the constitution
72.independent: a voter or candidate who does not identify with a political party 73.incumbency: is the period of holding office
74.inherent powers: powers that are assured to be held by all nations in order to ensure their own survival, like, make treaties, wage war, seek trade, and acquire new territories.
75.intensity of opinion: The intensity of the public's opinion measures the strength of the direction. The strength of the direction of public opinion
76.lawmaking function: the process of establishing the legal rules that govern society
77.liberalism: a set of beliefs that includes the advocacy of positive government action to improve the welfare of individuals, support for civil services, and tolerance for political and social change
78.office block ballot: also known as the Massachusetts Ballot, a form of general election ballot in which candidates for elective office are grouped together under the title of each office. It emphasizes voting for the office and the individual candidate rather than for the party
79.oversight: the process by which Congress follows up on laws it has enacted to ensure that they are being enforced and administered the way congress intended 80.party convention: is a meeting of a political party, typically to select party candidates. In the United States, a political convention usually refers to a presidential nominating convention, but it can also refer to state, county, or congressional district nominating conventions.
81.party organization: the formal structure and leadership of a political party, including election committees; local, state, and national executives; and pain professional staff 82.political parties: a group of political activist who organize to win elections, operate the government, and determine public policy.
83.public opinion: the aggregate of individual attitudes or beliefs shared by some portion of adult population
84.realignment: a process in which a substantial group of voters switches party allegiance, producing a long-term change in the political landscape 85.representative government: is a variety of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy. All modern Western-style democracies are types of representative democracies 86.safe seat: a district that returns the legislator with 55 percent of the vote or more 87.separate but equal doctrine: the justification used by the Supreme court after the Plessy v. Ferguson case which says that segregation of races is legal because they will have equal rights as citizens. This justification is what led to the jim crow laws which made segregation legal and enforced in public facilities
88.national party conventions: the meeting held every 4 years by each major party to select presidential and vice presidential candidates, to write a platform, to choose a national committee, and to conduct party business
89.organization of parties: Each party has its own national committee made up of party leaders, elected officials, and the chairs of the state party organizations. The chair of the national committee is chosen by the party's candidate for president.
90.party column ballot: also known as the Indiana Ballot, is a form of general election ballot in which all of a party’s candidates for elective office are arranged in one
column under the party’s label and symbol. It emphasizes voting for the party, rather than for the office or individual
91.party in electorate: those members of the general public who identify with a political party of who express a preference for one party over another
92.party platform: a document drawn up at each national convention outlining the policies, positions, and principles of the party
93.Philadelphia Convention: also known as the Constitutional Convention and was intended to revise the Articles of Confederation, the intention from the outset of many of its proponents, chief among them James Madison and Alexander Hamilton, was to create a new government rather than fix the existing one. The delegates elected George Washington to preside over the Convention
94.Political Action Committee: a committee set ip by and representing a cooperation, labor union, or special interest group. PAC raise and give campaign donations 95.Presidential election: the election of the president of the united states that happens every four years. Candidates are usually nominated through a primary election and then voted upon by the states through an electoral college
96.prohibited powers: also known as exclusive federal powers, are powers within a federal system of government that each constituent political unit (such as a state or province) is absolutely or conditionally prohibited from exercising.
97.ratification: formal approval and in this case the formal approval of the constitution by the states
98.republican party: this party and its members are associated with a stronger defense and dealing with terrorism, lower taxes, and dealing with the budget deficit. Their cultural values includes supporting family values and to oppose policies such as
abortion, same sex marriage, and to support the death penalty and gun rights. The differ in the party-in-electorate by being more conservative, popular in suburban and rural areas, favored by business and professional occupations, higher income and usually christian or fundamentalist
99.rights of accused criminals:
• The right to trial by jury
• The right to trial in a timely manner
• The right to be informed of the nature and cause of all accusations against you • The right to confront witnesses against you
• The right to have legal counsel available to you
• The right to compel witnesses to testify on your behalf
100.Second Continental Congress: met in late 1777 to draft the Articles of Confederation. By this time most of the fighting had begun between the British and
the colonist and one of the main objectives of this meeting was to form an army. The did this and named George Washington Commander in Chief
101.non opinion: he lack of an opinion on an issue or policy among the majority 102.party competition: the battle of the parties for control of public offices. Ups and downs of the two major parties are one of the most important elements in American politics
103.party in government: all of the elected and appointed officials who identify with a political party
104.pluralism: a theory that views politics as a conflict among interest groups. Political decision making is characterized buy bargaining and compromise
105.political culture: the set of ideals, values, and ways of thinking about government and politics that is shared by all citizens
106.popular sovereignty: is the principle that the authority of a state and its government is created and sustained by the consent of its people, through their elected representatives
107.president popularity: the population of the nation that favors the president at a certain point in time
108.primary election: is an election that narrows the field of candidates before an election for office. Primary elections are one means by which a political party or a political alliance nominates candidates for an upcoming general election or by election
open primary- a primary in which any registered voter can vote (but most vote for candidates of only one party)
Runoff primary: is a primary election in which all candidates for the same elected office, regardless of respective political party, run against each other at once, instead of being segregated by political party.
blanket primary: is a system used for selecting political party candidates in a primary election in the United States. In a blanket primary, voters may pick one candidate for each office without regard to party lines; for instance, a voter might select a Democratic candidate for governor and a Republican candidate for senator
109.public interest groups: is an interest groups that promotes issues of general public concern like environmental protection, human rights, and consumer rights 110.“rational ignorance” effect: an effect produced when people purposely and rationally decide not to become informed on an issue because they believe that their vote on the issue is not likely to be a deciding one, a lack of incentive to seek the necessary information to cast an intelligent vote
111.right to privacy: this right is not directly stated in the constitution but many recent supreme cases and decisions have established this right. Many controversial issues are likely to be considered in courts today because of abortion and “right to die” laws (where doctors assist in patient suicide)
112.Select Committee: a temporary legislative committee established for a limited time period and for a special purpose
113.social contract: a theory of politics that asserts that individuals form political communities by a process of mutual consent, giving up measures of their individual liberties in order to gain protection that government provides
114.Three-fifth compromise: was the outcome of the slaves states wanting their slaves to count as a free person in determining representation in congress, and obviously northern states objected. The outcome of the compromise is that the house of reps and electoral college would be apportioned in part on the basis of property (slaves)
115.unitary system of government: a centralized government system in which local or subdivisional government exercise only those powers given to them by the central government *Simpler terms: the power goes from a central government —->state governments
116.Voting rights act of 1965: prohibits racial discrimination in voting. 117.Whig Party: a major party in the US during the 19t century, formally established in 1836. The whig party was anti-jackson and represented a variety of regional interest 118.straight ticket voting: voting exclusively for the candidates of one party 119.suffrage: everyone has the right to vote and have a voice
120.Super Tuesday: refers informally to one or more Tuesdays early in a United States presidential primary season when the greatest number of U.S. states hold primary elections and caucuses
121.ticket splitting: voting for candidates of two or more parties for different offices. For example, a voter splits her ticket if she votes for a republican candidate and a democratic congressional candidate
122.unicameral legislature: a legislature with only one legislative changed, as opposed to a bi cameral legislative, like the U.S congress. Today Nebraska is the only state in union with a Unicameral legislature
123.universal suffrage: everyone can use Social Security
124.twenty second amendment: of the United States Constitution sets a term limit for election and overall time of service to the office of President of the United States. 125.fifteenth amendment: said that the right to vote was not to be denied on the account of race, color, or previous state or servitude
126.twenty fifth amendment: A 1967 Amendment to the constitution that establishes procedures for filling presidential and vice presidential vacancies and makes provisions for presidential disability
127.thirteenth amendment: outlawed slavery
128.nineteenth amendment: gave women the right to vote
129.citizens united v. FEC: is a U.S. constitutional law and corporate law case dealing with the regulation of campaign spending by organizations. The United States Supreme Court held (5–4) that freedom of speech prohibited the government from restricting independent political expenditures by a nonprofit corporation. The principles articulated by the Supreme Court in the case have also been extended to for-profit corporations, labor unions and other associations.
130.Engel v. Vitale: was the case in which the NY State Board of education required prayer be spoken aloud in public schools at the beginning of each day. Then parents sued claiming it violated the establishment clause, but they lost at the state trial so they appealed to the supreme court. This is where the Supreme Court overturned the State courts decision saying it was no part of the business of the government to compose official prayers for the American people to recite.
131.Gideon v. Wainwright: this case’s outcome was that if a person cannot afford a lawyer the state must provide them with one. the details of the case are that Gideon had broken into a vending machine and stole money but was arrested. When he told the judge he couldn't afford a lawyer and asked for one to be provided for him the judge denied his request so Gideon defended himself and was found guilty. After this, Gideon appealed to the supreme court saying that how can our government try a poor man for a crime without a lawyer and that it was this that violated his 14th amendment right to due process. the supreme court agreed with him, gave him a lawyer, and retried him and he was found non guilty.
132.Mapp v. Ohio: this case established the exclusion rule which forbid the use of evidence that had been obtained illegally in a trial. This rule had already existed before but only in national courts, not state trials. why? idk. but the case details are that Cleveland police received a tip that a person who was wanted for questioning about a bombing was hiding out at the house of Dollree Mapp.When police asked to enter twice, Mapp denied them but on the second time the police forced their way into her house and retained her until they had finished searching. In the search the police did not find the suspect but instead found illegal materials and Mapp was arrested. When the supreme court heard of this from the state court, the overturned the conviction on the account that the police violated her rights and the evidence was removed from her trial
133.Miranda v. Arizona: the outcome of this case was that the supreme court enunciated the right of a person who is accused of a crime to remain silent until the presence of an attorney. The case details are that in 1963 Ernesto Miranda was arrested on suspicions of kidnap and rape. He was questioned at a phoenix police station until he finally came up with a written confession. In court though, the two officers admitted to not informing miranda of his right to an attorney which is when Miranda’s attorneys said the police violated his 5th amendment. The supreme court agreed and the Miranda Rights were established in 1966
134.Reynolds v. Sims: United States Supreme Court case that ruled that state legislature districts had to be roughly equal in population. The case was brought on behalf of voters in Alabama, but the decision affected both northern and southern states that had similarly failed to reapportion their legislatures in keeping with changes in state population after its application in five companion cases in Colorado, New York, Maryland, Virginia, and Delaware.
135.Wesberry v. Sanders: was a U.S. Supreme Court case involving U.S. Congressional districts in the state of Georgia. The Court issued its ruling on February 17, 1964. This decision requires each state to draw its U.S. Congressional districts so that they are approximately equal in population. Nationally, this decision effectively reduced the representation of rural districts in the U.S. Congress.
136.Gibbons v. Ogden: it was this case that established the commerce clause. The case itself was about two individuals, Ogden and Gibbons, who operated ferry steam boats. Ogden had a monopoly between New York and New Jersey, when Gibbons got a license for operating a ferry in interstate waters and started competing with Ogden. Ogden then sued Gibbons and the state of New York prohibited Gibbons from operating in NY waters which led him to appeal to the supreme court. where they agreed on the commerce clause which said the states have no say so in commerce and that its a exclusive national power
137.Plessy v. Ferguson: the outcome of this case was the Supreme court ruling that “separate but equal” was constitutional since the 14th amendment only required “equal” rights. The case details are that Homer Plessy, who was 1/8 African American, was asked to move to the non white cart of the train he was riding by the conducter. Homer sued the train company saying it violated his 14th amendment. He lost the trial and thus began Racial discrimination and the passing of the Jim Crow Laws
138.Shelby County v. Holder: the Court ruled by a 5-to-4 vote that Section 4(b) is unconstitutional because the coverage formula is based on data over 40 years old, making it no longer responsive to current needs and therefore an impermissible burden on the constitutional principles of federalism and equal sovereignty of the
states.The Court did not strike down Section 5, but without Section 4(b), no jurisdiction will be subject to Section 5 pre clearance unless Congress enacts a new coverage formula