Exam 4 Review What is the difference between sex and gender? biology, genes, body, Soeta &oultural 10, hormones poles) expectations? Social values of bang aman / boy ) qinl, tooman How does biology play into gender? genes determine biological Sex & have impact on qeIf you want to learn more check out bod pod disadvantages
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nder typing/ a least V2 self concepts and fm envie neYther fury takes account How does environment play into gender? Pressures of meeting expected roles may convince one to try to conform to social standards, adults often endorse gender consistant beharior gender roles, stereotypes Gender identity milestones: 2yrs - clear 10 of gender diff (gendalir typing awareness of qender, valves behaviors) Tam aboy, play w/ trucks.. OU StudySoup e moles, stereotypes) parents, medio StudySoup wena Stud Study Soup • 3-6 yrs rigid gender role expectation most 3-4 yoo violate gender nonns intolerant of gender transgressions <6 19 ore genden- a typical info Phalke stage of devt. learns diffin de Opedius / Electra crisis School Age Children Gender roles Based on book, slides, and video.... en @ StudySoup What are some typical behaviors, thoughts of preschool children? Ginis wean dresses Boys are strongen have long hain go to work play wl dolls coup Cars, Trucks will not be friend peers who viotate genden roles crudysoul oup How could cognitive limitations influence toddlers into aligning with gender roles? Boys can wear bink tayo 6b rehes on etternal appearence 3+ understands gender may 4 ) bou might be a mommy 2. 6-stability 6 bovert but o clean that p playing wlruck o become boy 3 Gender stability What are some changed behaviors by elementary school children? mone qenden - stereotype flex ability, realizing gender stereotypic attributes are one aspecto human traits 7-13 gifs more > open minded Define and give an example of: StudySoup @StudySoup • Gender segregation PE, lunch bathrooms, prefen peens of same-sex othens ane out-group mid-late adolescense Boys spend more t w/ boys, visa versa q socializing near swings Soccer StudySoup & StudySoup Gender intensification (note: gender intensification is a theory that has been largely debunked by research) ch) = magnxheabon of sem er 1 pressure to conform to traditional penden noles CAMAY ! " ondeugeny more acceptable in q conform mascaline Candrogeny) competativ chess What are some environmental examples of gender roles that influence children through school? Boys that are athlehcare mone popular pectatons of na & Adults neenfone Se V-typed pay achytics obsenve parents boys > anger gir 18 -> Cappearence limitation FS Research that gender-stereotyped beliefs (conviction of differences by gender) are most prominent in • What gender in children? boys • At what school-age? 3- 139 Preschoolers > adults At what level of SES? to SES What race(s)? blacks white Expectations come largely from socialization. What are some examples of gender expectations from adults for: • Boys? strong, more coordinated, handien • Girls? udysoup soft, delicate, less alent, adults more responsive to girts on rence StudySoup stuos • Toys? dolls vs trucks Bic pens for women pink castles legos, balls, pink & purple dress up durk colors blue • School subjects? I writing arts vs math, science o reading Academic competencies? bous more scientific shmu lakon stereotype girls good @ math) diff. trealment & parental attit STEM field? boys eann 80%) bong wts that eann BS but 20% earn degree in Stem ma. Advertisements? qils / women cook clean, take care of the house Men wont >> make money Disney movies? occupations, toys, colors align w/ 6 Pocahontas vs Little Mermaid Soup 2: save / protect) chwelrous Seel adventonous 9 heed to be saved / rescused by boys expected chiv, seek safety protection StudySoup StudySoup we are also born from evolution and biological theory. What are some examples of gender Expectations are also born from evolution and bio expectations from adults from: 97% sex diff in behavion in mammals • Evolutionary theory? o hunt & compte te for mates rear children » StudySoup on kudySoup Study Soup • (Neurobiological findings? Particularly, what are neuro differences between men and women? dev. Cenebral contex Learlier 2.39 thicker corpus callosum (x connects both sides) < hypothalamus & < sex & agnession on supa androgens S o What is the driving hormonal difference between brain structure between men and women? Androgens (testosterone in o) What are empirical (i.e., demonstrated by research) differences between men and women? Be sure to provide conclusive sentences about these differences (not just say they exist): • Mental abilities? Binis mature & myelenate 2-3y can befone 07 a> or verbal abilites tas more, buto faster. o dev.p faster, but also prune fasten • Spatial abilities? oc 9 stereotype, ~ 95%o overlap onudysol soup • Temperament? o agressive hypothalamus much langen in men, R olence & agression testosterone • Development problems? or > have more DP gene he disorders, physical disabilities Sexual Orientation: mental retardahons • What groups refer to sexual orientation? EGBT QIAD) 5-6 • Estimates are typically under/over estimated in regards to the prevalence of homosexuality 30-40 % of sexual minorities come out. Study StudySoup Describe the process of coming out (lecture and in book): Accephing.onet own sexual orienta non, exploring som4y cont. To bring changes So far, research shows that sexual orientation is born/choice. How so (refer to book)? Youtube Clip: National Geographic explains the biology of homosexuality. • How does epigenetics explain the differences in the featured identical twins? ac hva hon 8 deactiva non of some genes DNA methysanon methyl groups dictate sexual preference body What is social cognition? abgonbing testosterone in mind gene vs hormones how ppi process, store, & apply info about other pels Social Situations. How cognitive processes play in our social interactions = how we think & understand interactions b/w pp) mind? (TOMY (4-5) How would you define theory of mind? (TOM) self & othens act on basis of own mental states (beliefs, desires, emohon se intentions even tho they may diffen = ability to thinks undenstand other ppl's thinking False belief occurs in 4-5 yo Ropes , and can be described as: in the juice box Pie seheelers? John Katy on the floun What is the False belief paradigm and how do researchers use it? Understand that others Ø know what you are Rose thinks Mom thinks Stages of theory of mind development thinking that Katy ate the muffins even tho she core John's 4-5yrs shoes 4-5 gain knowledge that How does emotion play into ToM development at this age? others can not know your tho (deceive mean monkeys parents discuss emotions w/ children introspechve thinking) Define Inductive discipline pointing to hold others feel What Cultural differences at this time for TOM? Anglo Euro peans cultures are individualishe & Hatentially hostiler USC thoughts & feelings as important topics of conversator. 7-8yrs Acceptance of diff interpretation understand 2 ppl might intenpret same event differently Define and give an example of: • Recursive thinking what ie (poken to trick other Thinking about other ppl thinking about oneself to what thinking . • Hostile attributional bias Crock paper, scissors) tendensy of interpreting other's behavions as boshile intent, when in fact Periods of Social Development behavion is ambiguous/ benign LL trying to get back out them on (revenge from Toddlers o invite to bday panty) Define and provide an example for mutual imitation Jumping in Toontown.crying roolen Use your book and the Youtube Clip All I Do is Play Part I to provide examples of the Jump w/ suddenly wants to following: o Language development pretend play begins sopeens Studys per O Pretend play aver mutta hy enjoyed acritesfantasy plau @mone sophisticated levels, emonon ional & Social role (5+) play w ules / age (4-5) make-believe blanc trip to 200) problem-solving more make-believe plans (trip to 200) Conflicts oven possessions, sense of self StudySoup Using All They Do is Play Part I and II: Why does play stimulate social development? Study Soup Preschoolers • Friendship formahon based on mutually enjoyed activites dvou StudySoup MUUT TUUN, are the amusing existential predicamente Study Soup Use your book and the Youtube Clip All I Do is Play Part I and II to provide examples of the following: © Sophisticated fantasy play expression 6 y social nole imaginary roles such as house Ô Development of social skills, ex. Role play, cooperation, gender role identities by ages, implement rules, play house o Emotion expression StudySoup • Provide descriptions and examples of all Parten's levels of play - Unoccupied behavior (1-2yo) looks around room while sucking thumb 5 Associative o engage in activity 2 - Onlooker behavior (1-290) watchin 1 ki w/ interest - Play stub = observation / focus olan house 3 of Solitary independent play (2-3yo) play by themselves -yo) play by themselves w/ toy diff moth (Ted builds a block towen) exchange Ho Parallel play working onverzle together; coloring together words, toys looking @ ea others work & agree Co Cooperative play work Together to wands Common goal Sports ) sam will be the What are major research findings with levels of play concerning social development? 1 2 if per sis later and a sign of 1-3 are wm Social 4-6 are social coope 7 less social development, 3 is $utul healthy • Research on playtime and recess det break from cognitive shmulation, stress releiver Taiwan & Japan 10-15 min break the focus & academic acheivement play / release needed School-aged children • Differences in friendship from preschool to elementary school (8-9) everyones my friend" vs few good friends laskng friendship begins in elem gender Brave seg - BFFs Give two examples of how types of segregation occur related to social development in school age children o 1 genden PE poys Spon S hkongen o 2 race Bethesons • Social status is determined how? level of peer rejections & acceptance. What is sociometry? How is it measured? Report major findings associated with these: social statuse o Controversial hi R h A Children who recene mos+like school level of ike least » most o Popular hi A lor children who neceive nomina hons per & rejection for a S like moru) least elke person o medioan Average children who – - fon least o Rejected ho Ahi A like mos V and most like lee 5+ >> o Neglected To A STOR children w least nominations fon e most releas+ >> sup StudySoup Study StudySoup StudySoup affected by peer rejection • How does rejection sensitivity play into social status? = ectent to which a chi determines ss Adolescents ppl who re sensitive to rejection more likely to interpret other's respon ses as hostile e signs that others likel respect • What are both positive and negative influences of: the o Peer influence (+) peens 1° F of socialization (-) adolescents en heed away from parent's world into peen wondd o Peer pressure a) peers can pressure away from influences/behavions E adol w/ weaker social skill susceptible > those w/ greaten Soc Skil • Difference between cliques vs. crowds si small group of L group & memberships based on shared friends who spend stereotype she traits time togethen a der close helation o ShipS High quality friendships many superficial friends. Why? Behen mental health to the long term & well-beiner • What is the basis of most adolescent friendships? How do they develop? genden & similarity: reciprocity loyalty = intimacy is more central in q Bully is defined as: = repeated, intenhonal,- achons : phys, verb, relational, eyben What are the most prevalent forms of bullying? Why? verbal & rela honal, handen to get caught ayse StudySoup Why is cyberbulling especially harmful? potential for adolescents to pancipate in or be victum 1. electronic mse-enn be sent to L group 2.cart hide B' e anonymity, more likely to do something they wouldn'do in victims face Gender differences in types of bullying? (see chart for reference) и > bu more e verbal & relational > more physically What are the different roles of a bullying circle? StudySoup To whom are most anti-bullying campaigns directed? Why? onlookers to take acnon inform authorities to stop crime Bully Followers want to bully, start 3 play leadership roles victim Defenders / Possible peef. dislikce bullying & help! try to help brictim, try. but do noming Study Soup Student bullied StudySound supponters / Passive s. agree wl bully but s do any thing, achve v openly support thiru laughter calling a tinto it, but o join in may on may not Show outward signs of Support ) Onlookers / Bystandens Stue ornvolve, jake stand on ppt in eithen firechon U none of my businesson let's watch & see what happens