BIOL 3301 Exam #1 A September 22, 2016 There are a total of 13 pages in this exam. This exam consists of 35 questions worth a total of 100 points. All queDon't forget about the age old question of unh economics
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stions are multiple choice and there is one best answer for each question. Record your answers on the scantron sheet, and answer only once for each question or you will be automatically marked wrong. Use a #2 pencil. Name_________________________ ID#__________________________1. A recessive allele on the X chromosome is responsible for red-green color blindness in humans. A woman with normal vision whose father is color-blind marries a color-blind male. What is the probability that this couple's son will be color-blind. a. 0% b. 25% c. 50% d. 75% e. 100% 2. In garden peas, tall is dominant over short. If you have a tall garden pea plant and you want to know its genotype, you should cross it with a plant that is A. homozygous dominant. B. homozygous recessive. C. heterozygous. D. tall. E. of the same genotype. 3. Humans have a gene, T, that is involved in muscle formation of the tongue. Individuals homozygous for one allele can roll their tongues, while individuals homozygous for the other allele cannot. If both parents can roll their tongues, but their child cannot, what can be said about the mode of inheritance? A) Tongue rolling is dominant. B) Tongue rolling is recessive. C) The parents were both homozygous, but the child was heterozygous. D) Tongue rolling is dominant, and both parents were heterozygous (Tt). E) Tongue rolling is recessive, and both parents were heterozygous (Tt). 4. In peas, axial (A) flower position is dominant to terminal (a), and tall (L) is dominant to short (l). If a plant that is heterozygous for both traits is allowed to self-fertilize, how many of the offspring would also be heterozygous for both traits? A) 9/16 B) 1/4 C) 3/16 D) 1/8 E) 1/16 5. Genes A and B are on different chromosomes. A dihybrid with the genotype AaBb undergoes meiosis. Which of the following depicts a possible genotype in a gamete? A) Aa B) Bb C) AB D) A E) B F) AaBb6. A pure-breeding female fruit fly with a yellow body is crossed to a pure-breeding male fruit fly with a gray body. All female offspring from the cross have gray bodies and all males have yellow bodies. Body color is likely a(n)________trait, and the gray allele is ________. A) Autosomal; dominant B) Autosomal; recessive C) X-linked; dominant D) X-linked; recessive 7. In the accompanying figure, the chance that individual III-2 is a heterozygous carrier is ________. A) 0% B) 25% C) 50% D) 75% E) 100% 8 and 9: Mendel performed the following crosses with the described result 8. What is the Chi-square value for this cross? A) 0.132 B) 0.197 C) 0.2629. What is the probability that the observed deviation from the expected is caused by chance? (Use the table on the last page) A) larger than 0.5 - conclude that differences are caused by chance B) larger than 0.5 - conclude that differences are significant and not by chance C) smaller than the 0.05 cutoff for significance 10. The P value is a quantitative expression of the probability that the results of another experiment of the same size and structure will deviate from expected results as much as or more than by chance. The greater the difference between observed and expected results of an experiment, ________. A) the lower the χ2 value and the lower the P value B) the greater the χ2 value and the greater the P value C) the greater the χ2 value and the lower the P value D) the lower the χ2 value and the greater the P value E) the greater the χ2 value; but the P value is unaffected 11. The statistical interpretation of a chi-square value is determined by identifying the ________. A) mean B) degrees of freedom C) average D) P value E) joint probability Answer: D 12. What is the significance of meiosis? A) creates identical daughter cells that go on to form the gametes B) maintains chromosome integrity so the progeny have all the genes of their parents C) allows free assortment and recombination of genetic information 13. Tumor suppressors are genes that ________. A) promote advancement of the cell cycle B) phosphorylate proteins involved in the cell cycle C) block progression of the cell cycle D) prevent apoptosis in normal cells E) activate proto-oncogenes 14. During meiosis I, when does homologous chromosome pairing and recombination occur? A) prophase I B) pro-metaphase I C) metaphase I D) anaphase IE) telophase I 15. A dihybrid has the genotype AaBb. The diagram depicts the chromosome composition of different cells from the animal. Which of the cells could represent a mature gamete? A) Cell G B) Cell H C) Cell K D) Cell M E) Cell P16. Flies with a particular mutation are unable to fly. When you cross the flightless females to wild-type males, all of the progeny are flightless. However, when flightless males are crossed to wild-type females, all of the progeny are wild-type. What type of mutation is this? A. X-linked gene B. Y-linked gene C. Autosomal gene D. Chloroplast gene E. Mitochondrial gene 17. Your friend maintains two strains of rabbits: one breeds true for white fur, and the other breeds true for brown fur. You cross one of the white rabbits with a brown rabbit, and all of the F1 hybrids are gray. Which of the following is most consistent with your results? A. The gene controlling coat color is X-linked. B. Coat color is controlled by environmental, not genetic, variation. C. Coat color is maternally inherited. D. Multiple genes control coat color, and they have epistatic interactions. E. There are two alleles controlling coat color, and there is incomplete dominance. 18. In a test cross between an AaBbCc heterozygote and an aabbcc homozygote, you observe that 8% of the progeny come from double crossover gametes. Based on the map distance between A, B, and C, you expected to observe 10% of the progeny resulting from double crossovers. What is the degree of crossover interference in this experiment? A. 0.20 B. 0.44 C. 0.56 D. 0.75 E. 0.80 19. Two genes, A and B, are 64 cM apart on a chromosome. How can we measure the genetic distance between A and B? A. In a test cross between a double heterozygote and a homozygous recessive individual, we should observe 64% recombinant progeny. B. If gene C lies between A and B, we can measure the recombination rate between A–C and C–B. C. Both of the above will work. D. There is no way to measure genetic distances greater than 50 cM.20. You cross a pure-breeding rabbit with white hair, long ears, and long hair to another pure breeding strain that has brown hair, short ears, and short hair. When you cross the F1 progeny to true breeding white haired, short eared, short hair rabbits, you observe the following phenotypes: Phenotype Count White hair, long ears, long hair 52 White hair, long ears, short hair 11 White hair, short ears, long hair 50 White hair, short ears, short hair 7 Brown hair, long ears, long hair 12 Brown hair, long ears, short hair 49 Brown hair, short ears, long hair 14 Brown hair, short ears, short hair 51 Which genes are genetically linked? A. none B. all three C. hair color and ear length D. ear length and hair length E. hair color and hair length 21. Leigh’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that is caused by a mutation in a mitochondrial gene, and it often results in childhood death. However, mothers who appear wild-type can have children with the disorder. Which of the following could NOT explain this phenomenon? A. The mothers have mitochondria with wild-type copies of the gene and mitochondria with mutant alleles. B. Mutations in nuclear genes could affect the phenotype. C. The environmental also affects whether an individual has Leigh’s disease. D. All of the above. E. None of the above could explain this phenomenon.22. There are three alleles for a gene: A1, A2, A3. Allele A1 is dominant to A2 and A3. Allele A2 is dominant to A3. If you cross an A1A2 heterozygote with an A2A3 heterozygote, what phenotypic ratio do you expect in the progeny? A. 1:1 B. 2:1 C. 3:1 D. 1:1:1:1 E. All individuals have the same phenotype. 23. You have a fly that is heterozygous for a recessive mutation that causes brown eyes and heterozygous for another recessive mutation that gives the fly a black body. You cross that fly to another that is homozygous for both mutations and observe the following phenotypes: Phenotype Count Brown eye, black body 100 Wild-type eye, black body 100 Brown eye, wild-type body 100 Wile-type eye, wild-type body 100 How can you best explain your result? A. The brown eye, wild-type body flies are derived from recombinant gametes. B. The wild-type eye, black body flies are derived from recombinant gametes. C. The two genes are completely linked. D. The two genes are unlinked. E. We cannot say whether the genes are genetically linked. 24. Don Juan carries a dominant mutation that he inherited from his father that makes him an excellent dancer. That mutation is incompletely penetrant. Don Juan has 100 sons. Assuming that this gene is the only one that controls dancing ability and that the mutation is extremely rare, how many of his sons should be excellent dancers? A. None of them; the mutation is incompletely penetrant. B. Some of them; the mutation is incompletely penetrant. C. Some of them; it depends entirely on the mothers’ genotypes. D. Half of them; Don Juan is heterozygous. E. All of them; the mutation is dominant.25. Which of the following did NOT happen during the evolution of cytoplasmic organelles (i.e., mitochondria and chloroplasts)? A. Organelle genomes evolved chromosomal packaging, including histones, that resembles eukaryotic chromatin. B. Eukaryotes absorbed photosynthetic eukaryotes in secondary endosymbiosis events. C. Chloroplast genes were transferred to the nuclear genome. D. Mitochondrial genes were transferred to the nuclear genome. E. None of the above happened. 26. A gene controlling fur color and a gene controlling eye color are 30 map units apart on the same chromosome. Professor Gallant crossed double heterozygotes with white fur and brown eyes to true breeding animals with black fur and blue eyes. He asked his student, Goofus, to count the progeny. Goofus gave Dr. Gallant the following data: Phenotype Count White fur, brown eyes 34 White fur, blue eyes 17 Black fur, brown eyes Black fur, blue eyes 36 As you can see, Goofus failed to record all of the data. What count of black fur, brown eye animals would be consistent with what you know about these genes? A. 0 B. 13 C. 30 D. 70 E. 87 27. You discover a mutation that causes lizards to not grow a tail. Heterozygotes for the mutation are tail-less. You cross two heterozygotes and observe a 2:1 ratio of tail-less to wild-type (tailed) lizards in the progeny. How can you explain this result? A. The wild-type allele is dominant to the tail-less allele. B. The tail-less allele is epistatic to the wild-type allele. C. The tail-less allele is homozygous lethal. D. The wild-type allele is homozygous lethal. E. There is incomplete dominance.28. Gene A has five alleles (A1, A2, A3, A4, and A5). Members of a family have a disease that is caused by a genetic mutation in another gene. In the pedigree below, the genotype at the A gene is given for each individual and the disease phenotype is indicated. Select the statement below that is most consistent with the pedigree. A. Allele A1 co-segregates with the disease causing mutation. B. Allele A2 co-segregates with the disease causing mutation. C. Allele A3 co-segregates with the disease causing mutation. D. Allele A4 co-segregates with the disease causing mutation. E. Gene A is not genetically linked to the disease causing mutation. 29. Genes B and T are part of a flower color pathway, and b and t are recessive null mutations of each gene. In wild-type plants, the B gene produces a blue pigment, and the T gene causes the flower to express the pigment. Wild-type plants have blue flowers, bb individuals have white flowers because they cannot produce blue pigment, and tt individuals have white flowers because they cannot express pigment. If you cross BbTt heterozygotes, what ratio of blue:white flowers do you expect in progeny? A. 15:1 B. 13:3 C. 12:4 D. 9:7 E. 3:1 30. Which of the following statements about genetic linkage is generally true? A. Crossing over is more likely to occur between linked genes that are close to one another than between genes that are farther apart on a chromosome. B. Genetic linkage results in the production of significantly more parental gametes, and significantly fewer nonparental (recombinant) gametes than expected by chance. C. Individuals that are heterozygous for two linked genes (AaBb) will produce genetically different gametes in a ratio of 1:1:1:1. D. Individuals that are heterozygous for two linked genes (AaBb) will produce roughly equal numbers of recombinant and parental gametes.31. You are consulting for a TV show that attempts to match adopted children with their birth parents. The TV producers have determined the allele of a mitochondrial gene carried by a boy, a girl, five potential fathers, and five potential mothers. What relationships will they be able to establish? A. They can determine the father of the boy and girl, but they cannot determine the mother of the kids. B. They can determine the mother of the boy and girl, but they cannot determine the father of the kids. C. They can determine the mother and father of the boy, but they cannot determine the parents of the girl. D. They can determine the mother and father of the girl, but they cannot determine the parents of the boy. E. They can only determine the relationships between mothers and daughters. 32. Gene A converts chemical X into chemical Y, and gene B converts chemical Y into chemical Z. If you create a null mutation in gene B, what should accumulate in the organism? A. Gene A B. Gene B C. Chemical X D. Chemical Y E. Chemical Z 33. Wild-type flies have red eyes. You isolate three different recessive mutations (A, B, and C) that cause the flies to have white eyes. When you cross homozygotes for the A mutation with homozygotes for the B mutation, the progeny have wild-type eyes. When you cross homozygotes for the A mutation with homozygotes for the C mutation, the progeny have white eyes. And when you cross homozygotes for the B mutation with homozygotes for the C mutation, the progeny have wild-type eyes. Which of the following is consistent with your results? A. Mutations A and B are in the same gene, but C is in a different gene. B. Mutations A and C are in the same gene, but B is in a different gene. C. Mutations B and C are in the same gene, but A is in a different gene. D. All three mutations are in the same gene. E. All three mutations are in different genes.Use the following information to answer the next two questions: The genes D, L, and Q encode the color, size, and shape of flowers, respectively. D_ individuals have dark flowers, L_ individuals have large flowers, and Q_ individuals have square flowers. The alleles d, l, and q are recessive, and the cause plants to have light flowers, small flowers, and round flowers, respectively. You cross a DdLlQq triple heterozygote to a ddllqq individual and observe the following phenotypic ratios: Phenotype Count dark, large, round 40 dark, small, square 50 dark, small, round 10 dark, large, square 400 light, small, round 400 light, large, square 10 light, large, round 50 light, small, square 40 Total: 1000 34. What is the order of the three genes? A. D & L are on the same chromosome, but Q is on a different chromosome B. L & Q are on the same chromosome, but D is on a different chromosome C. D – L – Q D. D – Q – L E. L – D – Q 35. What is the genetic distance between the L and D genes? A. 2 cM B. 8 cM C. 10 cM D. 12 cM E. 50 cM 36. Bubble in the letter you see here: A