Jessica Snider 11665814 11/14/16 NHM 210: Review for Exam 2. There will be 5 extra credit questions on the exam, in addition to the 10 bonus points possible for completing this review and bringing a hard copy to Exam 2 on Mon., Nov. 14. New material: 1. What is the difference between hunger and appetite? What affects appetite? (ThWe also discuss several other topics like etsu criminal justice
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ink about going into the grocery store when cookies are baking.) The difference between hunger and appetite is that hunger is the need to eat while appetite is the desire to eat. Appetite is a sensory or psychological reaction that stimulates involuntary physiological response. Hunger is a physical reaction in your body related to a naturally low level of glucose in your blood. 2. What are the three modes of therapy for weight loss? Lifestyle, pharmacotherapy, and surgical 3. What is hyperplastic obesity? Hypertrophic obesity? Hyperplastic obesity is when there is a greaterthannormal number of fat cells that are also larger than normal. Hypertrophic obesity is associated with insulin resistance and metabolic complications. 4. What are the guidelines for use of drugs (from NIH)? Drugs will not eliminate the need to change lifestyles, should be considered only after 46 months of lifestyle therapy, and they should be considered as an adjunct to lifestyle therapy. 5. What are the different categories of drugs for weight loss? Appetite suppressant 6. Who is surgical intervention for weight loss not recommended (Contraindicated for surgery?) Those with psychological instability, binge eating disorder, inability to commit to following a post operation diet, someone who uses and abuses drugs and alcohol, and those with severe cardiac disease with prohibitive anesthetic risks. 7. What are the different types of surgical interventions? Restrictive surgery and malabsorptive surgery 8. What are the benefits of meal replacement programs for weight loss? The benefits of meal replacement programs for weight loss are that they provide a structured easy to follow program, they give you the right amount of nutrients in the right amount of calories, and it allows you to take a look at your relationship with food. 9. What are the features of meal replacement programs (i.e., how do they work)? They narrow stimuli, control portions, calories and nutrients are defined, and real food is often used 10. Who would benefit from a meal replacement program? Someone who needs a high amount a structure, needs to rebuild their relationship with food, and has had multiple unsuccessful attempts to lose weight. 11. What are some simple counseling strategies used in weight loss? Use the 5 A’s which are ask, assess, advise, assist, and arrange.12. What are factors to consider when working with clients? The factors to consider when working with clients is the way you speak to them, what works best for them, how to understand them and their eating habits. 13. Eating Disorders – what are the different levels of prevention that healthcare providers can apply to his/her practice? What are the Danger Zones for providers to consider? Universal prevention, Selective prevention, and Targeted/Indicated prevention Danger zones that providers need to consider are the setting or agreeing to artificially low weight, supporting restrictive eating, share personal concerns about weight, food, body image, and make negative statements about “fat” From the Rec Center lecture on Body Composition (notes are posted on BlackBoard): 14. What are the various methods for body composition assessment? How does each method work? (For example, the Bod Pod is based on air displacement.) What are the advantages/disadvantages of each method? Skinfold: (gives you an estimate of your current percent body fat). Assumes that your total body fat is subcutaneous, uses 3 sites on the body for measurement BodPod: gives an estimate of your current lean & fat mass percentages, estimated RMR, & caloric recommendations; measurements obtained through air displacement Hydrodensitometry: measures body composition based on Archimedes’ principle; disadvantage is that the testing process can be lengthy & uncomfortable due to being fully submersed for a period of time DEXA: used to diagnose osteoporosis by measuring bone mineral density; body fat is acquired from this assessment & help determine potential risks of developing osteoporosis Microfit: a computerized assessment used to assess each component of fitness; gives printable date & elaborate explanations of where you fall in each category The following material is from Exam 1 and could be on Exam 2: The Exchange System values only (for example, 1 Starch = 80 kcal, 15g CHO, 3g Pro, 0g Fat) What are common problems w/the typical American diet? Excess fat, excess of fast of food & processed food, excess of sugar, too little fiber & whole foods, and eating on an irregular schedule What are the six classes of nutrients? What foods fall into these classes? (Know what is considered a carb/pro/fat) Carbohydrate (sugar & fruits; starches & vegetables), fat (butter, fat in meats, oils, mayonnaise, sour cream), protein (meats, eggs, milk, beans, & some veggies), vitamins (fator watersoluble), minerals (major or trace), and water What are the AMDR ranges for fat, carb, protein? Protein (1035%), Fat (2035%), and Carbohydrate (4565%)What are the functions of each of these macronutrients? Fat supplies energy, insulation, protection & transportation; Carbohydrates supply energy, and glycogen; Protein builds, repair, & maintain tissue What are the functions and characteristics of vitamins? Of minerals? Vitamins are fator watersoluble, destructible, and catalyst in the many chemical reactions that make up the metabolism; Minerals are indestructible but can bind to substances that make it hard for the body to absorb them. What do the DRI values include? EAR’s (average amount of a nutrient that appears sufficient for half the population), RDA’s (recommended intake based on what is known about the nutrient’s estimated requirements), Adequate Intakes (a value used as a guide for nutrients with insufficient scientific data to set EAR), Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (upper level that appears), and EER (average dietary energy intake that will maintain energy balance in person who has a healthy body weight & level of physical activity) What are the advantages/disadvantages of the various methods for collecting dietary intake? A 24hour recall is retrospective (going back in time) vs a 3Day Food Record, which is prospective, going forward in time. Advantages are that it’s a look into what they eat, when they eat it, and where they eat it; Disadvantages are that the client could be lying on it, can’t remember exactly, not detailed. What are the BMI ranges for a healthy weight, overweight and obese? Be able to calculate BMI (example below). Underweight: <18.5, Healthy: 18.524.9, Overweight: 25.029.9, Obese: >30 What are waist circumference values that indicate risk for heart disease? Pay attn. to those used in the Natl Cholesterol Education Program. Men that are greater than 40 inches and women that have a waist greater than 35 inches are at risk. What are the desirable, at borderline risk and high risk for blood pressure and blood lipids? Desirable is less than 200, borderline is 200239 and high is greater than 240 for blood lipids; blood pressure desirable less than 120/80, borderline is 12039/8089, and high is greater than 140/90 Risk factors for hypertension? Risk factors for Metabolic Syndrome? Risks factors for hypertension are smoking, high blood lipids, diabetes, gender, age, genetics, obesity, & ethnicity; Risk factors for metabolic syndrome are increased waist circumference, abnormal blood lipids, increased pressure, & increased fasting glucose Other issues related to weight? Infertility, polycystic ovary syndrome, osteoarthritis, sleep apnea, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, & certain cancers THESE ARE SAMPLE CALCULATIONS ONLY Calculate grams carbohydrate in a 1500 kcal meal plan, if planning 60% of kcalories from carbohydrate: (can be done for all macronutrients!)Remember – Carbohydrate & Protein both yield 4 kcal/gram; Fat yields 9 kcal/gram 1500 x .60 = 900 kcals from carbohydrate To get grams carbohydrate: 900/4 = 225 grams carbohydrate Convert body weight in pounds to kilograms = Divide pounds by 2.2 Example: 185 pounds/ 2.2 = 84 kg Convert height in inches to centimeters: Multiply inches x 2.54 Example: 5’5” = 65 inches = 165.1 cm Convert height in inches to meters (as for Body Mass Index): Divide inches by 39.37 Example: 5’5” = 65 inches = 1.65 m Calculate Body Mass Index (BMI): BMI = Wt in kilograms/height in meters squared Example: Weight = 210 lbs./2.2 = 95.5 kg Height = 5’5” (65 inches)/39.37 = 1.65; 1.65 x 1.65 = 2.72 meters squared 95.5/2.72 = 35 BMI The Exchange System (Appendix C): Sample calculations using the Exchange System – May be Extra Credit only. EXAMPLE 1: 2 pancakes + 1 small apple + 1 (8 oz) cup fatfree (skim) milk Exchanges: 2 Starch + 1 Fruit + 1 FatFree Milk 2 Starch = 160 kcals, 30 g Carbohydrate, 6 g Protein, 0g Fat 1 Fruit = 60 kcals, 15 g Carbohydrate, 0 g Protein, 0 g Fat 1 FatFree Milk = 90 kcals, 12 g Carbohydrate, 8 g Protein, 0 g Fat TOTALthis meal contains: 310 kcals, 57 g Carbohydrate, 14 g Protein, 0 g Fat EXAMPLE 2: 2/3 cup rice + 3 ounces boneless, skinless chicken breast, ½ cup cooked green beans Exchanges: 2 Starch + 3 Very Lean Meat + 1 Vegetable 2 Starch = 160 kcals, 30 g Carbohydrate, 6 g Protein, 0g Fat3 Very Lean Meat = 105 kcals, 0 g Carbohydrate, 21 g Protein, 3 g Fat 1 Vegetable = 25 kcals, 5 g Carbohydrate, 2 g Protein, 0 g Fat TOTALthis meal contains: 290 kcals, 35 g Carbohydrate, 29 g Protein, 3 g Fat