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USC / History / HIST 102 / What is acquisitive mode?

What is acquisitive mode?

What is acquisitive mode?

Description

School: University of South Carolina
Department: History
Course: European Civilization From the Mid-17th Century
Professor: Daniel snyder
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: history
Cost: 50
Name: Final Exam Study Guide
Description: I defined all of the terms and their significance along with outlining the purposed essay questions we were given.
Uploaded: 12/06/2016
28 Pages 37 Views 4 Unlocks
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Final Terms


What is acquisitive mode?



Bold : all terms are from chapter 12-18  

1. Acquisitive Model- a model of bureaucracy that views top level bureaucrats as  seeking to expand the size of their budgets to staffs to gain greater power 2. agenda building: for a policy to first be examined it bust be on the agenda — this  usually require a policy demand which is a claim made by an individual or group  that requires some type of action to deal with perceived problem  

3. amicus curiae: “friends of the court” are briefs filled by the persons or groups who  are not parties to the case but who have interest in the outcome  

4. appointment power: The authority vested in the president to fill a government office  or position. Such positions include those in the executive branch and the federal  judiciary, commissioned officers in the armed forces, and members of independent  regulatory commissions.


What is agenda building?



5. common law: laws that were created based off a past court ruling that must be  used in present court cases  

6. discretionary spending: spending includes things like the FBI, tansportation,  environment, commerce, and those like it so that the government can have some  discretion on how much they can spend a year  Don't forget about the age old question of Franz boas leads reaction against the paradigm based on what?

7. executive agreements: is an agreement between the heads of government of two  or more nations that has not been ratified by the legislature as treaties are ratified 8. action reaction syndrome: this is basically a cycle where the government  implements and action which then causes a reaction by the affected people which  then the government counters with another action bringing the cycle back to the start  !  


What is amicus curiae?



Don't forget about the age old question of What is the difference between the supply chain and the value chain?

9. bureaucracy: a large organization that is structured hierarchically to carry out  specific functions  

10.Civil Service Commission: was a government agency of the federal government of  the United States and was created to select employees of federal government on  merit rather than relationships, got rid of the spoils system

11. containment: a U.S diplomatic policy adopted by the Truman administration to  contain communist power within its existing boundaries  

12.diplomacy: the process by which states carry on political relations with each other;  settling conflicts among nations by peaceful means  

13.Executive Office of the President: this is the organization established by FDR to  assist the president in carrying out major duties  

14.affirming a case: to declare that a court ruling is valid and must stand If you want to learn more check out Which micronutrients increase or decrease in availability when soils become more acid?

15.appellate jurisdiction: a court having jurisdiction to review cases and issues that  were originally tried in lower courts  

16.Cabinet departments:

• white house office: includes the key personal aides and personal advisers; Chief of  Staff, Legal Counsel, Press Secretary (often taken from the campaign staff)  

• Council on Economic Advisers: three member council that advises the President  on economic matters and prepares an annual economic report for Congress

• Office of Management and Budget: is invalid in spring review and fall review of  agency budget requests, OMB prepares a budget for the President that he then  presents to Congress, OMB also supervises the administration of the budget  

• National Security Council: link between the presidents key foreign and military  advisers. The NSC advises the President on domestic and foreign matters  involving national security. Includes the President, the VP, the Secretaries of State,  Treasury, and Defense, as well as other informal members  We also discuss several other topics like What are barrier islands, and why are they important?

17.capture: the act by which an industry being regulated by a government agency  gains direct or indirect control over agency personnel and decision makers resulting  in less competition and higher prices when its supposed to be the other way around.  

18.concurring opinion: a separate opinion prepared by a judge who supports the  decision of the majority of the court but who wants to make or clarify a particular  point or to voice disapproval of the grounds on which the decision was made  Don't forget about the age old question of Give an example of microeconomics.

19.dissenting opinion: a separate opinion in which a judge dissents from (disagrees  with) the conclusion reached by the majority on the court and expounds his or her  own views about the case

20.executive orders: a rule or order issued by the president to an executive branch of  the government and having the force of law.

21.federal budget deficit: government expenditures that exceed receipt 22.Federal Reserve Board: is the governing body of the Federal Reserve System. The  seven members of the board of governors are appointed by the president, subject to  confirmation by the Senate

23.fiscal policy : the federal governments use of taxation and spending policies to  affect overall business activity  

24.impeachment: is a process in which an official is charged with unlawful activity  while in office and generally leads to their removal from office

25.independent regulatory agencies: an agency outside the executive department  charged with making and implementing rules and regulations

26.initiative: Citizen petition of a measure put on the ballot

27.isolationism: a policy of abstaining from an active role in international affairs or  alliances, which characterized U.S foreign policy toward Europe during most of the  1800’s after President James Monroe passed the Monroe doctrine which stated that  1) European Nations should not establish new colonies in the Western Hemisphere  2) European nations won’t intervene in the affairs of independent nations in the  western hemisphere 3) The United States should not intervene with the affairs of  European Nations  We also discuss several other topics like What are the impacts of humans on water?

28.mandatory spending: spending on things like social security, medicare/medicade,  food stamps, interest on the debt, and those similar in which the government is  required to fund

29.federal budget surplus: occurs when the revenues of the federal government  exceed expenditures

30.independent executive agencies: a federal agency that is not part of a Cabinet  department that reports directly to the president  

31.interventionism: is a term for a policy of non-defensive (proactive) activity  undertaken by a nation-state, or other geo-political jurisdiction of a lesser or greater  nature, to manipulate an economy and/or society

32.judicial activism: a doctrine holding the supreme court should take an active role  by using its powers to check the activities of governmental bodies when those  bodies exceed their authority  

33.jurisdiction: the authority of a court to decide certain cases. Not all courts have the  authority to decide all cases. Two jurisdiction issues are where a case arises as well  as its subject matter:

General: exists when a courts authority to hear cases is not significantly  restricted. A court of general jurisdiction normally can hear a broad range of  cases

Limited: exist when a court’s authority to hear cases is restricted to certain types  of claims, such as tax claims or bankruptcy

34.foreign policy: a nations external goals and the techniques and strategies used to  achieve them/ foreign and domestic policy goals are designed to protect the nations  independence and political economic integrity; policy concerned with the safety and  defense of the nation. Purpose of it is to engage in diplomacy, to provide foreign  aide, to promote trade, to keep peace, to promote national safety  

35.government corporations: an agency of government that administers a quasi business enterprise. These cooperation's are used when activities are primarily  commercial. You cannot buy stock in these cooperation's and they do not pay taxes  on their profits. Two of the most largely known corporations are AMTRAK and U.S  Postal Service

36.Hatch Act: is a United States federal law whose main provision prohibits employees  in the executive branch of the federal government, except the president, vice president, and certain designated high-level officials of that branch

37.iron triangle: the three way alliance among legislators, bureaucrats, and interest  groups to make or preserve policies that benefits their respective interest  38.judicial restraint: a doctrine holding that the supreme court should defer to the  decisions made by the elected representatives of the people in the legislative and  executive branches  

39.justiciable question: a question that may be raised and reviews in court  40.line-item veto: the power exercised by governors to veto specific sections or items  of bills while signing the rest into law (44 have it for appropriation bills, 19 have it for any legislation) but then the legislature of the state can go in and overturn the veto  with a 2/3 vote

41.loose constructionist: a judicial philosophy that looks to the context and purpose of  law when making an interpretations

42.majority opinion: a court opinion election the views of the majority of the judges  43.merit system: is the process of promoting and hiring government employees based  on their ability to perform a job, rather than on their political connections 44.Monopolistic Model: a federal, state, or local government unit established to  perform a specific function. Administrative agencies are created and authorized by  legislative bodies to administer and enforce specific laws

45.national debt: the national debt carried by the government is $19.8 Trillion  46.negotiated rule making: is a process in American administrative law, used by  federal agencies, in which representatives from a government agency and affected  interest groups negotiate the terms of a proposed administrative rule. 47.Pendleton Act: an act that established the principle of employment on the basis of  merit and created the Civil Service Commission to administer the personnel service.  Placed a limit on the spoils system  

48.pocket veto: a special veto exercised by the chief executive after legislative body  has adjourned. Bills not signed by the chief executive die after a specific period of  time. If congress wishes to reconsider such a bill, it must be reintroduced in the  following session of congress  

49.policy evaluation: the policies must then be reexamined to see the outcomes. Have  the laws accomplished what they were intended to or have they had unanticipated  effects

50.policy trade off: this is when the cost of one policy outweighs another so they have  to decrease expenditures in one program to increase the expenditures in another (or

they could increase a tax or in the deficit). The cost is usually borne by one group  and the benefits received by another  

51.precedent: a earlier court cases decision that sets the future decisions for cases like  it  

52.Presidential Veto: this is the power for the president to say no to legislation which is  then returned to congress. Then congress can either change the bill and send it  back to the president or override the veto with a two thirds rolls call vote of the  members present in both the house and the senate  

53.privatization: is the process of transferring an enterprise or industry from the public  sector to the private sector. The public sector is the part of the economic system that  is run by government agencies.

54.Senatorial Courtesy : in federal district court judgeship nominations, a tradition  allowing a senator to veto a judicial appointment in his or her state  55.monetary policy: the utilization of changes in the amount of money in circulation to  alter credit markets, employment, and the rate of inflation * the federal reserve board  has power over monetary policy btw * <—- test question  

tight: monetary policy that makes credit expensive in an effort to show the  economy  

loose: monetary policy that makes credit inexpensive and abundant, possibly  leading to inflation  

56.policy adoption : a specific strategy is chosen from alternatives discussed;  congress must now enact legislation that the president must sign  

57.policy formulation: proposals for dealing with the issues are discussed with the  public officials and the public  

58.political realism: bases decisions on whats best for the American economy and  security of the nation ahead of morality  

59.Presidential Succession: compromise they worked out established the President  pro tempore of the Senate as next in line after the Vice President, followed by the  Speaker of the House of Representatives.

60.referendum: an electoral device whereby legislative or constitutional measures  are referred by the legislature or placed on the ballot to be voted on (generally  used for controversial or “important” matters)

61.roles of the President:

• Patronage

• chooses the chairperson of the party’s national committee and tries to promote  cohesion with the party

• help raises money and campaigns for candidates

62.moral idealism: bases policy desicions on the ‘morally’ right decision, examples:  Bush invading Iraq, Obama supporting the Libya and Egyptian democratic  movement  

63.National Security Council: link between the presidents key foreign and military  advisers. The NSC advises the President on domestic and foreign matters involving  national security. Includes the President, the VP, the Secretaries of State, Treasury,  and Defense, as well as other informal members  

64.original jurisdiction: of a court is the power to hear a case for the first time, as  opposed to appellate jurisdiction, when a higher court has the power to review a  lower court's decision

65.patronage: is the support, encouragement, privilege, or financial aid that the  president bestows to the citizens

66.policy implementation: the policy one decided on must be enforced and this  means the executive branch must now write regulation and the courts must interpret  the laws

67.recall: a procedure enabling voters to remove an elected official from office  before his or her term had expired. Used in 18 states not SC (involves petitions and  generally 10-40% of the vote in the last election)

68.remanding a case: to send a case back to the court that originally heard it 69.rule of four: is a Supreme Court of the United States practice that permits four of  the nine justices to grant a writ of certiorari. This is done specifically to prevent a  majority of the Court from controlling the Court's docket

70.stare decisis: to stand on decided cases; the judicial policy of following precedents  established by past decisions. Basically it obligates judges to follow the precent set  by their own courts or previously higher courts

71.strict constructionist: a judicial philosophy that looks to the letter of the law when  interpreting the constitution or a particular statue

72.sunset legislation: laws requiring that existing programs be reviewed regularly for  their effectiveness and be terminated unless specifically extended as a result of  these reviews  

73.Weberian Model: a model of bureaucracy developed by the german sociologist  Max Weber, who viewed bureaucracies as rational, hierarchical organizations in  which decisions are based on logical reasoning  

74.State Department: negotiates treaties, develops foreign policy, and protect citizens  abroad  

75.Sunshine Laws: a law that requires all committee directed agencies to conduct their  business regularly in public session so that an openness is present, after 9/11 the  sunshine act now exist at all levels

76.unanimous opinion: a court opinion or determination on which all judges agree 77.write of certiorari: an order issued by a higher court to a lower court to send up the  record of a case for review  

78.social security policy: universality, protection against poverty, protection against  inflation, progressively, generational sharing, equal benefits for equal earnings 79.treaties: a formally concluded and ratified agreement between countries 80.whistleblowers: a person who informs on a person or organization engaged in an  illicit activity  

CAPS: all terms are important from the past chapters and test questions are guaranteed  

1. BILL OF RIGHTS- is the collective name for the first ten amendments to the United  States Constitution. Proposed following the battle over ratification of the U.S.  Constitution, and crafted to address the objections raised by Anti-Federalists, the Bill  of Rights amendments add to the Constitution specific guarantees of personal  freedoms and rights, clear limitations on the government's power in judicial and other  proceedings, and declarations that all powers not specifically delegated to Congress  by the Constitution are reserved for the states or the people

2. CHECKS AND BALANCES: a major principle of the american system of government  whereby each branch of government can check the actions of the others 3. CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964: this act outlawed discrimination based on race, color,  religion, sex, or national origin. It ended unequal application of voter registration  requirements and racial segregation in schools, at the workplace and by facilities  that served the general public.  

4. COMMERCE CLAUSE : the section that gives congress that power to regulate  trade among the states and with foreign powers  

5. CONGRESSIONAL OVERRIDE: occurs when the U.S. Congress passes a bill into  law in spite of a president's veto. Although presidents have the power to veto bills  passed by Congress, the House and Senate have the constitutional right to override  the veto

6. CONNECTICUT COMPROMISE: the compromise between the New Jersey and  Philadelphia plans that created one chamber of congress based on state population  and one chamber representing that states equally. This is also known as the Great  Compromise  

7. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE HOUSE AND THE SENATE:  

The House of Representatives- is a 435-member body that meets in the south end of  the Capitol building. Its members are chosen from districts apportioned by population -  and are elected every two years. The Constitution specifically provides that the House

has the sole power of impeachment, or of legal removal from office of federal officials  that have committed "high crimes and misdemeanors," and also directs that any bills  that raise revenue must originate in the House.

The Senate- is a 100-member body that meets in the north end of the Capitol building. Each state has two Senators, no matter how large or small the state might be, and  Senators are elected for six-year terms. The Constitution directs that the Senate shall  conduct impeachment trials, and that it should provide "advice and consent" to  Presidential appointments and on treaties. The Senate is designed to be a bit more  removed from the popular will than the House, to be, as Washington reportedly put it,  the "cooling saucer" to the House's hot teacup.

8. EASTONS DEFINITION OF POLITICS: defines politics as “the allocation of values  for a society”

9. ELASTIC CLAUSE: this is the clause that established the implied powers of the  national government

10.ANTI-FEDERALISTS: An individual who opposed the ratification of the new  constitution in 1787 because they opposed a strong central government 11. ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION: the textbook defines a confederation as a  political system in which states or regional governments retain ultimate authority  except for those powers they expressly delegate to a central government. A  voluntary association of independent states. In which the member states agree to  limited restraints on their freedom of action. Our professor provided us with a chart  that explains the first form of government that the actuals articles define. It starts  with the States ——> Officers: Congress appointed officers to do some of the  executive work——> Committee of the States: a committee of representatives from  all the states was empowered to act in the name of congress between sessions—->  Congress: congress had one house. Each state had two to seven members, but only  one vote. The exercise of most powers required approval of at least nine states.  Amendments to the Articles required consent of all states. Weaknesses of the  articles were that they could not collect revenue from the states, could not raise an  army, amendments to the article required a unanimous consent of congress, did not  establish a national court system, no executive to administer the government, and  no authority to regulate commerce. Some of the strength though were that they  settled land disputes among the states over western land, passed the northwest  ordinance of 1787 that established government for new territories, could declare war  and conduct foreign policy, and opportunity to try out some of the principles set forth  in the declaration of Independence

12.CLOTURE: the term used to describe the procedure for ending a debate and taking  a vote

13.COMMITTEE STRUCTURE OF CONGRESS: committees of congress provide  things like division of labor, specialization and reelection. The types of congressional  committees are  

standing committees (permanent)

subcommittees (more specialized)

select committees (created to accomplish a specific task)

joint committees (contain both representatives and senators)

conference committees (resolve legislative disagreements between the house  and senate)  

Rules committee (specific to the House, this committee establishes rules for  debate once a bull makes it to the floor of the house  

14.CONCURRENT POWERS: powers held jointly by the national and state  governments

15.CONFERENCE COMMITTEE: a special joint committee appointed to reconcile  differences when bills pass the two chambers of congress in different forms  16.CONGRESSIONAL COMMITTEES: committees of congress provide things like  division of labor, specialization and reelection

17.DELEGATE ROLE: When members of Congress cast votes based on the wishes of  their constituents

18.ELECTORAL COLLEGE: a group of persons, called electors, who are selected by  the voters in each state. This group officially elects the president and the vice  president of the united states  

19.ERA OF GOOD FEELINGS: the years from 1817 to 1825, when James Monroe was  president and had in effect, no political opposition  

20.EXPRESSED POWERS: Congress may exercise the powers that the Constitution  grants it, subject to the individual rights listed in the Bill of Rights.

21.FEDERALIST PAPERS: a series of 85 essays written in defense of the constitution  and of a republican form of government. In these essays the writers explained the  constitution, the three branches of government, and a theory of judicial review  

22.FRONTLOADING: the practice of moving presidential primary elections to the early  party of the campaign to maximize the impact of these primaries on the nomination  23.GERRYMANDERING: the drawing of legislative boundary lines to obtain partisan or  factional advantage. A district is said to be gerrymandering when its shape is  manipulated by the dominant party in the state legislature to maximize electoral  strength at the expense of the minority party  

24.GRANDFATHER CLAUSE: this was outlawed in the Guinn v. U.S case, but it was a  clause that mandated anyone who wanted to vote would have to have some form of

proof that their grandfather voted in previous elections. This made it impossible for  freed slaves to vote since before the 13th amendment they had just been slaves  25.HISTORICAL BASIS OF THE TWO PARTY SYSTEM: first a two party system is a  political system in which only two parties have a reasonable chance of winning. We  in America have a 2 party system because over time the two major parties became  so powerful and broad that they closed off the opportunity for other parties to arise.  26.INTEREST GROUPS: an organized group of individuals sharing a common  objectives who actively attempt to influence policymakers Types:  

Business: these are groups work to influence government policies that affect their  respective industries. Such as the U.S Chamber of Commerce which is one of the most  well known and more powerful groups who has many members can bring constituent  influence to bear on every member of congress. Another would be the National  Association of Manufactures who has more than 60 people employed in D.C who can  activated to gather many well educated, articulate lobbyist to work congress on issues  of concern.  

Agricultural: this is the group of farmers and their employees who make up 2% of  the population and heavily effect the legislation which is beneficial to their interest  through 2 major interest groups. The first one being the American Farm Bureau  Federation has several million members. Some of their achievements are getting “fair”  prices during the G. Depression. Another is the National Farmers Union who represents  smaller family farms.  

Labor: obviously there are groups that represent the labor force of America? One  group being the American Federation of Labor who then joined with the Congress of  Industrial Organizations to congregate a membership of 9 million and an active political  arm called the Committee on Political Education. Its YUGE !!!!

Public Employee Unions: these is the interest group that supports the rights of  public employees such as teachers, and state/county/municipal employees. One of the  largest interest groups is the National Education Association who represents 2.8 million  teachers mostly asking for higher pay

Professionals: this group represents the rights of well educated professionals  such as lawyers, contractors, and engineers. Each individual interest group within this  group is only as powerful as its members are influential. For this reason Lawyers have a  special advantage because many members of congress are also lawyers which is great  for making connection and being apart of other groups outside of the interest groups

27.JUDICIAL REVIEW: this refers to the power of the U.S courts to examine the  constitutionality of actions undertaken by the legislative and executive branches of  government. A state court for example may rule a statute enacted by the state  legislature is unconstitutional. This same rule applies to acts passed by congress  and decisions of the national executive branch! Basically everything - * this decision  established the court’s larger power to review the activities of the other two branches  of government

28.LASSWELL’S DEFINITION OF POLITICS: defines politics as “who gets what, how  and when (and at what cost)

29.LITERACY TEST: potential voters were required to recite, read, or interpret  sometimes very hard literature to the satisfaction of the local registrar who was  always white. this case was outlawed in the 1965 Voting rights act

30.FEDERAL SYSTEM: this system lies between the urinary and confederal system but  in this system authority is divided, usually by a written constitution, between a central  or regional government, or subdivisional, governments. These governments both act  directly on the people through laws and through the actions of appointed officials. Its  

in this system where both governments are considered supreme in their own sphere  of authority *simpler terms: the power is shared equally between state <——>  national government

31.FILIBUSTER: Way of delaying or preventing action on a bill by using long speeches  and unlimited debate to "talk a bill to death"

32.FREE RIDER PROGRAM: the difficulty that interest groups face when recruiting  members when the benefits they achieve can be gained without joining the group  33.GOVERNMENT: the preeminent institution in which decisions are made that resolve  conflicts or allocate benefits and privileges. It is unique because it has the ultimate  authority within a nation

34.GREAT COMPROMISE: the compromise between the New Jersey and Philadelphia  plans that created one chamber of congress based on state population and one  chamber representing that states equally. This is also known as the Connecticut  compromise  

35.INSTRUCTED DELEGATE ROLE: a legislator who is an agent of the voters who  elected him or her and who votes according to the views of the constituents rather  than their own personal beliefs  

36.JAMESTOWN SETTLEMENT: this was the settlement where the british government  gave the settlers full power and authority to make laws for themselves. This is where  the settlers set up a representative assembly which is an important component of  the USA’s political system

37.MAYFLOWER COMPACT: was a political statement in which the signers agreed to  create and submit to the authority of a government based on the consent of the  people. This was important for two reasons: a) it depended on the consent of the  afflicted individuals and b) it served as a prototype for similar compacts in American  history

38.FEDERALIST: the name given to one who was in favor of the adoption of the U.S  Constitution and the creation of a federal union with a strong central government 39.FUNCTIONS OF CONGRESS: lawmaking, representing the people, performing  oversight, helping constituents, and educating the public

40.JIM CROW LAWS: mandated that separate facilities be used for white and non  whites. There was a very distinct difference between the white facilities and the non  white facilities  

41.MATERIAL INCENTIVES: a reason for supporting or participating in the activities of  a group based on economic benefits or opportunities  

42.NECESSARY AND PROPER CLAUSE: grants congress the power to do whatever  is necessary to execute specifically delegated powers  

43.POLITICO ROLE: when a member of congress attempts to combine basic elements  of the trustee, delegate and partisan roles and balancing conflicting factors 44.POWERS OF CONGRESS: congress has the power to make laws, represent  members of a home district, provide service to constituents, provide oversight on  laws its has enacted, education the public, and providing resolution for conflicts  within American society.  

45.QUALIFICATIONS FOR OFFICE: natural born citizen of the united states, over the  age of 35 and had been a resident of the united states for 14 years  46.REDISTRICTING: the redrawing of the boundaries of the congressional district  within each state  

47.NEW JERSEY PLAN: this was the plan that favored all states equally and said that  the fundamental principle of the Articles of Confederation ( one state, one vote)  would be kept, congress would still be able to regulate trade and impose taxes, all  acts of congress would be the supreme law of the lans, several people would be  elected by congress to form an executive office, and the executive office would  appoint the supreme court

48.POLL TAX: this was one of the ways the South denied African Americans the right to  vote - this was a tax that was required at voting stations when someone went to  vote, and since the african american population did not have a lot of money this tax  helped excludes them because of their economic status. this was outlawed in harper  v. Virginia state board of education

49.PURPOSIVE INCENTIVES: a reason for supporting or participating in the activities  of a group based on agreement with the goals of the group. For example, someone  with a strong interest in human rights might have a purposive incentive to join  Amnesty International  

50.REAPPORTIONMENT: the allocation of seats in the House of Representatives to  each state after each census

51.SENIORITY SYSTEM: a custom followed in both chambers of congress specifying  that the member of the majority party with the longest term of continuos service will  be given preference when a committee chair person is selected  

52.SHAY’S REBELLION: by 1784 the country faced serious economic problems and  banks were throwing people in jail for owing debts. Many of these people in prison  were farmers or veterans of the revolutionary war and couldn't pay their debt  because of economic chaos. Angered by this, mobs of musket bearing farmers in  Springfield Mass. led by revolutionary war Captain Daniel Shays seized county  courthouses and disrupted the trials of debaters. Shay and his men then attacked  the federal arsenal at springfield but they were defeated. This rebellion  demonstrated that the central government could not protect the citizens from armed  rebellion or provide adequately for the public welfare. Called for change of the  existing government

53.POLITICAL SOCIALIZATION: the process through which individuals form a set of  political attitudes and for opinions about social issues. Families and the education  system are two most important forces in the political socialization process  

54.RESERVED POWERS: powers held specifically by the states and cant be taken  away  

55.SEPARATION OF POWERS: the principle of dividing governmental powers among  different branches of that government  

56.SOCIALIZATION AGENTS: family, school, community culture, and peers. All of  which influence your political orientation

57.SUPREMACY CLAUSE: the constitutional provision that makes the constitution and  federal laws superior to all conflicting state and local laws

58.UNIT RULE: a rule by which all of a state’s electoral votes are cast for the  presidential candidate receiving a plurality of the popular vote in the state  59.VIRGINIA PLAN: this was the plan that favored large states and said the two  chamber legislature which contained of a lower chamber elected by the people and  a upper chamber chose by the elected lower chamber members from a pool of other  representatives. It also said that the number of representatives would be  proportional to the states population, including slaves.

60.WHITE PRIMARIES: was one of the ways the south denied African americans the  right to vote - political parties were private and they excluded blacks. After 1877,  democrats nominated the south and the person who was the party nominee usually  won the general election. Because african americans were excluded from the party  they could not vote for the party nominee meaning they would have to voice in the  winner of the general election

61.SOLIDARY INCENTIVES: reasons or motives having to do with the desire to  associate with others and to share a particular interest or hobby with others 62.SPOILS SYSTEM: the awarding of government jobs to political supporters and  friends  

63.THIRD PARTIES: a political party other than the two major political parties  64.TRUSTEE ROLE: a legislator who acts according to her or his conscience and that  broad interest of the entire society  

65.STANDING COMMITTEE: a permanent committee in the house or senate that  considers bills within a certain subject area  

66.TWO-PARTY SYTEM: the system we have in America where we have two majority  parties  

67.WAR POWERS RESOLUTION: law passed in 1973 spelling out the conditions  under which the president can commit troops without congressional approval 68.FIRST AMENDMENT: to the United States Constitution prohibits the making of any  law respecting an establishment of religion, impeding the free exercise of religion,  abridging the freedom of speech, infringing on the freedom of the press, interfering  with the right to peaceably assemble, or prohibiting the petitioning for a  governmental redress of grievances

69.FOURTEENTH AMENDMENT: this amendment said that no state shall make or  enforce any law that deny the privileges or immunities of a citizen and that no state  shall deny life, liberty and property without due process of the law, and they cant  deny a citizen equal protection of the law

70.TENTH AMENDMENT: which is part of the Bill of Rights, was ratified in 1791,  expresses the principle of federalism, which strictly supports the entire plan of the  original Constitution for the United States of America, by stating that the federal  government possesses only those powers delegated to it by the United States  Constitution. All remaining powers are reserved for the states or the people.

71.BAKER V. CARR: was a landmark United States Supreme Court case that decided  that redistricting issues present justiciable questions, thus enabling federal courts to  intervene in and to decide redistricting cases. The defendants unsuccessfully argued  that redistricting of legislative districts is a "political question", and hence not a  question that may be resolved by federal courts.

72.BORWN V. BOARD OF EDUCATION: was one of the most important cases of U.S  history. The outcome of this case was the desegregation of public schools, which  then led to a societal desegregation. It all started when Oliver Brown was tired of his  daughter having to travel 21 blocks away to go to a non white school, when a white  school was only 7 blocks away, so he sued the school board and appealed to the  supreme court who said that the segregation of public schools was unconstitutional  and decided that segregation by races should end with “deliberate speed”. It was  this case that made the SCOTUS announce that “seperate but equal” is inherently  unequal, and that anything that is separated is naturally going to have have a  superior and inferior quality.

73.DREDD SCOTT V. SANDORN: this case was in 1857 and the details are that a  slave named Dred Scott sued his owner to obtain freedom on the basis that he had  lived in the free state of Illinois for various periods of time. The outcome of the case  was that the Supreme court ruled that enslaved people were not citizens and were  not entitled to any rights. Many historians agree that it was this event that made the  civil war inevitable

74.MARBURY V. MADISON: was the U.S supreme court case that established the  principle of Judical Review. This case ended with the decision that even though  Marbury was entitled to his commission, that part of the Judiciary Act of 1789 which  gave the supreme court jurisdiction in this case was unconstitutional, and thus  congress could not pass a law that is prohibited by the constitution. By doing this,  Marshall’s opinion established the power of the court to review legislative and  executive actions

75.MCCULLOH V. MARYLAND: this was the case about the establishment of a  government bank and the resulting taxation of the state of maryland for those who  didn't bank with them, and established the Supremacy Clause

Regular: all terms are from past chapters and you should be familiar with them  

1. Australian ballot: this is the secret ballot that is created and distributed by the  government at the expense of the government. The U.S uses this form of ballot  rather than an open, public ballot

2. caucus: a meeting of party members designed to select candidates and propose  policies  

3. closed primary: a type of primary in which the voter is limited to choosing candidates  of the party of which he or she is a member

4. confederal system of government: a system consisting of a league of independent  states, each having essentially sovereign powers. The central government created  by such a league has only limited powers over the states *Simpler terms: the power  goes from the states —-> central government  

5. constitution: established popular sovereignty, a republican government in which the  people choose representatives, limited government with written laws, separation of  powers with checks and balances, and a federal system that allowed for states  rights.

6. cooperative federalism: the theory that states and the national government should  cooperate in solving problems  

7. de jure segregation: this is segregation that occurs because of laws in place (pre  Brown v Edu case)  

8. delegated power: these are powers held specifically by the national government.  They are either enumerated- to coin money, to conduct foreign relations, to regulate  interstate commerce, to raise and support the military, to establish post offices, and  to declare war, implied-said that congress shall have the power to make all laws  which will be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the forgoing powers,  and all other powers vested by the constitution, or inherent-powers that are assured  to be held by all nations in order to ensure their own survival, like, make treaties,  wage war, seek trade, and acquire new territories.  

9. democratic party: this party is associated with improving environment, education,  welfare, energy problems and health care. Are considered more liberal in which  minorities and less educated appeal too

10.distribution of public opinion: this tells us how divided the public is on an issue and  whether compromise is possible

11. dual federalism: a system which the states and the national government each  remains supreme within its own sphere. The doctrine states that national and states  are coequal sovereign powers and that neither of them should interfere with the  others sphere.  

12.equal protection of laws clause: included in the fourteenth amendment, the clause  states that no state shall deny to any person within its jurisdiction "the equal protection of the laws"

13.agenda setting: determining which public policy questions will be debated or  considered

14.Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act: is a United States federal law that amended the  Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971, which regulates the financing of political  campaigns.

15.campaign assistance: since most interest groups recognize that the greatest  concern of legislators is to be reelected, associations with large memberships can  provide workers for campaigns to do things like precinct workers to get out the vote,  volunteers to put up posters and pass out literature, and people to staff telephone  banks for campaign headquarters  

16.civil liberties: those personal freedoms that are protected for all individuals. They  typically involve restraining the governments actions against individuals  17.conservatism: a set of beliefs that includes a limited role for the national government  in helping individuals, support for traditional values and lifestyles, and a cautious  response to change  

18.dealignment: a decline in party loyalties that reduces long term party commitment  19.Declaration of Independence: was the document that was drafted by the colonist  which states the causes/ grievances of the colonist which were used as reasoning  for the separation of the two parties

20.discharge petition: a procedure by which a bill in the House of Representatives may  be forced (discharged) out of a committee that has refused to report it for  consideration by the House. The petition must be signed by an absolute, all 218,  representatives and is used only on rare occasions  

21.divided government: a situation in which one major political party controls the  presidency and the other controls the chambers of congress, or in which one party  controls a state governorship and the other controls the state legislature  

22.duties of the Speaker of the House: the presiding officer in the house of  representatives. The speaker is always a member of the majority party and is the  most powerful and influential member of the House

• Member of Congress: represents voters in his or her congressional district

• presiding officer of the House of Representatives: administers the oath of office to  members, calling the house to order, preserving oder and decorum within the House  chamber and galleries, recognizing members to speak on the House floor, and making  rules about the house procedures. Along with that the Speaker appoints members and  chairpersons to committees and the legislation which is assigned to each committee  and which legislation reachers the house floor for a vote. The speaker also presides  over all joint sessions wth the senate bc they are usually held in the House of  Representatives  

• leader of the majority political party in the House: the speaker is held responsible for  passing legislation supported by the majority party

23.enumerated powers- also known as delegated powers, there are the powers that are  granted to congress by the constitution making it very official  

24.establishment clause: the clause in the First Amendment of the US Constitution that  prohibits the establishment of religion by Congress.

25.amending the constitution: this is the process it takes to makes amends the  constitution- 1) proposed by two thirds vote in both chambers or by a national  convention called by congress at the request of two thirds of the state 2) ratified by  with the legislature of three fourths of the states or the conventions in three fourths  of the states  

26.authority: the ultimate right to enforce compliance with decisions  27.bicameral legislature: a legislature made up of two parts, called chambers. The two  chambers in our government is the Senate and the House of Representatives 28.civil rights: the rights to citizens of political and social equality  

29.Civil War: the war between the north and the south over slavery as well as the power  of the national government versus the rights of the states. The outcome of this war  was that the national government has more power than the states  

30.Coercive Acts: also known as the “intolerable acts”, were made in retaliation to the  colonist who dumped 350 chest of tea into the boston harbor. The acts placed a  blockade around boston harbor and placed the entire state government of  Massachusetts under british control. The effect of these acts was to shift the problem  from taxes to british authority over the colonies.  

31.consensus opinion: the general agreement among the citizenry on an issue 32.continuing resolution: a temporary funding law that congress passes when an  appropriate bill has not been decided by the beginning of the new fiscal year on  October 1  

33.de facto segregation: segregation which is in pace due to past economical and  social conditions, occurred after Brown v. Education  

34.defendant rights: The Fifth Amendment protects against self-incrimination (the right  to remain silent) and double jeopardy: The Right to Remain Silent: Criminal  defendants have the right to remain silent. This right protects the defendant from  self-incrimination, commonly known as Miranda Rights, during arrest and at trial

35.democracy: a system in which political authority is vested in the people. It has four  major systems universal suffrage, majority rule, minority rule, and limited  government

36.direct lobbying techniques: a interest group activity that involves interaction with  government officials to further the group’s goals. Some examples would be lobbying,  building public coalitions, and providing campaign assistance  

37.divisive opinion: public opinion that is polarized between two quite different position

38.exclusionary rule: this is a rule that states that courts cant use evidence in a trial that  is obtained illegally. This rule was the outcome of the Mapp v. Ohio case 39.free exercise clause: reserves the right of American citizens to accept any religious  belief and engage in religious rituals.

40.freedom of press: The right to circulate opinions in print without censorship by the  government. Americans enjoy freedom of the press under the First Amendment to  the Constitution

41.functions of the media: the media informs the public about the issues and events of  our time that that an agenda-setting effect (determining which public policy questions  will be debated or considered) the media also provides a political forum for leaders  and the public. Candidates for office use the media as a way to sustain interest in  their campaign and current office holders use the media to gain support for policies  or present a image of leadership

42.House Rules Committee: A city permitted by the state to let local voters frame, adopt  and amend their out charter

43.Independent expenditures: non regulated contributions to PAC’s organizations and  individuals. The funds may be spent on advertising or other campaign activities, so  long as those expenditures are not coordinated with those of a candidate  

44.joint committee: a legislative committee composed of members from both chambers  of congress  

45.leadership in Congress: the speaker of the house, the majority leader, the minority  leader, the whips  

46.lobbying: the attempt of a person or organization to influence legislation and the  administrative decisions of government  

47.James Madison: was called the Father of the Constitution for his extraneous efforts  towards it and the bill of rights. Also wrote some of the Federalist papers  48.majority rule: who ever wins the most votes wins

49.majority leader: this is referring to the majority leader of the house which is a  legislative position held by an important party member. The majority leader is  selection by the majority party in caucus or conference to foster cohesion among  party members and to act as spokesperson for majority party in the House

50.minority leader: the party leader elected by the minority party in the house  51.factors affecting turnout:  

age- many of the time its the elderly that have the most turn out bc they have settled in  their life and have more experience with voting that a younger generation does

educational attainment- in general the more education you have the more likely you are  to vote

minority status- the low rates that occur in this category could be due to the legal status  of the person as well as language issues.  

income level- just like education, those with high incomes are more likely to vote than  those with less income  

two party competition: most competitive states have higher turnouts than those states  which a party always wins  

52.fiscal year: the govts accounting period. begins Oct. 1-Sept.30

53.full faith and credit: requires states to recognize one another laws and court  decisions. It ensures that the rights established under deeds, wills, contracts, and  other civil matters in one state be honored in another

54.functions of political parties: the major functions of parties are-  • recruiting candidates to run for public office under their party label • organizing and running elections

• presenting alternative policies to the electorate  

• accepting responsibly for operating the government  

• acting as the organized opposition to the party in power  

55.ideology: a comprehensive set of beliefs about the nature of people and about the  role of an institution or government. * Ideologies guide political decision making 56.incorporation theory: The view what most of the protections of the Bill of Rights are  

applied against the state governments through the Fourteenth Amendment's due  process clause

57.indirect lobbying technique: a strategy employed by interest groups that uses third  parties to influence government officials. These techniques are aimed to generate  public pressure on the government through rallies, boycotts, or marches  

58.legitimacy: rightful and entitled to compliance and obedience on the part of citizens  59.limited government: limiting our government with documents, like the constitution, or  a common belief

60.Locke’s philosophy: created the concept of natural rights. This is the viewpoint that  people have the right to life, liberty, and property and that governments are  established to secure these rights and rest on the consent of the governed.  

61.majority whip: the assistant to the majority leader who's function is to assist the floor  leader, ensure member attendance, count votes, and generally communicate the  majority position

62.minority whip: the assistant to the minority leader who's function is to assist the  minority leader on the floor, count votes, and ensure attendance of minority leaders

63.minority rights: everyone has rights, even those as minorities

64.fall review: The time every year when, after receiving formal federal agency requests  for funding for the next fiscal year, the Office of Management and Budget reviews  the requests, makes changes, and submits its recommendations to the president 65.federal budget cycle:  

A. Executive - request phase, staff puts in their requests

B. Legislative - policy makers consider them

C. Implementation - October 1st 

D. Audit - September 30th -To ensure that the goal of enacting the budget prior to  the beginning of the budgeted fiscal year is met, a budget colander that  establishes all key dates in the preparation of the budget should be developed. 

66.First Continental Congress: was a gathering of delegates from 12 of the 13 colonies  where they discussed drafting a petition of their grievances and sending it to King  George, forming their own armies, boycott british goods. They also decided that in  every county and city they form a committee whose mission was to spy and report  on friends and neighbors who violated the trade ban. It was the formation of these  committees which represented steps toward a national government  

67.freedom of assembly: the right to assemble or to gather together in a peaceful  fashion is a political right that ensures justice in government

68.freedom of speech: government cannot stop us from saying what we think, we  have right to criticize and share opinions with others are some exceptions 69.general election: is an election in which all or most members of a given political body  are chosen. The term is usually used to refer to elections held for a nation's primary  legislative body, as distinguished from by-elections and local elections 70.horizontal federalism: a check against the expansion of government that relies on  the checks and balances between branches of government of the same level 71.implied powers: said that congress shall have the power to make all laws which will  be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the forgoing powers, and all  other powers vested by the constitution

72.independent: a voter or candidate who does not identify with a political party  73.incumbency: is the period of holding office

74.inherent powers: powers that are assured to be held by all nations in order to ensure  their own survival, like, make treaties, wage war, seek trade, and acquire new  territories.  

75.intensity of opinion: The intensity of the public's opinion measures the strength of the  direction. The strength of the direction of public opinion

76.lawmaking function: the process of establishing the legal rules that govern society

77.liberalism: a set of beliefs that includes the advocacy of positive government action  to improve the welfare of individuals, support for civil services, and tolerance for  political and social change  

78.office block ballot: also known as the Massachusetts Ballot, a form of general  election ballot in which candidates for elective office are grouped together under the  title of each office. It emphasizes voting for the office and the individual candidate  rather than for the party

79.oversight: the process by which Congress follows up on laws it has enacted to  ensure that they are being enforced and administered the way congress intended  80.party convention: is a meeting of a political party, typically to select party  candidates. In the United States, a political convention usually refers to a  presidential nominating convention, but it can also refer to state, county, or  congressional district nominating conventions.

81.party organization: the formal structure and leadership of a political party, including  election committees; local, state, and national executives; and pain professional staff  82.political parties: a group of political activist who organize to win elections, operate  the government, and determine public policy.  

83.public opinion: the aggregate of individual attitudes or beliefs shared by some  portion of adult population  

84.realignment: a process in which a substantial group of voters switches party  allegiance, producing a long-term change in the political landscape  85.representative government: is a variety of democracy founded on the principle of  elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy. All  modern Western-style democracies are types of representative democracies 86.safe seat: a district that returns the legislator with 55 percent of the vote or more  87.separate but equal doctrine: the justification used by the Supreme court after the  Plessy v. Ferguson case which says that segregation of races is legal because they  will have equal rights as citizens. This justification is what led to the jim crow laws  which made segregation legal and enforced in public facilities

88.national party conventions: the meeting held every 4 years by each major party to  select presidential and vice presidential candidates, to write a platform, to choose a  national committee, and to conduct party business  

89.organization of parties: Each party has its own national committee made up of party  leaders, elected officials, and the chairs of the state party organizations. The chair of  the national committee is chosen by the party's candidate for president.

90.party column ballot: also known as the Indiana Ballot, is a form of general election  ballot in which all of a party’s candidates for elective office are arranged in one

column under the party’s label and symbol. It emphasizes voting for the party, rather  than for the office or individual  

91.party in electorate: those members of the general public who identify with a political  party of who express a preference for one party over another

92.party platform: a document drawn up at each national convention outlining the  policies, positions, and principles of the party  

93.Philadelphia Convention: also known as the Constitutional Convention and was  intended to revise the Articles of Confederation, the intention from the outset of  many of its proponents, chief among them James Madison and Alexander Hamilton,  was to create a new government rather than fix the existing one. The delegates  elected George Washington to preside over the Convention

94.Political Action Committee: a committee set ip by and representing a cooperation,  labor union, or special interest group. PAC raise and give campaign donations  95.Presidential election: the election of the president of the united states that happens  every four years. Candidates are usually nominated through a primary election and  then voted upon by the states through an electoral college

96.prohibited powers: also known as exclusive federal powers, are powers within a  federal system of government that each constituent political unit (such as a state or  province) is absolutely or conditionally prohibited from exercising.  

97.ratification: formal approval and in this case the formal approval of the constitution  by the states

98.republican party: this party and its members are associated with a stronger defense  and dealing with terrorism, lower taxes, and dealing with the budget deficit. Their  cultural values includes supporting family values and to oppose policies such as  

abortion, same sex marriage, and to support the death penalty and gun rights. The  differ in the party-in-electorate by being more conservative, popular in suburban and  rural areas, favored by business and professional occupations, higher income and  usually christian or fundamentalist

99.rights of accused criminals:  

• The right to trial by jury

• The right to trial in a timely manner

• The right to be informed of the nature and cause of all accusations against you • The right to confront witnesses against you

• The right to have legal counsel available to you

• The right to compel witnesses to testify on your behalf

100.Second Continental Congress: met in late 1777 to draft the Articles of  Confederation. By this time most of the fighting had begun between the British and

the colonist and one of the main objectives of this meeting was to form an army. The  did this and named George Washington Commander in Chief  

101.non opinion: he lack of an opinion on an issue or policy among the majority  102.party competition: the battle of the parties for control of public offices. Ups and  downs of the two major parties are one of the most important elements in American  politics

103.party in government: all of the elected and appointed officials who identify with a  political party  

104.pluralism: a theory that views politics as a conflict among interest groups. Political  decision making is characterized buy bargaining and compromise

105.political culture: the set of ideals, values, and ways of thinking about government  and politics that is shared by all citizens

106.popular sovereignty: is the principle that the authority of a state and its government  is created and sustained by the consent of its people, through their elected  representatives

107.president popularity: the population of the nation that favors the president at a  certain point in time

108.primary election: is an election that narrows the field of candidates before an  election for office. Primary elections are one means by which a political party or a  political alliance nominates candidates for an upcoming general election or by election

open primary- a primary in which any registered voter can vote (but most vote for  candidates of only one party)

Runoff primary: is a primary election in which all candidates for the same elected  office, regardless of respective political party, run against each other at once,  instead of being segregated by political party.

blanket primary: is a system used for selecting political party candidates in a  primary election in the United States. In a blanket primary, voters may pick one  candidate for each office without regard to party lines; for instance, a voter might  select a Democratic candidate for governor and a Republican candidate for  senator

109.public interest groups: is an interest groups that promotes issues of general public  concern like environmental protection, human rights, and consumer rights  110.“rational ignorance” effect: an effect produced when people purposely and rationally  decide not to become informed on an issue because they believe that their vote on  the issue is not likely to be a deciding one, a lack of incentive to seek the necessary  information to cast an intelligent vote

111.right to privacy: this right is not directly stated in the constitution but many recent  supreme cases and decisions have established this right. Many controversial issues  are likely to be considered in courts today because of abortion and “right to die” laws  (where doctors assist in patient suicide)

112.Select Committee: a temporary legislative committee established for a limited time  period and for a special purpose  

113.social contract: a theory of politics that asserts that individuals form political  communities by a process of mutual consent, giving up measures of their individual  liberties in order to gain protection that government provides  

114.Three-fifth compromise: was the outcome of the slaves states wanting their slaves  to count as a free person in determining representation in congress, and obviously  northern states objected. The outcome of the compromise is that the house of reps  and electoral college would be apportioned in part on the basis of property (slaves)  

115.unitary system of government: a centralized government system in which local or  subdivisional government exercise only those powers given to them by the central  government *Simpler terms: the power goes from a central government —->state  governments

116.Voting rights act of 1965: prohibits racial discrimination in voting. 117.Whig Party: a major party in the US during the 19t century, formally established in  1836. The whig party was anti-jackson and represented a variety of regional interest  118.straight ticket voting: voting exclusively for the candidates of one party  119.suffrage: everyone has the right to vote and have a voice

120.Super Tuesday: refers informally to one or more Tuesdays early in a United States  presidential primary season when the greatest number of U.S. states hold primary  elections and caucuses

121.ticket splitting: voting for candidates of two or more parties for different offices. For  example, a voter splits her ticket if she votes for a republican candidate and a  democratic congressional candidate  

122.unicameral legislature: a legislature with only one legislative changed, as opposed  to a bi cameral legislative, like the U.S congress. Today Nebraska is the only state in  union with a Unicameral legislature

123.universal suffrage: everyone can use Social Security  

124.twenty second amendment: of the United States Constitution sets a term limit for  election and overall time of service to the office of President of the United States. 125.fifteenth amendment: said that the right to vote was not to be denied on the account  of race, color, or previous state or servitude

126.twenty fifth amendment: A 1967 Amendment to the constitution that establishes  procedures for filling presidential and vice presidential vacancies and makes  provisions for presidential disability  

127.thirteenth amendment: outlawed slavery

128.nineteenth amendment: gave women the right to vote

129.citizens united v. FEC: is a U.S. constitutional law and corporate law case dealing  with the regulation of campaign spending by organizations. The United States  Supreme Court held (5–4) that freedom of speech prohibited the government from  restricting independent political expenditures by a nonprofit corporation. The  principles articulated by the Supreme Court in the case have also been extended to  for-profit corporations, labor unions and other associations.

130.Engel v. Vitale: was the case in which the NY State Board of education required  prayer be spoken aloud in public schools at the beginning of each day. Then parents  sued claiming it violated the establishment clause, but they lost at the state trial so  they appealed to the supreme court. This is where the Supreme Court overturned  the State courts decision saying it was no part of the business of the government to  compose official prayers for the American people to recite.

131.Gideon v. Wainwright: this case’s outcome was that if a person cannot afford a  lawyer the state must provide them with one. the details of the case are that Gideon  had broken into a vending machine and stole money but was arrested. When he told  the judge he couldn't afford a lawyer and asked for one to be provided for him the  judge denied his request so Gideon defended himself and was found guilty. After  this, Gideon appealed to the supreme court saying that how can our government try  a poor man for a crime without a lawyer and that it was this that violated his 14th  amendment right to due process. the supreme court agreed with him, gave him a  lawyer, and retried him and he was found non guilty.

132.Mapp v. Ohio: this case established the exclusion rule which forbid the use of  evidence that had been obtained illegally in a trial. This rule had already existed  before but only in national courts, not state trials. why? idk. but the case details are  that Cleveland police received a tip that a person who was wanted for questioning  about a bombing was hiding out at the house of Dollree Mapp.When police asked to  enter twice, Mapp denied them but on the second time the police forced their way  into her house and retained her until they had finished searching. In the search the  police did not find the suspect but instead found illegal materials and Mapp was  arrested. When the supreme court heard of this from the state court, the overturned  the conviction on the account that the police violated her rights and the evidence  was removed from her trial

133.Miranda v. Arizona: the outcome of this case was that the supreme court  enunciated the right of a person who is accused of a crime to remain silent until the  presence of an attorney. The case details are that in 1963 Ernesto Miranda was  arrested on suspicions of kidnap and rape. He was questioned at a phoenix police  station until he finally came up with a written confession. In court though, the two  officers admitted to not informing miranda of his right to an attorney which is when  Miranda’s attorneys said the police violated his 5th amendment. The supreme court  agreed and the Miranda Rights were established in 1966

134.Reynolds v. Sims: United States Supreme Court case that ruled that state  legislature districts had to be roughly equal in population. The case was brought on  behalf of voters in Alabama, but the decision affected both northern and southern  states that had similarly failed to reapportion their legislatures in keeping with  changes in state population after its application in five companion cases in Colorado,  New York, Maryland, Virginia, and Delaware.

135.Wesberry v. Sanders: was a U.S. Supreme Court case involving U.S.  Congressional districts in the state of Georgia. The Court issued its ruling on  February 17, 1964. This decision requires each state to draw its U.S. Congressional  districts so that they are approximately equal in population. Nationally, this decision  effectively reduced the representation of rural districts in the U.S. Congress.

136.Gibbons v. Ogden: it was this case that established the commerce clause. The case  itself was about two individuals, Ogden and Gibbons, who operated ferry steam  boats. Ogden had a monopoly between New York and New Jersey, when Gibbons  got a license for operating a ferry in interstate waters and started competing with  Ogden. Ogden then sued Gibbons and the state of New York prohibited Gibbons  from operating in NY waters which led him to appeal to the supreme court. where  they agreed on the commerce clause which said the states have no say so in  commerce and that its a exclusive national power

137.Plessy v. Ferguson: the outcome of this case was the Supreme court ruling that  “separate but equal” was constitutional since the 14th amendment only required  “equal” rights. The case details are that Homer Plessy, who was 1/8 African  American, was asked to move to the non white cart of the train he was riding by the  conducter. Homer sued the train company saying it violated his 14th amendment. He  lost the trial and thus began Racial discrimination and the passing of the Jim Crow  Laws  

138.Shelby County v. Holder: the Court ruled by a 5-to-4 vote that Section 4(b) is  unconstitutional because the coverage formula is based on data over 40 years old,  making it no longer responsive to current needs and therefore an impermissible  burden on the constitutional principles of federalism and equal sovereignty of the

states.The Court did not strike down Section 5, but without Section 4(b), no  jurisdiction will be subject to Section 5 pre clearance unless Congress enacts a new  coverage formula

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