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UNT / History / HIST 2610 / What is the most significant election in us history?

What is the most significant election in us history?

What is the most significant election in us history?

Description

School: University of North Texas
Department: History
Course: U.S. History to 1865
Professor: Professor menking
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: history
Cost: 50
Name: History Final: Exam 4
Description: In this set there is all the information that you need for the test. Notes for the test are also provided to better suit the study guide.
Uploaded: 12/07/2016
9 Pages 49 Views 1 Unlocks
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Exam 4


What is the most significant election in us history?



Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798

These acts were politically motivated by the federalist against the  republicans. The Sedition Act affected the Republican media and the Alien  Act was aimed the immigrants, mainly because they supported the  Republicans. The Republican party was very angry about this legislation.  Lead in response by Jefferson and Maddison. They couldn’t take this to the  courts because they were controlled by the federalist. They took it to the  states instead. Kentucky and Virginia created resolutions. These two  resolutions were created by Jefferson from Virginia and Maddison from  Kentucky.

They argued in favor of the Compact Theory, which is that all states are older than the federal government and its constitution that was written and  ratified by these same states. It was the states that created the constitution  and the government. They willingly gave up some of their power to the  federal government. The power that gave was a specific power, and if the  federal government passes a law that succeeds that power given to it by the  states then the states have the right to nullify that law.


What was the most profitable island that the french?



The Compact Theory

The states have the right to interpret the constitution, not the federal court system. By extension the states have the right to nullify a federal law. Which means that the federal government isn’t the supreme political power, the states are.

Once a compromise can be reached then the states have the right to secede.

Maddison and Jefferson never meant for the compact theory to involve  secession. This is the seed for the civil war.

Election of 1800

John Adams: Federalists running for a second term against Thomas Jefferson  republican, the Vice President. This is the most significant election in US  history. The Republicans ran Aaron Burr in order to get him the place as Vice  President, by getting the second most votes. During the election Jefferson  and Adam became bitter enemies. Friday, October 31, 1800 was the start of  the election and it ended on Wednesday, December 3, 1800. Republicans  won most of the states. The electors in the electoral college voted for both  Jefferson and Burr equally. The decision goes to the House of  Representatives, the federalists hated the republicans, so they dragged their  feet. At the last minute Hamilton put his support behind Jefferson, this made  Burr really angry. After the election was over Hamilton and Burr had a dual,  Hamilton was killed. Jefferson was elected President and Burr became the  Vice President. Jefferson drops Burr because he was a flop. Jefferson was  elected President on February 18, 1801 and took office in March. The 12th amendment was added, separating the President and Vice President  nominations.


What is the major reason why the us got into the conflict?



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There was a peaceful transfer of power between the Federalists and  Republicans, moving from one to the other. The federalists didn’t protest and the republicans didn’t throw out the federalists. Both parties recognize and  respect the change in power and responsibility to keeping the government  running. We also discuss several other topics like What is a secret terrorist organization founded in pulaski, tennessee, in 1866?
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Marbury vs. Maddison

*Major political event underneath Jefferson administration*

Presidents made midnight appointees, which is putting their supporters into  minor, mid-level public positions. Adams appointed Marshall as the Chief  Justice of Supreme Court (not minor). This raised a lot of red flags. Another  midnight appointee was William Marbury to the position of justice of the  Peace of DC. It was the job of the secretary of state to finalize and issue the  commissions to all the appointees, so they can begin their duties. The new  secretary of state, Maddison, came in before Marbury received his  commission. He went to Maddison for his commission, but he refused him.  Jefferson told Maddison to forget about it and maybe it will go away. Well  Marbury sued Maddison because he refused to give him his commission. This came to the Supreme Court and Marbury asked them to command Maddison  to give him his commission. February 24, 1803 the Court decided that  Marbury deserved his commission and that the secretary of states should  have issued it to him, but the constitution doesn’t give the supreme court  the power to force the SOS into doing so. Although the Judiciary Act of 1789 If you want to learn more check out What is the farmer's rebellion against alcohol tax?
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gave the supreme court this right. Marshall is saying that the Judiciary Act of  1789 is unconstitutional. This will set a precedence called the Judicial Review.

Judicial Review

Will determine if a law is constitutional or not. Supreme court is the ultimate interpreter of the Constitution.

Jefferson believes that it is up to the States, and this will be settled during  the Civil War. Still conservancy today because the Constitution doesn’t say  that the Judicial system can nullify anything from another branch. In order for Judicial Review to be accepted you have to believe in board interpretation of  the constitution. It’s not widely accepted, but has become the bases of the  US Judicial system.

Louisiana Territory

This is the big purchase of Foreign policy under Jefferson. The name  Louisiana was French, after the 7 years’ war or the French and Indian war,  the French had to give this land up to the Spanish. Napoleon became the  leader of France and in 1800 forced Spain to give back the Louisiana  territory. It was usually used only for trading, but Napoleon wanted to make it a bread basket for his islands in the Caribbean seas. These islands could only grow sugar cane, so they depended on the US for trade.

Haiti was the most profitable island that the French had, but a slave revolt  grew and Napoleon didn’t have the resources to support his empire in the  Western Hemisphere. Although, the French didn’t want it to go to the British  so they discussed with the US. The US didn’t want a strong power controlling  the Mississippi river, so Jefferson sent Monroe to negotiate with the French  for New Orleans. Jefferson told Monroe to offer 5 million, but no more than 10 million. Napoleon offers the whole territory for 15 million. Monroe agrees to  pay the 15 million and is completed in 1803.

Purchase of the Louisiana Territory

Major Contrast

The purchase of the Louisiana territory is a major contrast to what Jefferson  and the republicans believe. He had to rationalize why he allowed for this  purchase, by spinning it to say that, the President has the right to conduct  treaties with other countries, as given to him by the constitution. This was  accepted by congress. Although the US didn’t have the funds to purchase the land they issued bonds redeemable at 6% interest rate.

Europe

In 1804 Napoleon crowned himself emperor; by 1805 he waged a series of  wars that spread throughout Europe. As President Jefferson did a good job to  keep the US out of these wars for his two terms. In January 1809 Jefferson  left office and Maddison took his place.

Virginia Dynasty

The first five presidents are known as the Virginian Dynasty because 4 out of  5 were all from Virginia and served two terms as President.  

1. Washington

2. Adams (Mass.)

3. Jefferson

4. Maddison  

5. Monroe

Napoleonic Wars of 1803-1814

The major reason why the US got into the conflict with Europe has to do with  the disrespect of US neutrality. The French violated the neutrality, but the  British were worse. They put up naval ships in the ports of the US to keep  merchant ships from trading with France. The US economy depended heavily on trading with other countries. These events will lead to the War of 1812; by then the French will have controlled most of Europe.  

The British implemented a policy of impressment, which the British sailors  were deserting the British Navy and joining US merchant ships, so the sailors would board US merchant ships and impress the traders and sometimes

Americans into coming back to the British navy. The worse things got in  Europe lead to more impressments, and then Press gangs were created to  impress people in the ports. The road to war actually started with the  Chesapeake Affair. The USS Chesapeake was attempting to leave the port of  Norfolk, Virginia when a British naval ship, HMS Leopard, came told them to  not leave and command that they let them board. The captain told them no  and the HMS Leopard opened fire on the ship. They surrendered and the  British boarded, impressing five men, one which was actually American. After this affair there was a big demand for war.

Indians

There began to be problems with the Indians in the Indiana Territory. The  Indians were requesting to take both the Indiana and Illinois territory as their  official homeland, and the British supported them. The British wanted to  create a buffer zone between the growing US and Canada. Great Britain uses  the great lakes as trading routes, so they need to keep them safe. The US  tells the Indians no, and Tecumseh develops an Indian confederation. William Henry Harrison is the governor of the Indiana territory and he leads a 1000  men military force out in search of Tecumseh. In October Harrison starts his  operation, as he is out looking for them; they attack on November 7, 1811.  This becomes the Battle of Tippecanoe, which ends in a victory for the US  and the Indians retreat to Canada. This solidifies that the British were apart  of these Indian attacks and caused this battle.

War Hawks

A group of young politicians within congress became known has the war  hawks. They are republicans, but are intense nationalists. They believed after this affair the US had no choice, but go to war with Great Britain. They  pressured Maddison into declaring war on GB. War Hawks see this as an  opportunity to expand; once they go to war with GB, Spain will want to join in and they can take Spanish Florida. They were also interested in conquering  Canada. War Hawks only saw the advantages going to war such as:  

 GB is at war with France, so they wouldn’t be able to use a lot of  resources in Canada.  

 They know the area better

 Greater population than Canada

 Efficient navy

Although the disadvantages outweighed the advantages the war hawks  didn’t see it that way. The US didn’t have the money to fund a war because  the federal banks charter was expired and never renewed. Due to budget  cuts they had to reduce the size of their Army.  

War in 3 Theatres

Reasons:

 Maritime Issues

 Party policies, National honor

 Territorial expansion

Theatre 1: The Sea

Theatre 2: Canadian Front

Theatre 3: Gulf Coast

The British weren’t able to start their blockade until 1813 and it wasn’t  finished until 1814. It took them awhile to get their resources to the US, so  for the first couple years they were on the defensive. GB was enjoying many  victories because the US was poorly led. They tried to take Canada three  times in 1812, but in 1803 they were able to take Lake Erie and gain  entrance into Upper Canada. They couldn’t take Montreal, the capital, so it  ended in a stalemate. The US was able to defeat the Indian Confederacy in  the Indiana and Illinois territories.

War of 1812

In 1814 Napoleon was overthrown and the war in Europe was over. Great  Britain was now able to focus all their efforts in the Western Hemisphere. The British invaded New York, but were defeated in the Battle of Plattsburgh,  which lasted September 6-11, 1814. The next time the British invaded  Maryland on August 24, 1814. They defeated the Americans in the battle of  Bladensburg and were able to take Washington DC. The British burned many  political buildings, including the White Hose. The following day there was a  hurricane that came through and put out all the fires. A tornado hit and killed many British soldiers and American civilians. The British left DC and headed  back to GB afraid that they would get stuck their while the ships left for  repairs.

History Final

Study Guide

*Refer back to notes*

Vocabulary: Know these words Virginia & Kentucky Resolutions

"Compact Theory"

Secede

Election of 1800

Aaron Burr

12th Amendment

Marbury vs. Madison

John Marshall

William Marbury

James Madison

Judicial Review

Louisiana Purchase

Napoleon

Haiti

James Monroe

Virginia Dynasty

War of 1812impressment

Chesapeake Affair

USS Chesapeake

The Compact Theory

The states have the right to interpret the constitution, not the federal court  system. By extension the states have the right to nullify a federal law. Which  means, that the federal government isn’t the supreme political power, the  states are.

Judicial Review

Will determine if a law is constitutional or not. Supreme court is the ultimate  interpreter of the Constitution.

Virginia Dynasty

The first five presidents are known as the Virginian Dynasty because 4 out of 5  were all from Virginia and served two terms as President.  

1. Washington

2. Adams (Mass.)

3. Jefferson

4. Maddison  

5. Monroe

War Hawks only saw the advantages going to war such as:  

 GB is at war with France, so they wouldn’t be able to use a lot of  resources in Canada.  

 They know the area better

 Greater population than Canada

 Efficient navy

War of 1812: Main Points War in 3 Theatres

Reasons:

 Maritime Issues

 Party policies, National honor  Territorial expansion

Theatre 1: The Sea

Theatre 2: Canadian Front

Theatre 3: Gulf Coast

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