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UGA / Geography / GEOG 1101 / what is Geography?

what is Geography?

what is Geography?

Description

School: University of Georgia
Department: Geography
Course: Human Geography
Professor: Amy ross
Term: Winter 2016
Tags: Andrew, geography, 1101, uga, final, and Herod
Cost: 50
Name: Geography 1101 Final Study Guide
Description: Covers topics 1-4
Uploaded: 12/06/2016
32 Pages 7 Views 10 Unlocks
Reviews


Geography Test 1: Topic 1 and 2


what is Geography?



Topic 1: Intro to Thinking Geographically  

People, Places, and Culture

∙ Geography: to write about or describe the surface of the earth and analyze  connections between places and how what happens in one place affects what happens somewhere else (science of spatial relationships)

o Historical linkage between physical sciences and social sciences  (humans affect nature, and nature affects what humans can do) o How to think Geographically  

 Example: why did area where lions live decrease? Well, where do they live, in grasslands. Why do they live there, it is their meat  

market. If their habitats is destroyed (natural or not) they have  

less places to live. So, due to humans, habitat reduction has  

occurred.  

 Ask the questions- How, What, Why, and Where (maps can track  patterns like social and political issues and migration patterns  


John Snow was skeptical of what theory?



and social connections)

∙ What is located where?

∙ why are things are located where they are?

∙ What is the significance of this location?

∙ How things in the same or different places are connected  

(or not)? And the connections between

o Ex: Places close may be little connected like USA  

and Cuba, but places far could be deeply connected

like NYC and London

∙ Why things happen where they do

o Ex: why does Midwest say “pop”, Northeast and  

west coast say “soda” and the south uses brand  

loyalty (coke)? English is different due to the  

migration patterns of our ancestors. People in  

South Florida say soda, because of the migration of  

retired people.  If you want to learn more check out during prophase ii, a diploid organism contains how many copies of each gene?

o Ex: Because of slave population in south, there is  

African influence on southern English


how did john snow track miasma?



Don't forget about the age old question of annelidia

∙ Where something occurs can shape how and why it  

occurs.

o Ex: Why is Athens air quality so poor? First, think  

about location of Athens, what happens in Athens,  

and how location contributes. Well, Athens is highly

populated so there is pollution; however, it is  

located SE of ATL where there is high population,  

industry, and travelers which causes a lot of  

pollution that then goes to Athens due to it being  

Southeast, catching the downward draft.  

 Acquire geographic info by finding out where something is and  gather info on characteristics of where they are

Geography Test 1: Topic 1 and 2

 Organize info by grouping relevant notes, constructing tables,  diagrams, or MAP We also discuss several other topics like ■ Ex: an 80% free throw shooter shoots 10 free throws, how many are they expected to make?

 Analyze info by making comparisons, finding relationships, and  looking for connections between geographic info (what explains  the location and what factors make it a great location)

 Answer the why, what, where, and how questions based on data  o Thinking geographically helped John Snow use a map to illustrate the  infectious spread of cholera

 John Snow was skeptic of miasma theory (diseases spread  through pollution or bad air), suggested that it was caused by  human consumption of contaminated food or water  

 He began by examining water supply in the area. Tracked to  main water supply on broad street, which was also a common  stop for passing traders. Contacted all local residents to gather  info about deaths and where they got their water from. All  deaths were short distance from pump and they used the pump.  

 Took info to make a map. Scale=30in to a mile. Location of water pumps. Dotted line to represent area in which it was closer to  use broad street pump. Blacks dashes to represent deaths which were in clustering’s.  If you want to learn more check out clitocal

 Had pump shut down, but what contaminated pump initially?  Fecal content into soil that spread to water supply. This lead to  public sanitation and network of sewers.  

o Maps can illustrate:

 Spread of disease

 migration patterns

 social connections  

 social conditions

 travel patterns

 populate spots based on geo-tagging

 explain history

 political discourse

 current events

 Can track disease, and makes connections between race and  location of the disease

∙ Example: Whites and blacks have same causes of leading  death, but Blacks chances of the diseases and health  

issues are larger. So when mapped, heart disease  

mortality, chance of heart disease, and obesity, poverty  are higher in the same places. Due to larger black  

population in the south and urban cities.  

 Shapes how we view the world

∙ Example: red state/blue state. Hides more of what people  actually vote for. Connects states politically. However,  

blue states, not everybody voted for blue, most of the  

counties could’ve voted for red, but the high populated  

areas vote blue. If you adjust map for population size, by

Geography Test 1: Topic 1 and 2

county, both can affect how we view what and how many  actually voted for a particular party.  

o Location and Distance: can shape health, economic, political, and other relationships

 Absolute vs Relative We also discuss several other topics like According to the glynn article, what is the greatest threat to tribal peoples in africa and asia?

∙ Absolute

o Absolute Distance: miles ex: ATL is 90 miles from  

Athens

o Absolute Location: latitude and longitude. Ex:  

Athens, Ga 33.96⁰ N, 83.38⁰ W

∙ Relative

o Relative Distance: measured in terms of time, cost,  

and etc, which can vary at different times and  

different places. ex: Athens to Atl ab 60 mins

o Relative Location: conceptualized in relation to  

somewhere else  

ex: Athens is 90 miles NE of Atl

 Shrinking world

∙ People say the world is getting smaller. They do not mean  physically (absolutely), but relative distance it is because  time to places is shorter because of technology

∙ Speed in which info and money travels is almost instant  ∙ Consequences:  

o Lack of privacy

o Economic connection

 Political issues, cultural diffusion, global labor

market. Can affect competition and can  

spread disease

 Infrastructure connects world geographically and affects relative distance between places. ex: central Africa closer to London  miles than Australia, but, Australia relatively closer because of  infrastructure. Major cities are more connected than smaller  because of lack of access to.  If you want to learn more check out trecemer

 Some connectivity is due to history  

∙ Ex: Us and East Europe connected historically so they are  naturally more connected

∙ Ex: Portugal and brazil connected because of same  

language, know each other through ancestors, could be  from there, but immigration from Portugal to brazil this is  colonial connection

 Plane patterns are so that you arrive at your destination in AM  so sleep cycle is not interrupted.

∙ At dawn east coast builds up, night they travel between  west coast hubs. This means that world is less or more  

interconnected at certain times of days.

Geography Test 1: Topic 1 and 2

∙ Some cities more connected to others based on  

urbanization, industrial economies, and poverty (higher  standards of living=more interconnectivity)  

 Political connection and relationships can determine relative  distance (cost of calling per minute can be more for a place  closer than farther if political connection is better because based on regions, in region and out region shows interconnectivity) o Geographical Scale

 Concerns ratio between a measurement on a map and  corresponding measurement on a map and earth’s surface ∙ 1 inch to 1 mile

∙ 1/1000 or 1:1000

|_______|_______|

 To define an area of interest (changing scale of analysis can  change perspective of things):

∙ National scale-USA

∙ Regional scale-South East

∙ Urban scale-Atlanta

∙ Intra-urban scale-city neighborhoods

∙ Ex: Regional scale: evenly spaced

∙ Ex: National Scale: geographically concentrated clustered  in particular space; change of scale changes how we see  things, scale changes, not dots

∙ Ex: This can be helpful in determining blacks in states.  Georgia heavy populated, when you look at USA, When  

you look at state it shows its heavy it ATL, and when you  look at urban scale, blacks are concentrated centrally  

o Manipulating Data

 Data may also distort desired results. Population of a particular  cohort may be misleading

 Electoral basis can be affected bc majority population in small  area that is democratically dominated, but rest of state is  republican. Proves that Red/blue state does not accurately show  how NY feels, only how four counties do

Geography Test 1: Topic 1 and 2

Topic 2: Development of Cartographic Knowledge

∙ Maps are visual representations of the Earth’s Surface that are to be  deconstructed (read between the lines) and can express power and shape our how we view ourselves in the world

o Example: During the cold war, a map of world made in USA: the soviet  union would be red on the map (Eastern Europe and other places the  SU had taken over).Red: color of the communist and danger, so,  Subliminally that red color will make you think those places are  dangerous (not good; esp in our culture and some nature; but not  everywhere. In china red represents good luck)

∙ Development of the map  

o Aristotle: earth is spherical through vulcanism (study of volcanos and  earthquakes)

o Eratosthenes: calculated earth circumference within 0.5% accuracy  Eratosthenes determined the circumference by distance  

between the two cities (500miles) take the fact that a well in one city had no shadow to the bottom and the post in another city  

had a 7 degree angle. You know earth is 360 degrees and you  

know that 7 degrees is about 500 miles on the earth. So you  

take 360/7 = 50 and multiply that by 500

 Divided earth into 5 climate zones: hot zone at equator, frigid  zones at each pole, two temperature zones

 Map  

o Ptolemy (geography of roman empire): Map had more detail and  knowledge of size of Africa (explored and conquered by romans),  longitude and latitude, mountain ranges, ocean is split, china is  included

 had a greater understanding of the world and more concept of  china because of exploring and Europe had silk being imported  from China and gold from empire to china.  

 Has more of a knowledge of India because they became more  interconnected from trading and conquest of Alexander the  

great.

 Emperors wanted to know of other lands to conquer to become  popular and get money and needed to know terrain for this  

 Maps reflect context in which they were made

o T and O maps

 Shows political and intellectual power at the time

∙ Monks, priests and clergies were literate (religious people)

o Religious people, so the maps produced were  

created to teach about religion and glorify god

o Three continents (Europe Africa and Asia)

 Descendants of Noah sent to all three  

continents after they flood

 Circle=unending

 Three is powerful because father son and  

holy ghost

Geography Test 1: Topic 1 and 2

 The T represents the cross  

o Mappa Mundi  

 Jerusalem in the center which represents that they feel it is  center of world

 Map is flipped East is representing the north

∙ this is because the sun rises in the east so metaphorically, it is reborn every-day and light represents the heavens  

 West mapped as south

∙ sun sets in the west, metaphorically it dies

o Maps and symbols  

 Example: The saying “here be dragons” is because in old times  when they didn’t know something about the area, they would  place dragons to represent danger of the unknown  

o Muslim Maps  

 Muslim Scholars  

∙ Muhammed al-Idrisi and Ibn-Batuta helped advance maps  in Islamic world especially after the halted advancement  in Europe due to the collapse of the empire

 Islamic maps reflect social values and theology opposed to  European maps which shape your view based on religion and  trade  

o Growth of European cartography in 17th century shaped by several  economic, political, and cultural factors

 Geographical spread of merchant capitalism (voyages of  discovery)

 Rise of nationalism and nation-states in Europe

 The Renaissance and “scientific revolution”

 Development of the printing press

 (Re)discovery of “God’s-eye view” of the world  

∙ Idea that you are floating above the land and looking  down on it a mapping accordingly  

 (Re)discovery of perspective – invented by Filippo Brunelleschi  (1377–1446), a Florentine architect.

∙ Important for understanding scale, distance &  

representation of landscape; part of the introduction of a  more scientific view of the world

∙ It places the viewer outside the image

∙ It creates the illusion of depth

o You know that it is 2d but brain is tricked

o Vanishing point is where everything vanishes at in  

order to create 3d illusion (everything gets smaller  

to make sense of depth; size is manipulated)

Geography Test 1: Topic 1 and 2

 Number of points in a perspective relates  

how width, height, and depth function

∙ One point: width and height seen  

straight on and appear as horizontal  

(width) and vertical (height) lines  

∙ Two points: vertical (height dimension)

is only one viewed straight on  

∙ Three points: no dimension viewed  

straight on. Horizon is high looking  

down or low looking up, and third  

point at bottom of page

∙ Sometimes no sense of perspective is used, but  

conventions that shaped how artist viewed the world is.  o Example: if people are drawn bigger than a castle,  

then they are huge and not in proportion, so  

convention is that proportion is not important or  

that it is based through social proportion

o Important to represent individual on social status  

o Maps can use false perspective as satire

o Connections between conventions on world affect  

cartography

o Traditional Chinese art  

 Drawn from multiple perspectives, rather than single that  dominated Europe  

 Jinhua (ruled-line painting) – use of a ruler to give an accurate  depiction of architectural forms

o Mapping the world

 Different cultures understand landscape and represent it  graphically in different ways. This is where cartography and art  intersect

 Problems of distortion

∙ The “real” world: selections of features to map, choice of  projection TO Encoding/map making: Representation of  

features like symbol & color choice TO map  

∙ Map TO decoding/reading map (how is data understood?)  TO Perception of world (how world is perceived using this  map; seeing is culturally shaped; seeing is shaped by how brain functions

∙ Example: Optical illusions- seek to find meaning of  

random dots and once found, it is not unseen

∙ you map the same data using different symbols, this can  change your perspective on the data and what you think  is means

o Proportional Circles: bigger circle, bigger population

o Choropleth Map (something based by county  

example=population)

o Dot map: dot represents 5000 people for example

Geography Test 1: Topic 1 and 2

 Can represent geography of ethnicity- metro  

areas and more ethically and racially mixed

 Reasons for differences between the way the world is and how  we perceive it using maps  

∙ Perception affected by how map is made and who is  reading it

o Poor map-making skills (poor choice of color or  

symbols)

o Poor map reading skills

 Maps filtered through own social views  

(cultures see some maps differently than  

others)

∙ Example: terrible map could use same symbol to indicate  fire. Doesn’t tell you if it is big or small which is important  in how much it affects. No indication of when fires are. has poor scale.  

∙ Map is TERRIBLE without scale  

 The Global Grid: Determining latitude and longitude  ∙ Latitude: North south distance from equator

o Lines of equal distance from equator are parallels  (latitudes)

o Distance between each degree of latitude varies at  poles and at the equator because earth bulges at  

equator  

∙ Longitude(meridians): measures east west distance from  equator  

o No natural basis- One had to be made. It is in  

greenich because at time british was the most  

powerful military and political power so political  

decision determined prime meridian.

o Distance measured by degree of longitude varies  with latitude (smaller closer to poles)

o Absolute location represented by degrees

 Can be by minutes (degrees divided into  

time based units bc mariners would have two

clocks. And when sun highest in sky, you  

would set one clock to noon and leave the  

other in your port time. Eventually, time is  

later in east and early in west. The difference

between them get greater and greater)

o Time zones based on prime meridian  

 Time zones more or less follow the meridian  

but not exactly because each country gets to

decide which time zone it will run  

∙ China is one major time zone although

it crosses so many different zones

Geography Test 1: Topic 1 and 2

∙ Geographically doesn’t make sense,  

but politically they feel it shows unity  

 Other side of prime meridian is called the  

international date line

∙ Means the if you are on one side of the

date line, you are in one day and if  

you are on the other side, you are in  

another day

∙ Importance of understanding  

International Date Line

o Helps thinking about global  

events (Malayan attack on dec  

8 before Hawaii attack on dec 7)

o Example: Aliens land in NYC  

(located at approx. 75oW) at  

2pm on Monday Feb 1. Aliens  

land in Wellington, New Zealand

(located at approx. 175oE) at  

5am on Tuesday Feb 2. Where  

do they land first? 75⁰W +  

175⁰E = 250⁰ of separation.  

How many hours ahead of NYC  

is Wellington?

360⁰/24 hrs = 15⁰ per hour

250⁰/ 15 = 16.67 hrs ahead  

(17hrs ahead) So, when it is  

2pm on Monday Feb 1 in NYC it  

is 7am on Tuesday Feb 2 in  

Wellington

 Different Map Projections  

∙ 3d object to 2d object for easier storage, isolating a  particular part of the globe

∙ Maps determine manner in which we perceive reality and  hence influence our actions and helps with understanding  social standings

o Changes perspectives on world  

 The order in which what continent is  

centered, can change how far we think  

places are from each other, and can shape  

how we see countries and their social  

connections

 Example: visual connection between places;  

Atlanta to Tokyo: you think you would fly  

across Europe, but you would really fly west.  

You think inside the 2d context and forget  

about 3d context

Geography Test 1: Topic 1 and 2

 When certain countries are centered on the  map, perspective changes example: if  

America is centered opposed to the usual  

Europe, you would see that you would fly  

west from Atl to go to Tokyo

 If Asia is centered, it makes it seem as if it is  far to Europe from America  

∙ Maps and map Projections  

o Grid system used to portray globe

 Reference points:

∙ North and South poles

∙ Equator

∙ Prime meridian

∙ International date line

∙ Arctic and Antarctic circle  

o Arctic: southernmost latitude in  

northern hemi. Sun can be  

continuously above or below  

horizon.  

o Antarctic: northernmost latitude

of southern hemi where sun can

be continuously above or below  

horizon

o 6 properties of the grid

 All meridians are of equal length (approx ½  the length of the Equator)

 All meridians converge at the Poles and are  “true” N/S lines (ie they do not run to  

magnetic N/S)

 All lines of latitude are parallel to the Equator (and thus to each other) & are “true” E/W  

lines

 Parallels decrease in length as you approach  the Poles

 Meridians and parallels intersect at right

angles (90o)

 The scale on the surface of the Earth is  

everywhere the same in every direction

 Important note: meridians start at one pole  and ends at another (true north south);  

magnetic north south where earth’s  

magnetic fields comes in contact with earth,  

it moves

o Distortion of Map properties

 Conformality: shape on map is same as  

surface of globe. scale of map at any point is

Geography Test 1: Topic 1 and 2

same in any direction. Longitude and latitude perpendicular and shape is preserved locally.  Area: mapped areas have same proportional  

relationship to areas on earth they represent  Shape: conformal projections accurately  record shape, but distorts area. Cannot be  

both equivalent and conformal

 Distance: is often distorted on a map. Some,  distances from center projection to any place on map (equidistant)

 Direction: sometimes distorted but Mercator  shows true direction

o Different Projections=different spacial relationships  and shapes how we think about connectivity  between different parts of the globe

 Fuller map: projection of globe into 20  

different triangles laid out. Neither equal or  conformal. Several possible face  

arrangements. Interrupts map to preserve  

shapes and sizes  

∙ Can help show early migration  

 Cylindrical Projection: spherical surface to  cylinder

∙ Problems:  

o when you project the surface of  

the globe to 2d, the distance  

between parallels…one is  

longer than the other although  

they represent the same  

distance on the globe

o As you get closer to the poles  

you get more distortion because

only place cylinder touches  

globe is at equator  

o The further away from the globe

that the cylinder becomes, the  

more distortion

∙ Types:

o Equal-area Projection: preserves

areal relationships  

 Peter’s projection:  

meridians are straight,  

and shapes are more  

distorted than mollweide

 Oblique case:

o Mercator: Distances are true  

only along the equator. Parallels

Geography Test 1: Topic 1 and 2

and meridians are straight lines  

that meet at right angles and  

are equally spaced, but  

stretched at poles.  

 Distortion increases away

from the equator and is  

extreme in polar regions.  

Distorts shape and size

 provides true rhumb line,  

important for navigation.  

If you set a compass at  

appropriate angle, you  

will get a line that has  

same angle.

 Amplifies size of land  

masses and makes  

industrialized and more  

developed countries  

appear bigger than they  

are in reality. Suggesting  

their political power  

 Pseudocylindrical: straight and parallel  

latitude lines and evenly spaced meridians  

but meridians are curved

∙ Equal Area:

∙ Mollweide Projection: Meridians are  

curved except straight central  

meridian.  

o Interrupted mollweide: globe  

cut up in odd ways to get flat 3d

paper

o Goode homosline projection:  

latitude is straight and no  

distortion along central  

meridian or equator. Designed  

to minimize distortion.  

Interrupted so that either land  

masses or the oceans are  

connected. Good for world maps

 Conical projections: standard parallel is only  place of no distortion. This is where the cone  touches the globe. Distortion as you get  

farther away from parallel

∙ Standard parallel: Height of cone  

determines where the standing  

parallel is

Geography Test 1: Topic 1 and 2

o Ex: the taller the cone, lower  

the standard parallel (closer to  

equator)  

∙ Used for northern or southern (or mid  

latitude countries like US not those  

close to equator or poles)

 Planar (Azimuthal) projections: formed by  placing a plane surface tangent to the globe  at a single point (tiny)

∙ They are equidistant so:

o distances and directions are  

true from source point

o When centered at places other  

than poles, meridians and  

parallels are distorted  

o If centered on a pole, less  

distortion of arctic/Antarctic  

than Mercator

∙ If point at north pole, equator  

becomes outside circle and vice versa.

2 hemispheres represented separately.

If together, distortion is greater  

towards edge

∙ Used for tourism  

o The Great Circle  

 The shortest distance between two points on  earth is always along a Great Circle

∙ Ex: If cut at north pole, plane goes  

through center and south pole. That  

plane represents a great circle

 So every meridian is a great circle so  

shortest distance is always alone the  

meridian. Except the equator is the only  

parallel that is a great circle  

 Depending on projection, great circle may  not appear to be the shortest distance

∙ Mercator: Rhumb line seems to be  

straight shot and great circle seems to

be far and out of the way

o If Mercator projection of  

equator, the distance along the  

equator would be straight and  

the shortest distance

∙ Gnomic projection: the great circle  

route appears to be straight, but it’s  

not, and rhumb line are curved

Geography Test 1: Topic 1 and 2

o Different projections are different perspectives.  

Therefore, they can change how you see a situation

 Mercator: makes USSR appear big, better  

shape than most projections

 Robinson projection: compromise between  

equal area and conformal mapping

∙ Shape and size is still distorted, but  

less overblown than Mercator

 Peter’s Equal Area: countries shrink to true  

size, but shape is distorted  

o Map projections used to reinforce perspectives of  

globe

 Ex: Tradition in western Europe to put north  

at top because Europe at top and is to show  

them above everyone else. Reinforces  

Europe as political skew

o Cartogram: type of map that maps data and  

portrays size of particular area based on value of  

some type of data

Population Topic 3

∙ World’s population over the years (growth rate increasing, but at a slower rate). o Asia has always had about 65% of world’s population

 India is predicted to have highest population in the world by 2050, shows  significant change in population will occur as we emerge in the 21st century. India attractive to US countries trying to outsource because of low wages, India is becoming a major IT computer economy and native  English language  

o Europe: population is declining  

o Latin America and Africa: population is increasing

o 3 PHASES OF HUMAN POPULATION

 PHASE 1 (8,000 BC to 1750 AD)

∙ Agriculture Revolution: increased growth rate by 0.05% per year

Geography Test 1: Topic 1 and 2

∙ Prior to the ag revolution, it was a hunter gatherer society which  results in smaller population because no security of food  

 PHASE 2 (1750 to 1950)

∙ Industrial Revolution: increased growth rate by 0.06% per year  ∙ Change how society functioned

 PHASE 3 (post 1950)

∙ Medical Revolution: increased growth rate by 2.9% per year  ∙ Invention of vaccines and antibiotics  

∙ Geography of population change since 1945

o Rapid Population Growth  

 Global population doubled b/w 1950 & 1990; b/w 1950 & 2020  it will triple

o 85% of population growth has been in global south

 1950: 66% of Global population lived in global south  

 1975: 72% of Global population lived in global south  

 2000: 79% of Global population lived in global south  

o Most Growth is concentrated in URBAN areas in both Global South  and North

 1850: 2 cities worldwide > 1 million people (London and Paris)  1900: 12 cities; 1950: 83 cities; 2000: 380

 1900: 5% of world population urbanized; 2000: 47%

Geography Test 1: Topic 1 and 2

 20th century represents the urbanization of the world. Growth  in cities NOT bc people are born there. They are there for jobs,  

and job market drives migration  

 From 1945 to 2010 and predicted 2030, you can see the rise of mega cities in south east Asia

∙ Changes in population  

o Can Affect:

 Global focus of economy and power

 Global institutions (currently controlled by North America and Europe)  o Can cause:

 Environmental and land issues

 Issues in geopolitics

o Can be affected by:

 Advancements in Economic Structure  

∙ 1950’s:  

 Land environments

∙ Light spots on the map have less population density due to  

unattractive physical features like deserts, dry land, mountains

 Changes in organization and structure of society  

∙ Ag Revolution

∙ Industrial Revolution  

∙ Medical Revolution

Geography Test 1: Topic 1 and 2

Birth and Deaths in Population  

∙ Demographic Measures  

o Crude Birth Rates/Crude Death Rates  

 CBR= total number of live births per 1000 people per year  

∙ If 3000 people are born in a population of 150,000, the CBR would be?

o Convert 150,000 to units of 1000 by dividing it by 150. This gives  you 150 units of 1000. Divide 3000 by 150=20. So CBR=20 per  thousand or 20o/oo

 Rate of Natural increase (RNI): Difference between how many people  were born and how many people died (CBR and CDR)

∙ CBR= 27o/oo

∙ CDR= 18o/oo

∙ RNI= 9o/oo

 Total Population of Yr2 = Population Yr1 + Births – Deaths + Immigrants –  Emigrants

o Total Fertility Rate (TFR): Average number of children a woman will have  during child bearing years (15-49).  

∙ Fertility Rates in US

o 1900-1920: High fertility rates due to no control of fertility

o 1920-late 1930s: Fertility rates are very low because of economic  hardships the great depression brought on  

o 1940s-1950s: The Baby Boom occurred due to postwar posterity.  Record number of children born 1957=4.3 million

o 1960s: The birth control pill was introduced, and initiated decline  in fertility rates  

o 1970s: Legalization of abortion continued decline. Rates also so  low in these times because Women began to change their social  status. They wanted to work outside of the home. Increased social  state of women, lowered fertility  

o 1990s: Economic boom in late 90s increased birth rates  

∙ Changes in TFR due to

Geography Test 1: Topic 1 and 2

o War, technology, economic changes, and social changes of women affect fertility rates and so can cultural beliefs

o Replacement Level Fertility: number of births per woman that  will replace a population without increasing it (ZERO POPULATION  GROWTH)

 To achieve ZPG globally a fertility rate of about 2.1 is required  High TFR doesn’t necessarily mean a high population growth  rate  

 Can be due to a lot of people being born but a lot migrating  out

o Immigration stream is driven by economic factors

 Two streams:

∙ High skilled: very educated  

∙ Low skilled: higher in immigrant population  

 Comes from different parts of the world (most for manual  

labor)

∙ Mexico: only 5% of populations with high skills (so they  

will take more hard labor jobs)

∙ India: 74% of the immigrant population has a higher  

education and comes for doctors, computer programmers

and etc.

o Influences birth rates  

 Population pyramids of foreign and native born shaped  

different

∙ Bulge in native born represents the baby boomers and  

decreases right after because of the declining fertility.  

Then widens slightly again because baby boomers begin  

to have kids

∙ Foreign born population is changing; Hispanic population  

is decreasing  

o Implications: affects political votes, and more  

o Net reproduction Ratio (NRR): relates number of women in a society to  number of female children they have  

 Ex: a NRR of 2.0 means the next generation will have twice as many  potential mother  

 High NRR may indicate rapid population growth  

 What causes the NRR to not be reached?

∙ Men

o High-out Migration (for jobs)  

o High numbers of men being killed

o Men at war  

∙ Women

o In countries practicing FEMALE INFANCTICIDE, more girls than boys die before entering adulthood  

o High death rate  

o High-out migration

Geography Test 1: Topic 1 and 2

o Infant Mortality Rate: Average number of deaths of infants less than 1yr of  age compared to number of live births

 Usually expressed as a proportion of 1,000 (32 o/oo)

 Has significant impact on life expectancy  

∙ If you have a country with high IMR. 1 in 5 children die, then most  dangerous time to live is childhood. Once you make it out, your  expectancy increases

o Life Expectancy at Birth: Average number of years a newborn infant can  expect to live under current conditions

 What affects life expectancy?

∙ High infant mortality rate= low life expectancy  

∙ Low infant mortality rate= high life expectancy  

∙ Good health care for elderly= high life expectancy  

∙ Health issues  

o Africa: Expectancy is low due to AIDS and HIV is dramatically  decreasing life expectancy (heart disease, and TB has little  

impact). Crisis more urban than rural due to migration (younger  people, single looking for jobs) and higher population. This is why  south Africa’s aids rate is so high, people migrate to work in the  mines of South Africa (live in camps, diseases transmit because of  prostitution)

o AIDS affects women more than men due to polygamy  

o Reduction in production in a household with an AIDS death o Economic uncertainty on life expectancy

 If it is low, it can affect economy.  

 EX: Reduction in production in household with AIDS death;  Russia is low due to vodka increase, which affects economy  

eventually  

o Occupational Segregation  

 Life expectancy varies considerably by race and gender  

(specifically in South Africa)

∙ EX: Blacks live in dirty areas due to jobs, blacks= lower  

access to health care, farther from health care facilities.  

o Race and Gender

 Women live longer than men generally, because most men  work in dirtier areas. This difference is decreasing, but dirty  

jobs are still dominated by men.

 Different races life expectancy lower, due to poverty. Buys  cheaper food, which is bad for you. Also less access to  

healthcare and education

 Disparities between richer and poorer in the US grew b/w 1980 and 2000, tells us that there is a greater variation of life  

expectancy over time

∙ Wealthier Americans tend to live longer than poorer  

Americans. Despite advances in medicine and education,  

the difference in life span after the age of 50 b/w richest  

and poorer has more than doubled since the 1970’s

Geography Test 1: Topic 1 and 2

o Drug use

 Overdose rates increase linked to socio-economic conditions.  Rising workplace injuries are important drivers to addiction in  Appalachia and elsewhere (workers seeking to deal with  

chronic pain)

 Lack of access to healthcare leads people to abuse legal drugs or seek illegal  

o Child poverty

 Mothers have lack to good healthcare, child does too. Lack of  nutrition.

o Male and Female life expectancy  

 less in south and other regions opposed to others.

 The more purple the greater the improvement in life  

expectancy  

o Poverty

 Connection between poverty and low life expectancy  

 Looking at specific demographics such as seniors, shows us  this connection as well

o High Infant Mortality  

 Reasons:

∙ Lack of healthcare leads to mal-nourished children (pre  

and post-natal), problematic pregnancies due to poverty

∙ Youth of mother leads to higher infant mortality rates

o Related in part to lack of education (shaped by  

poverty)

 Highest portion of births from 20-29 had less than  

a high school degree.  

o Women in higher education tend to delay child birth

o Statistics: <20 to 24 has increased mortality rates, 25-

35 is much lower, and increases again around late 30s  

to 50s

o Higher infant mortality rates in south because Six of  

the 10 states where the highest rates of women age  

15 to 22 reported giving birth in 2014 were in the  

South. And people from 15-50 giving birth in poverty  

was higher in southern states.  

∙ Socioeconomics affects Life expectancy  

o Government policy and changes in policies have an impact across  the south and women in the south

o Chances of getting out of poverty is lowest in the south  

 Although we think everybody has an equal chance, these  

maps and connections prove that to not be true.

∙ Implications of life expectancy?  

o Provision of facilities for the aged  

o Fewer facilities for young people  

o Causes issues in deciding where to spend tax dollars (old people  or young people

o Doubling Time: time it takes for a population to double in size

Geography Test 1: Topic 1 and 2

 Ex: US=95 years (population will double in 95 years); Mexico = 27 years  much lower  

 Tells us about what is occurring in society and the policies implicated   What shapes this?

∙ HIGH FERTILITY RATES  

o Short doubling time is a reflection of HFR

∙ In-migration  

o Makes up for those with lower HFR’s and decreases doubling time  o Colonial connections affect where people leave and go to

o Median Age: Age at which half the population is younger and half is older  (the middle age in between)

 EX: 150 people lined up from youngest to oldest, so the 75th persons age  would be the median age

 Increasing Median Age (In US)

∙ Due to: Decreasing birth rates, and higher life expectancy  o 2010: the difference between the two sexes (Male= 35.5;  

Female= 38.1) is because women have a higher life expectancy  because differences are occupation (Occupation segregation) ∙ Consequences of Increasing Median Age (lower birth rates & higher  life expectancy)

o Impacts Social Security

 Social Security is pension scheme so that old people who can  no longer work can get income. You pay into system while you are working. Retirees that are living on social security today is off money that currently working people make.  

 Therefore, it is the portion of the population working relative  to those retired

 So as people age and retire, the generation that is coming  after them is smaller due to declined fertility rates after baby  boom  

∙ 1945=42 for one worker now it is 3 for one person

 What are socioeconomic issues associated with this  

∙ Retirement age could increase (set at 65 in 1935 because  life expectancy was around 70 and is now 67)

o People may relay retirement (older people work  

longer)  

o more middle age women in labor market do to  

changing work dynamics and stagnant wages (family  

needs more money)

o Impact on elderly people

 Dangers at work

 Less time to spend with family members

 Increased health cost for employers providing  

insurance? (more accidents can occur)

o Impact on younger workers

 Fewer jobs opening in the labor market

 Less time with grandparents

Geography Test 1: Topic 1 and 2

∙ Raise taxes

o Raise the rate of SS tax overall?

 Currently the rate is 6.2% on wages up to $118,500  

 An increase would affect poorer and middle-class  

Americans

o Increase the amount of wages on which people pay SS  

tax?

 Presently SS tax is only paid on the first $118,500 of

wages

 In increase on the cap would affect richer Americans

∙ Cuts in Benefits

o Would affect parts of the country differently

o Poorer Americans would be impacted more, because  

people in rural areas are more dependent on SS  

checks  

o SS has caused poverty in older people to decrease and

poverty in younger people to rise, but this can flip  

back if benefits are cut

∙ Solution = increase young people in labor force

o Encourage child birth  

o Encourage immigration  

 May be needed because out outmigration and low  

TFRs

 Immigration patterns (where immigrants go to work) are not sex mutual  and cause a lower median age (look at immigration details from TFR) ∙ This is because most immigrants come to work at a younger age for  manual labor and they go to urban areas for works (age specific  migration: old people move to Florida, and younger people migrate  in).  

∙ Higher median ages is where young people are leaving from ∙ AGE and SEX STRUCTURE: age and sex profiles help us understand a  country’s demographic structure and if the population is expanding, stable, or  contracting.

o Age Structure

 Dependency Ratio: ratio of those in the labor force to those who are  not  

Age 0-15

Africa

40%

North America

20%

∙ Implications of a high Dependency Ratio

Greater than 65 < 5% (40-45%) 20% (40%)

o If caused by lots of children, then it can lead to high rates of  population growth or that the area needs younger people to work harder manual jobs

Geography Test 1: Topic 1 and 2

o Govt Spending patterns: pediatric medicine vs geriatric; school  vs. nursing homes

o An aging global population will reshape the geography of disease o Sex Ratio: Number of males per females  

 Ex:  

∙ world- 107:100

∙ US: 106:100 at birth

∙ US: 67:100 age 65 and over (due to men’s shorter life expectancy)  Implications (what affects sex ratio)

∙ Health policy

∙ Widowhood- poverty (Feminism of poverty)

o Women enter poverty when husband dies esp if they are over 65  because loss of benefits  

∙ More men than women  

o Significant in-migration of male workers; sex specific (increases  age structure)

 Remittance: money a migrant worker sends home to their  

family

o Cultural preference

∙ More women than men  

o Lower male age structure can be due to increased women life  expectancy bc of occupational segregation  

∙ POPULATION PYRAMIDS: graphic representation of population dynamics  o Structure

 Divide population into 5yr cohorts by sex (0-4,5-9, 10-14, 15-19, 20-24,  and etc)

∙ Under15 = young dependents; 15-65 = labor force; over 65 = old  dependents

 Graph as a % of total or Absolute numbers  

 Shape provides important information visually (expanding, contracting,  or stable)  

∙ What can affect the shape of the population pyramid?

o TFR: increases and decreases will reflect in the pyramid

 1950s baby boom children are labor force bulge in 1990  

pyramid. Although TFR decreases, there is a larger absolute  

number of children born bc so many baby boomer children  

o Disease: AIDS in Africa shapes the pyramid

 Less women because affects women more

 Decreases total population  

o War:  

 Less of certain age groups, because they were the draft age  for when wars started-occupational segregation

 Causes low fertility rates  

 Germanys plan for expansion encouraged women to have  

large numbers of children because they wanted a population  

to live in east Germany and needed men to conquered other  

countries- Pro-natal policies.

Geography Test 1: Topic 1 and 2

∙ Causes echo affect because more people due to policies  

cause more to be born in twenty years after

∙ TFR Narrows during war and there is an echo effect and  

less are in the population 20 years younger

∙ US is higher after war because won-industrial prosperity  

for good economics  

∙ Larger cohort represents beginning of echo effect  

o Migration:

 Florida pyramid inverted because of retirees; more women bc  widows

 Texas: wider at bottom bc Latino pop higher TFR  

 College towns: in-balance in the 20s age group  

China’s Demographic Structure: impact of china one child policy  ∙ China’s One-Child Policy (world’s largest population)- impact on demographic  structure  

o Prior 1970: population growth encouraged

o 1970: gov’t introduced “Later, Longer, Fewer” policy – promoted later births,  longer spacing between births, and fewer births

o 1979: One Child policy introduced

o 1982: Stricter enforcement (1972 pop increase = 2.8%; 1983 = 1.4%) o 1984: gov’t relaxed policies in some areas  

 if had a daughter you could have a 2nd child after 4 yrs (1986: 1.6%) o 2015: gov’t announced 2 child policy  

∙ 1960 Famine- exported food for technology to increase industry and affected: o Population Growth low

o Birth and death Rates affected  

o TFR low  

o Affected because caused excess mortality and reduced fertility ∙ Successful-prevented more than 250 million births b/w 1980 and 2000 o 27% in 1975 single children by 1983 it was 91%

o 2012: TFR = 1.55  

o Cons:

 Created rural hardship: lack of capital meant ag was dependent among  millions of peasant workers-lack of children to work in field  

 Intensified the practice of female infanticide (deliberate murder or left for dead) – cultural aversion towards daughters (just have idea)

∙ Girls had to give away any property they possessed to their husband  and were not supposed to take care of their parents in old age. A  daughter’s responsibility to her family ended when she got married  and moved in with her husband, often in another village or town, and became part of her husband's family and helped care for them.  "Daughters are like water that splashes out of the family and cannot  be got back after marriage."  

∙ The Chinese Communist Party raised the status of women in China,  making it no longer such a bad thing to have daughters. But since  the one-child policy and economic reforms were launched in the

Geography Test 1: Topic 1 and 2

1970s, Confucian values have returned, making it once again  fashionable not to have girls.  

 Cultural preference for sons (just have idea)

∙ Boys are regarded as important because they look after property and inherit land.  

∙ Having boys is regarded as kind of pension system. In recent years,  pressures to have sons have increased as the Chinese welfare and  pension system has been dismantled and replaced with survival of  the fittest capitalism. In much of China, there is no universal,  government-sponsored social security anymore. Many rural Chinese  have no pensions.

∙ Confucian belief that male heirs are necessary to take care of the  family spirits. They care for parents’ spirits in the afterlife so their  spirits do not wander the Earth as “hungry ghosts”. Many Chinese  families worry that if there is no son no one will look after them and  keep them company in the afterlife.  

∙ Carry on the family name. Confucius: "there are three ways of being  disloyal to your ancestors. Not carrying on the family name is the  worst."  

 Rise of china’s sex imbalance (sex ratio)

∙ Total population: 1.06 M/F

∙ At birth: 1.13 m/f

∙ Under 15: 1.17 M/F

∙ 15-64: 1.06 m/f

∙ 65 and over: 0.92 m/f

∙ differences are result of female infanticide and sex selective abortion ∙ sex ratio should decline in first few years but doesn’t because men  biologically weaker than female infants so mortality high from 0-4 o sex ratio should decrease with age so that sex ratio from 1-4  should be lower than at birth- not case in china because of female infanticide  

o sex ratios different by provinces due to strength of  

implementation of policies based on residency  

 rural areas hold values more strongly, want inheritance and  etc.

o sex ratios doe first births is lower than for subsequent births  because ratio gets more imbalanced as parents get more  

desperate for a son  

o Implemented differently in different places –generally less strict as moves  inland

 Most large cities- only one child allowed  

 Rural Areas- three main variants if the policy  

∙ Type 1 provinces (strictest) : were most restrictive – around 40% of  couples were allowed a second child but generally only if the first is a girl.  

o Medium sex ratios most common in strict type 1 provinces

Geography Test 1: Topic 1 and 2

 these provinces are wealthier, and so can afford to flout the  rules

 levels of education are higher, especially among women

 traditional values of preference for sons are changing

 more people have pensions, making them less dependent on  sons to provide security in old age

∙ Type 2 provinces (medium regulation): everyone was allowed a  second child if the first was a girl or if parents with one child  experienced “hardship,” the definition of which was open to  interpretation by local officials-lot of corruption  

o Type 2 areas have the highest sex ratios for second-order births  and the overall highest sex ratios

o These are largely more traditional, predominantly agricultural  provinces, where bearing sons is still seen as necessary for long term security

o They are also not rich enough to flout the rules

o Usually has the greatest imbalance  

∙ Type 3 provinces: were most permissive, allowing couples a second  child and sometimes a third, irrespective of sex. (least imbalance  seen here like in Tibet)

o Provinces are sparsely populated and poor  

o Inhabited partly by ethnic groups who are generally less inclined  to prefer sons and less accepting of abortion anyways  

o Social consequences  

 Rise of phenomenon of “Little Emperors” (xiao huangdi) – getting what  they want when they want  

∙ Some employers have gone so far as to specify “no single children”  in job postings

 In some rural areas there are only 67 girls for every 100 boys  Lack of brides for men

∙ In 2005 there were 32 million more marriage-age men in the country  than there were women

∙ Rise of woman with multiple husbands

 Migration to the cities

 Increased “Social deviance”

∙ Because there is not enough woman for men. Men are not settling  down and having family. They are beginning to engage is criminal  activity instead.

o Affects future population  

 Reduction in female births affects the size of future populations and so  speeds up China’s aging process – this places pressure on China’s social  security infrastructure

 Total size of the working-age population will also be affected by the  reduction of population size

 “4-2-1 Problem” – one child is left to care for 2 parents and 4  grandparents in their retirement

Geography Test 1: Topic 1 and 2

∙ inverted population pyramid  

∙ retired group is growing and group working (being born) is  

decreasing  

 Growing dependency ratio  

∙ Core group of industrial workers (age 25-39) in china is shrinking  while non-working age population is growing  

 Will cause increase in Median Age

o Reform efforts  

 In 1993 Shanghai began to experience a negative natural growth rate,  and Beijing did in 2003

∙ 2012: Shanghai TFR was 0.7

∙ 2010: Beijing’s TFR was 1.0

 Beijing’s rate of natural increase dropped nearly 60% in 20 years ∙ 2009: Shanghai ended the one-child rule, allowing couples to have a  second child

∙ 2010: Beijing followed suit

 Government efforts to counter to sex imbalance  

∙ Sex selective abortion made illegal  

∙ More recently the sex ratio is becoming more normal  

Demographic Transition Model  

∙ DTM: the shift from high to low mortality and fertility through four distinct  stages and is based on the experience of Western Europe’s Industrial age (esp.  Britain)  

o Stage 1: Pre modern – High CBR and CDR and population growth is slow and fluctuating  

 Birth Rates high as a result of:  

∙ Lack of family planning  

∙ High Infant Mortality Rate: putting babies in the 'bank'  

∙ Need for workers in agriculture  

∙ Religious beliefs

∙ Children as economic assets

 Death Rate is high because of:  

∙ High levels of disease  

∙ Famine  

∙ Lack of clean water and sanitation  

∙ Lack of health care  

∙ War  

∙ Competition for food from predators such as rats

∙ Lack of education

o Stage 2: Urbanizing/ Industrializing (Early Expanding) – high birth rate and  declining death rates and population begins to rise steadily

 Death rate falls because of:  

∙ Improved health care (e.g. Smallpox Vaccine)  

∙ Improved Hygiene (“cleanliness is next to Godliness”)

Geography Test 1: Topic 1 and 2

∙ Improved sanitation (public works projects, esp. for water and  sewage)

∙ Improved food production and storage  

∙ Colonialism brought new food supplies (ex. wheat from North  America)

∙ Improved transport for food  

∙ Decreased Infant Mortality Rates

o Stage 3: Mature Industrial (Late Expanding) – birth rate begins to fall. CDR  continues to fall and population is rising  

 Late 19th/ early 20th century was a period of significant social reform: ∙ Curtailing child labor  

∙ Compulsory education  

∙ Poor relief (welfare)

 Growing Political Power of women  

o Stage 4: Post Industrial – CDR and CBR low and population is steady   Economy is settled  

 Fully developed Middle Class  

 Political stability  

o Stage 5: Declining – CBR and CDR low

 Birth rate is below net reproduction rate of 2.1

o What can Affect DTM?

 Ag improvements – declines death rates  

 Poor conditions for industrial workers – increases death rate  o Is the DTM applicable to the Global South?

 the model is based upon the European experience; applying it to other  contexts fails to understand the historically and geographically specific  relationships within which European demographic patterns unfolded  Different Cause of falling death rates  

∙ Death Rates in the Global South have largely fallen as a result of  medical improvements rather than economic development

∙ Death Rates in the Global South have fallen more quickly than in  Europe

 Role of Colonialism

∙ European economic expansion (and thus demographic transition)  was based upon colonial expansion

∙ Can we expect the former colonies to experience the same patterns  as the former colonizers?

On the relationship between Population and economic Development  

∙ Argument:

o Population increases geometrically – increasing by a constant factor

T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

2

4

8

16

32

x2

x2

x2

Population growth would b exponential

x2

  

o Society’s ability to produce food/ “development” increases arithmetically

Geography Test 1: Topic 1 and 2

T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

2

4

6

8

10

+2

+2

+2

+2

 Creates flat and steadily increasing line for food  production  

 If Food production and population is graphed together, you see that  population outgrows food and there is a surplus of population

o There must be equilibrium restored (through four checks)

 3 positive (post growth) checks: used in sense of once population  outgrows food, what will bring population back -  

∙ War  

∙ Famine  

∙ Disease  

 1 preventative/ negative (pre growth) check: creates a delayed crisis  ∙ Later Marriage  

∙ For Neo-Malthusians today: advocate use of birth control

∙ Critique of Malthusian Approaches  

o Malthus’s argument lacks geographic and historical specificity   It assumes the same relationship between population and resource use  everywhere  

o Population Growth does not automatically lead to increased resource use   Resource use = fPopulation + fAffluence + fTechnology

o Esther Boserup (1965) – Population growth may be beneficial   More labor for agriculture  

∙ Family level: more children to work

∙ Societal level: lack of capital means society relies on labor intensive  methods of agricultural/industrial production  

 Provides stimulus to scientific, social, and economic improvements  ∙ Key is too look at the relative productivity of labor  

o “every mouth has two hands”

o Neo-Malthusian’s largely ignore the role of colonialism and how the global  economy operates  

 Access to food is determined by how markets operate and how food is  distributed

∙ Rich people rarely starve

∙ 1,000 kg of food divided by 50 people

o 20 kg of food per capita

o 40 kg of food each for 20 people & 6.67 kg each for 30 people  Who makes decisions over land use?

o Neo-Malthusians ignore the role of science and context  

 Historically, food production has increased faster than population On the relationship between population growth and poverty  

∙ Neo Malthusians  

o Population Growth  Poverty / lack of development  

 Solution? Limit population growth  

 World Bank; international Monetary fund; many “developed nations” ∙ Structuralists (ex: boserup)

Geography Test 1: Topic 1 and 2

o Poverty  population growth  

 Issues:

∙ Who controls wealth and land?

∙ Who makes decisions over what to produce?

∙ Issues of distribution of wealth within the Global South but also  globally  

 Solutions to limit population growth?  

∙ Land reform – re distributing land to peasant farmers  

∙ Micro-credit programs

∙ Educational programs (esp for women)

 Is the growing population causing a decrease in per capita food  production as argued by Malthus?

∙ There is no clear cut link between population increase and per capita food production  

∙ Summary  

o Per capita food production has increased in Asia and Latin  America, 1960s-present

o Per capita food production in Africa is stable but below what it  was in the early 1960s

 BUT there are significant regional differences within the  

continent

o Per capita food production declined in Europe and the former  USSR in the 1990s, BUT  

 In Europe population was increasing

 In the former USSR population was declining

 (i.e., we see the same process in two very different contexts) ∙ Conclusion  

o Malthus’s argument about declining per capita food production  isn’t true all over the globe, and if population is declining and not exponentially growing, its not valid; therefore, increase in per  capita food production in Africa (problem of famine and  

development) is not the result of population growth

o Major problem is not too many people, but low crop yields   Why?

∙ Underdeveloped infrastructure

o poor transportation infrastructure means that  

chemical fertilizer costs about 6 times more in Sub

Saharan Africa than in Europe

 different places have better infrastructure so  

travel time is faster

o poor irrigation leads to inability to use water  

resources efficiently

o In Africa some 4 trillion cubic meters of renewable  

water is available annually, but only about 4 per cent  

is used due to lack of infrastructure and the technical  

and financial means to use it effectively

Geography Test 1: Topic 1 and 2

o food problems are exacerbated by poor  

transportation, infrastructure that leads to food  losses during transport, and storage

∙ Soil Degradation  

o Causes: over-grazing

o Soil erosion is reducing the amount of arable land  Ag activities (including techniques) can  

contribute to soil erosion.  

 Erosion is losing the top soil which leaves you sub soil and its not fertile  

o Desertification: most vulnerable regions are those  with low population density areas  

 Lots of land clearing which exposes land to sun.  becomes dry and is easily blown away  

 Issue is not that the desert is spreading, but that  is it spreading due to human activity  

 Shows us that low population density has higher  risk to desertification  

 Problem for growing food  

∙ MAJOR: soil fertility depletion and land degradation are  the major biophysical factors limiting per capita food  production on the majority of African small farms o Shapes inability of productivity increase

o There is a lot of nutrient loss

∙ Many pests are becoming resistant to pesticide ∙ Low economic status of women who produce bulk food o Women face problems such as lack of education and  failure to obtain credit

o Important because ag in Africa is done by women  because men transfer to cities for jobs or hunt. o If low socioeconomic state, they are unable to obtain  credit, which is important in order to make ag more  productive.  

∙ Lack of diverse crops (monoculture cash crops) ∙ Land ownership patterns – many crops are produced for  export  

∙ climate change is bringing new microbial diseases to  food-growing regions, along with more extreme and  unpredictable weather patterns

o The drier countries in the Horn of Africa, where  climatic variation and drought are more common,  show the greatest overall decline in per capita food  production, and the greatest variation between years

o In 1999 14 countries were subject to water stress or  water scarcity; by 2025 a further 11 will join them

Geography Test 1: Topic 1 and 2

∙ Recurrent droughts are also a major factor in the  

degradation of cultivated land and rangelands in many  

parts of Africa.  

o Drought increases soil degradation problems

o Soil degradation also magnifies the effect of drought;  

less moisture held in soil

The political economy of famine Topic 4

∙ Sahel (shore and coast to the desert in Africa)

o Arid, hot, strong seasonal variations (dry season and wet season) in rainfall  (higher in south and towards coast) and temp

o The Sahelian Monsoon

 Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) moves north during the summer,  bringing rain. It is at different places at different times of the year. Winter to summer = land warms so air warms. Warm air rises, so air pressure  drops. With lower air pressure, wind comes in from higher pressure to  lower pressure.  

o Rainfall Patterns  

 Rains less now than it used to because human activity is shaping the  environment  

 Impact of recent climate change:

∙ Rising water temperature (great barrier reef dying, glaciers melting)  causes decrease in strength of monsoon which decreases amount of  rain  

o Isoheyts moving south  

o Desert Locusts moving south: as ITCZ moves south, so does rain, which  makes locusts move south (because eggs laid in wet ground) and impacts  grain producing areas of Sahel  

 Increases crop failure like rice, millet, sorghrum, peanut, cotton, and  wheat

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