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UGA / Psychology / PSYC 1101 / What refers to the rules of a language?

What refers to the rules of a language?

What refers to the rules of a language?


School: University of Georgia
Department: Psychology
Course: Elementary Psychology
Professor: Kara dyckman
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Psychology
Cost: 50
Name: Elementary Psychology Final Exam Study Guide
Description: This study guide covers what will be on our last test.
Uploaded: 12/06/2016
16 Pages 237 Views 12 Unlocks

Intro to Psychology Final Exam Study Guide  

What refers to the rules of a language?

Developmental Psychology  

C. Post Natal Development

1. Physical Development

2. Cognitive Development

A. Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Level  

B. Language Development  

∙ Humans naturally communicate through language  

o Language: using words that mean something  

∙ All things related to language development are discussing spoken  

language, not written  

o Phonemes: basic units of sound in a specific language that  If you want to learn more check out Which procedures ensure the balance between democracy and fundamental rights?

distinguish one word from another  

▪ Basically like accents  

What does the "intern's syndrome" express?

o When you are born, you have lots of connections in your brain. If  

you use them they grow stronger. If you don’t, they grow weaker.  If you want to learn more check out What are the application of graph?

This is why it’s easier to learn languages when we are young  

▪ The sounds your parents use/make, your brain makes  

connections and they get strengthened the more you are  

exposed to it  

▪ This goes the same for sound: your brain learned how to  We also discuss several other topics like What is the most important legislative power that the president has?

differentiate sounds of a specific language but can’t  

differentiate sounds of new languages  

o Morphemes: smallest lingual unit that carries a sematic  


▪ Generally, a collection of phonemes

What do you call the fear of something and having an irrational avoidance behavior?

o Grammar: rules of a language We also discuss several other topics like Is retained earnings an asset?
We also discuss several other topics like Who is nicolaus steno?

▪ Semantics: how you combine sounds (phenomes) in a  

language to make words

▪ Syntax: word order and how to make words of a language  

fit together to make sense  

∙ Example:

o Adjectives go before nouns in English

o Adjectives go after nouns in Spanish  

o If you put a bunch of kids together that speak a different  

language, they often teach each other parts if not all of their  

language after long exposure  

∙ Parts of Language  

∙ Patterns of Language Development  

o Kids learn a language at about the same pace  

o All human babies born make the same sounds (doesn’t matter  

what culture) for the first 6 months

Intro to Psychology Final Exam Study Guide  We also discuss several other topics like How to decrease cancer risk?

o At 8 months, babies aren’t talking yet but they are making  

phonemes, rhythm + intonation of their native language  

▪ Even occurs when speaking nonsense, English speaking  

parents use English phonemes  

o At 12 months, says single words

▪ These single words are most always nouns  

▪ They understand the word better than they are able to  

speak it

o 18-20 months, babies can put words together

o 2 years old: vocabulary of about 270 words  

o 3 or 4 years old: making sentences, telegraphic speech, begins  

acquisition of grammatical rules

▪ Babbling stage: makes a bunch of sounds

∙ Early: sounds of all language

∙ Late: sounds of their native language

▪ 1-word stage

▪ 2-word stage

3. Social Development  

∙ Social interactions between parents, peers, and kids

A. Attachments and Bonding  

a. Parents are emotionally bonded to their kids  

b. Kids are emotionally attached to their parents (and/or caregiver)  

c. Measuring Attachments  

i. The “strange situation” test

ii. Researchers will put the mom and kid in a room with toys  

alone. Then they have a stranger walk in and see how the  

kids react. If it’s scary, some kids go to their mom, some  

kids go in opposite direction of their mom

iii. Usually given to kids when they are 2 or 3 years old  

because they have developed a specific attachment by  


d. Development of Specific Attachments  

i. Preference for human faces: when just a few months old,  

babies will smile when they see any human face whether it  

is familiar or not  

ii. Emergence of “stranger anxiety” and “preference for  

mommy and daddy”  

1. Scared of strangers, only likes Mom + Dad

2. Only want mom and dad but kid won’t cry if their  

parents aren’t there

iii. Separation Anxiety: don’t like strangers (stranger anxiety),  

have developed object permanence and will cry if mom  

and dad aren’t there  

e. Types of Attachment Styles

Intro to Psychology Final Exam Study Guide  

i. 60-65% of infants are securely attached to their primary  


1. Secure Attachment: kids are securely attached to  

their primary care giver. In the strange situation  

test, they are secure and happy when their mom is  

in the room. When mom leaves the baby, it  

experiences separation anxiety and cries  

a. When mom comes back, she comforts the  

baby and makes it feel better. When a  

stranger is in the room, the babies go to  

their mom  

f. Insecure or Anxious Attachment  

i. Avoidant: the child avoids caregiver

1. When in a room with a caregiver, the kid doesn’t  

care, they just play with toys. When the caregiver  

leaves, the baby doesn’t care  

2. Caregiver comes and goes but baby still doesn’t  


3. If something scary happens, the kid goes in the  

opposite direction of the caregiver (avoids them)  

ii. Ambivalent: having mixed feelings or contradictory ideas  

about something or someone  

1. When parents leave the room, the baby cries out of  

separation anxiety. When parents come back, the  

baby goes to the parents but cries even more so it  

can be consoled  

Psychological Disorders (Mental Illness)  

1. General Info

a. Definition

i. Thoughts, feelings, or behaviors that are dysfunctional (or maladaptive)  and/or distressing to the individual  

ii. Abnormal?  

1. Basically means not usual  

a. However, a lot of these disorders are not unusual, they’re  


i. Idea that mental illness is “not common” is wrong 

iii. Dangerous?

1. Common for people to think mentally ill people are dangerous but  

this isn’t always true

2. Depressed people could be a danger to themselves  

b. The “diathesis-stress model

i. A psychological theory that attempts to explain behavior as  

predisposition vulnerability together with stress from life experiences

Intro to Psychology Final Exam Study Guide  

ii. Asserts that if the combination of the predisposition and the stress  

exceeds a threshold, the person will develop a disorder  

iii. Antithesis: consider how susceptible you are to the problem (did used  you do something for your ex that you still do that makes you think of  

them and makes you sad?)  

iv. Stress (trigger): what triggers it (exposure)  

v. The term stress, in this case, refers to a trigger

vi. Psychological Stress: post-traumatic stress disorder – a major event/crisis  can trigger post-traumatic stress disorder which can make them  

susceptible for depression (antithesis)  

1. For most people with depression, something happens in their life  

to cause them to have this  

c. Risk vs. Resilience  

i. Has to do with the diathesis stress model

ii. Risk increases diathesis

iii. Resilience (like therapy) decreases diathesis  

d. Prevalence of Psychological Disorders

i. 35 to 50% of people in the US will have any psychological disorders  

1. Doesn’t necessarily mean this is a severe problem

2. When looking at different cultures, there are different levels of  

mental illness

a. Depression and anxiety are much more common in the US  

than any other countries  

i. About 1 in 4 women have depression

1. Twice as common in women than men

ii. About 1 in 3 men are diagnosed with substance  


iii. Universally, anxiety disorders/problems are more  

common in women than men  

ii. Increasing Prevalence  

1. People are becoming more depressed and anxious in the US  

a. People in the US don’t learn how to cope with stress as  

well as people in other cultures 

b. People in the US work much more than in other countries  

e. The “Intern’s Syndrome”  

i. Medical school students often get this  

ii. Belief that one has the disease that they are studying (relates to  


iii. The same thing happens when you describe a mental illness to someone.  The person begins to think that they have that illness

iv. Test anxiety disorder: getting nervous before a test. Now, this happens to  just about everyone, but it’s only considered serious if you are getting  

nervous to the point where it affects your performance to the point that  you can’t function

Intro to Psychology Final Exam Study Guide  

2. Categories

a. Sleep disorders  

b. Anxiety disorders

i. There are many different anxiety disorders but they all have something in  common

ii. Most common disorder group

iii. Phobia: to have a fear of something and having an irrational avoidance  behavior (ex: behavior does not match the objective dangers of the  


1. Example: Afraid to hold a toy snake (irrational because it’s a toy  

and can’t hurt you)  

a. Dysfunctional: affects normal life function – won’t even  

touch a toy snake

b. Non-dysfunctional: if someone was afraid of flying like  

someone is afraid of snakes, they’d still get on a plane  

because they need to get somewhere

2. Categories

a. Animals/insects

i. Most of the time, something happens in childhood  

to cause this phobia  

ii. Often is a diathesis from childhood  

b. Natural environment

i. Ex: fear of the dark, thunder phobia, hydrophobia,  


1. Types of acrophobia: mane made (like  

buildings) and the other is natural /  


c. Blood/injection/injury  

i. People with this phobia avoid certain activities or  

people like doctors who give shots

1. 75% of people with this phobia faint or lose  

consciousness when exposed to these  


a. *this does not happen with any  

other phobia category  

d. Situations (non-social)

e. Social situations

3. Treatments

a. Medication

i. There are lots of anti-anxiety medications that  

block neurotransmitters that make you anxious  

ii. If a person takes an anti-anxiety medication to  

make them not anxious, they still have the phobia

Intro to Psychology Final Exam Study Guide  

(irrational fears), the medication just helps their  


b. Exposure and Escape (Response) Prevention

i. Comes from the basic idea that with this  

treatment, you expose people to what they’re  

phobic about and prevent their natural response  

Psychological Disorders (Mental Illness)  

1. General Info

a. Definition

i. Thoughts, feelings, or behaviors that are dysfunctional (or maladaptive)  and/or distressing to the individual  

b. Abnormal?  

i. Basically means not usual  

1. However, a lot of these disorders are not unusual, they’re  


a. Idea that mental illness is “not common” is wrong 

2. Categories

a. Anxiety Disorders

i. Phobia  

1. Categories

a. Animals/insects

b. Natural environment

c. Blood/injection/injury  

d. Situations (non-social)

e. Social situations

2. Treatments

a. Medication

i. There are lots of anti-anxiety medications that  

block neurotransmitters that make you anxious  

ii. If a person takes an anti-anxiety medication to  

make them not anxious, they still have the phobia  

(irrational fears), the medication just helps their  


b. Exposure and Escape (Response) Prevention

i. Comes from the basic idea that with this  

treatment, you expose people to what they’re  

phobic about and prevent their natural response  

1. Fear hierarchy  

a. What you fear most to least in order

b. Rank order things that you are  

anxious about

Intro to Psychology Final Exam Study Guide  

i. Right now, most of your  

anxiety probably comes from  

school, friends, family, etc.  

ii. Fear hierarchy from school:  

exams, studying, papers, last  

minute homework, extra  


2. Relaxation Techniques  

a. Making yourself relax when feeling  

anxiety for something. Some people  

do deep breathing, meditation, etc.  

3. Gradual exposure  

a. Combine fear hierarchy and  

relaxation technique in gradual  

expose. You’ll be exposed to what’s  

at the bottom of the list on the  

hierarchy. First, show you a picture  

of a dead toy snake because it’s on  

the bottom of the list.  

b. Systematic Desensitization:  

desensitize you to what you are  

afraid of but not just exposing you  

to it  

c. Combination of gradual exposure  

and medication helps a ton  

ii. Panic Attack  

1. An anxiety attack, for lack of a better word  

2. Phobic vs. Panic:  

a. In both, your heart and breathing rate go up and you feel  


b. Phobic reactions are always in reaction to some specific  

thing (snakes cause a phobic attack)  

c. Anxiety attacks come from feeling a lot of anxiety for a  

specific thing

i. They can come out of the blue

3. Panic Related Disorder  

a. If someone has recurring panic attacks, they’ll be  

diagnosed with a panic related disorder  

b. Panic Attack

i. Everyone’s first panic attack comes out of nowhere


c. Panic Disorder

d. Agoraphobia

Intro to Psychology Final Exam Study Guide  

i. People with panic related disorders most often  

have agoraphobia as well as panic attacks or panic  


ii. Definition: an extreme irrational fear of public  

spaces or enclosed public spaces  

iii. Comes from fear of having a panic attack and being  

somewhere where it would be dangerous or  

embarrassing to have one  

iv. They’ll go places with people they trust, just not  

alone. This is in case they have a panic attack;  

someone they trust is there to help them  

1. If you had your first panic attack in a mall,  

you won’t go back there because it was  

embarrassing and you don’t want to have  

another one  

iii. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

1. Obsessive vs compulsive

a. Obsessive means you keep thinking about something over  

and over and over again  

b. Compulsions have to do with actions, not thoughts. People  

feel like they are compelled to act a certain way  

i. People may be obsessed with gambling, but they  

don’t have compulsions that force them to keep  

returning to the casino  

c. With OCD, the two are very related, and the way they  

relate has to do with anxiety disorders

i. For OCD people, anxiety comes with obsessive and  

compulsive thoughts to do a certain thing because  

they can’t resist it  

d. Obsessed with something ???? anxiety to do it ????

compulsion drives them to do it  

2. Common Obsessions: germs, doubts, aggressive impulses, order  

a. Germs: Someone might have washed their hands five  

minutes ago but when they think about germs again, will  

feel like they have to go wash their hands again even  

though they don’t need to  

i. The obsessive thought with cleaning your hands  

gives them anxiety

b. Doubt: did I turn something off or not? Obvious solution is  

to go check.  

i. An OCD person may go check something every 2

minutes. They feel compelled to go back and check  

to make sure they turned something off

Intro to Psychology Final Exam Study Guide  

c. Order: if you move something from where it’s supposed to  

be, a person with order obsessions will have an obsession  

with straightening it out

i. Every tassel on a rug has to be straight or the  

kitchen has to be completely organized. If they  

think it’s not, they’ll go back and fix it  

3. Common Compulsions: washing, checking, counting  

a. Compulsion: you wash your hands in the bathroom and  

grab the door handle to leave, but realize that there are  

germs on the door handle. You go back and wash your  

hands again because you are compelled to have clean  


i. Can be treated very easily with medication and  

gradual exposure  

iv. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)  

1. If you go through a trauma and experience stress because of it,  

it’s not PTSD  

a. If you continue to be stressed and have anxiety because of  

a traumatic event, you can be diagnosed with the disorder  

3. Mood (affective) disorders  

a. Almost as common as anxiety  

b. Often occur with anxiety  

c. A lot of the same neurotransmitters are involved with both

i. Major Depressive Disorder  

1. The most expensive mental illness to our country in terms of  

number of missed days of work and how much insurance has to  

be paid for treatment

a. Considered the most impactful disorder  

2. Main symptom has to do with emotional sadness, but it’s way  

more complicated with that; there are many more symptoms  

a. Irrational sadness: people can have a really good life and  

the things around them are objectively good, but they still  

experience sadness  

i. People without depression will try to cheer up  

people with depression by just saying things like “it  

will get better” or “just cheer up”  

1. Like telling someone with diabetes: “just  

make some insulin”  

3. Sometimes called a whole body disorder because it affects all  

parts of the body

4. Episodic Depression: having a depressive episode (periods of  


a. Average depressive period for people without treatment is  

8 months

Intro to Psychology Final Exam Study Guide  

5. Chronic Depression: people who are always depressed  

6. Symptoms  

a. Emotional symptoms

i. Gloominess, hopelessness, social withdrawal,  

irritability, indecisiveness  

b. Cognitive Symptoms  

i. Slowness of thought, obsessive worrying about  

death, negative self-image (low self-esteem),  

delusions of guilt, difficulty in concentrating  

1. Someone who is normally a very  

productive, smart person can be extremely  

unproductive and slow when depressed  

c. Motor Characteristics  

i. Decreased motor activity, fatigue, difficulty in  

sleeping, decreased sex drive, decreased appetite  

7. The “kindling effect”  

a. Reason why it’s very important for people with depression  

to get help  

i. When someone is experiencing a depressive  

episode, their brain is working in a way that will  

make it easier for the next one to happen

1. The longer it lasts, the more effective it is in  

“kindling” a future depressive episode  

a. If you’ve had 2, 75% you’ll have  


b. If you’ve had 3, you will have  


8. Treatments

a. Medication

b. Cognitive therapy  

i. Teaches people to think different about things  

ii. People with depression who fail a test may blame  

themselves instead of just admitting that it was a  

difficult test  

iii. Cognitive therapy and medication are a great  

combination for treatment  

c. Electroconvulsive Therapy (shock therapy)  

i. Forcing electric currents through someone’s body

which forces them to have convulsions / seizures

1. Supposedly reduced symptoms of  

depression but at what cost?

a. Brain damage and memory loss are  

side affects  

ii. Bipolar disorder (Manic-depressive disorder)

Intro to Psychology Final Exam Study Guide  

1. Very rare, strongly runs in families (>1%)  

a. A person with a bipolar disorder has depressive periods,  

manic periods, and normal periods  

2. Manic behaviors contain emotional, cognitive, and motor  

characteristics including:

a. Emotional: Elation, euphoria, extreme sociability,  

expansiveness, impatience

b. Cognitive: Distractibility, desire for action, impulsiveness,  

talkativeness, grandiosity, inflated self-esteem  

c. Motor: Hyperactivity, decreased need for sleep, sexual  

indiscretion, fluctuating appetite  

3. Periods of mania are not necessarily dysfunctional, but they can  


a. Someone may spend every cent in their bank account  

during a manic stage  

b. People can hallucinate during manic periods  

4. Symptoms

5. Treatment  

iii. Seasonal affective disorder (SAD)  

1. Happens in the winter time

2. Symptoms related to sadness, fatigue, sluggishness  

3. Rates of SAD increases at higher latitudes because the farther  

north you go, the darker it gets on average

a. When it’s dark, your brain produces melatonin which  

makes you more tired  

b. Light therapy helps with seasonal affective disorder  

4. Disorders with “physical” symptoms  

a. Somatoform disorders: complaints of physical problems without physical  evidence or diagnosed physical cause  

i. Someone may say they can’t move an arm when it’s perfectly fine  

ii. When a doctor can’t find a physical cause of a physical complaint  

1. If they can’t find anything, they may say it’s a psychological  


iii. Somatoform pain disorder

iv. Hypochondriasis

1. Hypochondriacs always complain about disease

2. If they have a sore throat, they may claim to have to plague  

a. If the doctor says, “no, you’re fine, you’re not sick”, they’ll  

just go try another doctor because they are convinced that  

they actually are sick  

v. Conversion Disorder

1. Inability to walk, speak, see, move, etc.  

2. A person says they can’t walk, and there’s no physical reason

Intro to Psychology Final Exam Study Guide  

a. Usually occurs when someone suffers from an extremely  

traumatic event and they haven’t processed it yet  

b. Extreme psychological trauma  

i. Survivor’s guilt etc.  

b. Factitious disorder – actual physical problems intentionally created by the  patient in order to get medical attention  

i. Munchausen’s Syndrome

ii. Munchausen’s Syndrome by proxy

c. Psychophysical (psychosomatic) disorders:  

i. Refer to real physical symptoms that are caused or made worse by  

psychological factors  

5. Dissociative disorders  

a. Disruptions or breaks in the normally integrated functions of memory,  consciousness or perception  

b. Dissociative amnesia

c. Dissociative fugue

d. Dissociative identity disorders  

i. “multiple personality” is NOT the same as “schizophrenia”  

ii. Schizophrenia means “split mind”, NOT “split personality”  

iii. When observing people with this, they act like different people with  different personalities

1. The average woman with DID has 8 or 9 personalities, the average  

man has 15

2. Sometimes the personalities can be male or female, young or old,  

etc. (a 30-year-old man with DID and a personality of a 70-year

old woman) despite whether or not it’s a man or woman  

a. Snickers commercial  

3. There is always a “core” personality – that which they were as a  

child before developing other personalities  

a. Some of the personalities know / are able to recognize  

each other  

b. Treatment includes trying to combine all the personalities,  

not eliminate them

iv. Despite who you are acting like (which personality), a brain scan will still  reveal the same person  

1. You can measure and observe the differences in all of the  

personalities. They can have different allergies, visual acuity

2. ERP (response that is linked to the brain) is called the neurological  


3. When looking at people with D.I.D., their thumbprints are  

different for each personality. When a “normal” person is asked  

to act like different types of people, their thumbprint was the  

same each time

Intro to Psychology Final Exam Study Guide  

v. Most people with D.I.D. were abused as children, it’s their brain’s way of  protecting the person from the experience

1. They change personalities depending on the experience  

6. Schizophrenia

a. Split mind (D.I.D. is split personality

b. Emotions, thoughts, and sense of reality of separated  

c. Affects 1% of population

d. Usually requires hospitalization  

e. To be diagnosed, one must have several symptoms  

f. Symptoms  

i. Delusions: psychotic disorder when someone has illusions that are not  reality

1. Persecution or Paranoia: delusion where you think something or  

someone is out to kill or hurt you

2. Grandeur: delusion about their own personal greatness or  


a. I’m a hero, out here saving the world  

3. Identity: belief that they are someone they are not  

4. Reference: when you believe something is referring to you even  

though it is not  

a. This newspaper article is a secret message to me

b. Thought broadcast: thinking other people can hear your  


ii. Hallucinations: perceptual experiences where you see things that aren’t  really there

a. Drug hallucinations are perceptions  

2. Auditory: hearing voices telling you to do something  

a. Activity is shown in the auditory cortex (literal action in the  

auditory cortex)  

3. Loose Associations: jumping from one topic to another in  

conversation. It may make sense to the person doing it, but  

doesn’t to the person they’re talking to

a. A person who makes loose associations will even create  

words that make sense to them but have no meaning  

4. Unusual Movement or Lack Thereof  

a. Catatonic Immobility: no movement, someone will just  

stay still and state  

b. Catatonic Excitability: aimless, excited or moving then all  

of a sudden stopping because they believe they are made  

of glass

c. Waxy Flexibility: staying flexible when “frozen”, but other  

people can model them to be in a different position

i. “The rigid maintenance of a body position over an  

extended period of time; a state of decreased

Intro to Psychology Final Exam Study Guide  

responsiveness accompanied by a trancelike state,  

as seen in organic or psychologic disorders under  


5. Inappropriate or Flat Affect  

a. Wrong emotion for the wrong situation

i. Laughing at a funeral

6. Unusual speech patterns

a. Neologism: making up new words  

b. Alogia: not talking (often goes along with catatonic  


c. Perseveration: rhyming words over and over again  

i. Behavioral: repeating same action  

g. “Old” Categories  

i. Having a collection of symptoms that come together

ii. Paranoid: symptoms include delusions and hallucinations  

1. Most common form of schizophrenia  

iii. Catatonic: always having to do something, mainly has to do with  


iv. Disorganized: behavioral separation

1. Symptoms: loose associations, inappropriate affect  

v. Differentiated: doesn’t fall into the other 3 categories  

1. People often first get diagnosed with this then diagnosed with  

different types  

vi. Residual: minor form of schizophrenia that is not as severe  

Schizophrenia Continued  

1. New Categories

a. Type I and Type II  

i. Type I: positive symptoms, excess of something in symptoms  

1. Includes hallucinations, delusions

ii. Type II: negative symptoms, lack of movement, emotion  

1. Ex: catatonic schizophrenia is type II  

b. People with Type I schizophrenia are most easily treated with medication c. People with negative symptoms don’t respond to medication due to brain  chemistry

i. Type I Schizophrenia: people with this type of schizophrenia show similar  brain scans as normal people, just different chemicals. Medication can  

change brain chemistry and help with symptoms  

ii. Type II Schizophrenia: parts of their brain structures are different from  “normal” people’s brain – physical differences – medications don’t help  with structural brain problems  

d. Treatment

Intro to Psychology Final Exam Study Guide  

i. Medication vs. Therapy  

1. Most people need medication

2. Cognitive therapy is needed sometimes

a. When people “hear voices”  

ii. The Rule of Quarters

1. Divided people into groups based on treatment  

a. 25% of people have 1 episode but it gets better without  

any treatment (not diagnosed)  

b. 25% of people respond to medication, are able to control  

it (with help of prescriptions), but will have several  


c. 25% of people will respond to medication (which helps)  

but they will still have symptoms that make them  


i. often feel as if they can’t live with themselves

d. 25% (with Type II): not much anyone can do for them  

because they don’t respond to medication and continue  

having severe symptoms  

i. People that fall into this group are either  

institutionalized (if they can afford it) or live in  

homeless shelters  

2. Causes of Schizophrenia  

a. Biological

i. Inherited (genetic)  

b. Environment

i. Stressful family environments  

ii. Prenatal environment: if a woman gets the cold or the flue and is carrying  a fetus that is prone to schizophrenia, the cold or flu could “turn on” the  gene for schizophrenia  

1. Schizophrenia virus  

iii. There is a 2% chance that if you marry someone with schizophrenia, you  may have schizophrenia  

c. Therapy doesn’t really help schizophrenia, medication is the most necessary and  helpful for symptomatic relief  

d. Stress diathesis: genes make you more susceptible to schizophrenia but other  things have to happen to trigger it  

e. People often start seeing symptoms of schizophrenia in their late teens (early  schizophrenia)

Intro to Psychology Final Exam Study Guide

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