HIS 2110 11/3/16 The New Deal and WWII ∙ Causes of Great Depression (1919-1929) o False sense of prosperity ▪ Cotton, coal, etc.: Sick Industries ∙ Sick Industries: Industries that are in a depressed state ▪ Over-production/Under consumption ∙ 1925, many farms in west were already Don't forget about the age old question of national income accountants can avoid multiple counting by
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in state of depression ▪ 1929, 60% of Americans in poverty ($2,000/year) ∙ Wealth went to the top, rather than spread out ∙ Downward wages towards the 1920’s o Stock market crash, 1929 ▪ Only about 7% of Americans had stocks ▪ Companies couldn’t pay for debt ▪ Financial issue ▪ Exposes economic weakness ∙ Deepening Depression: 1929-1932 o 1932: +/-25% unemployment ▪ Toledo, OH: 80% o Crop decrease by 60% ▪ People tried to produce more because they needed more money but ended up making market worse o 33% of farmers lost farms ▪ “Grapes of Wrath” or “Of Mice and Men” o Industrial production decreased by 50% o US signed a huge tariff which caused tariff war in world ▪ 2/3 of world market dropped o 2 million lost homes o Panic: 5000+ banks failed (1929-1932) ∙ Lack of Leadership o Pres. Hoover ▪ Believed we should wait the depression out ▪ 1929: US close to ending poverty ∙ …but 3/5th of pop lived in poverty (-_-) ▪ 1930: Depression is over o Ford, 1931: Plenty of jobs – no workers ▪ “Still a lot of work to do, but average worker doesn’t want to work” ∙ Ended up laying off 150,000 workers o The people became angry & dangerous ▪ Politicians were living well and not realizing the actual problemHIS 2110 11/3/16 ∙ The Bonus Army o WWI vets marched on DC,1932 o “Bonus Army” demanded pension payment o 20,000 camped/marched in DC (Whitehouse & Capital) ▪ Demanded congress pays them their bonus checks immediately ∙ Bill ended up being passed but senate & white house didn’t want to o Hoover ordered the US Army disperse “Bonus Army” ▪ 4 cavalries, 6 tanks, machine gun squadrons, etc. o People’s anger grew ∙ FDR’s Victory o Desperate times, ineffective gov’t = FDR democratic landslide win o Reform legislation: New Deal ▪ Immediate relief, recovery, & reform ▪ Make sure that this never happened again o 2 pressing needs: ▪ Stabilize economy ▪ Quell unrest ∙ Self-Help o Unemployed Councils (NY, Chicago) ▪ Resist eviction in large numbers o Food Exchanges (Seattle) ▪ Black market for exchanging food o “Bootleg” Coal (Penn): +5M tons of coal produced/sold by workers ▪ Employees would steal company trucks and sell coal in markets at reasonable prices to ensure people had coal ▪ People could no longer wait for government ▪ Many were tried but people were sympathetic so they’d find them non guilty (Jury Nullification) o Strikes ▪ 1934, 1.5M workers on strike on West Cost ▪ 1934, +300K in South on strike ∙ FDR & the New Deal o NIRA ▪ NRA & PWA: price/wage controls, purchasing power, improve industry ∙ Do whatever we have to do to get people working o SSA (Social Security Administration): Safety Net o FSA (Farm Security Administration): Mortgage relief o Wagner Act 1935: Worker’s rights ▪ Right to strike ▪ Created to prevent strikes HIS 2110 11/3/16 o Financial Reform ▪ Glass-Stegall, FDIC, SEC, etc. ∙ Separated commercial banks from investment banks ∙ Commercial: lent out money & let people keep money @ bank ∙ Investment: Worked with stock market ∙ Legacy of New Deal o Equity in resource distribution ▪ Gov’t took active role in economy ∙ People’s lives can’t be ensured if gov’t doesn’t get involved ▪ Equitable distribution of (natural) resources = increased buying power o Importance of average consumer ▪ Getting people more money to buy more ▪ “the consumer” = the public good ▪ Strengthening capitalism through conservation ∙ Conservation o Conserving resources strengthened consumerism o B/c of dust bowl, people needed to improve land (over farming caused erosion) o CCC & SCS (soil conservation): Rehab land ▪ Hired young men to plant treed (reforest) and let land rest in order for it to grow fertile again o AAA (Agricultural Adjustment Administration): Restore farm prices, farm land ▪ Payed farmers not to farm as much o BPA (Bonneville Power Administration): Water conservation, spread electricity o TVA (Tennessee Valley Authority): Regional planning ▪ Made a lot of dams ∙ Changes Brought by WWII o End of Depression ▪ GNP doubled ▪ Unemployment disappeared o 25M Americans moved to cities o US became “superpower” o Nazi Germany & Soviet Union invaded Poland ∙ The “Four Freedoms” o Roosevelt said in his address that we’re in a fight for global freedom o World founded on 4 Essential Freedoms ▪ Freedom or speech, worship ▪ Freedom from fear, want o Worldwide conflict b/t freedom & slaveryHIS 2110 11/3/16 ∙ Four Freedoms= Worldwide New Deal (?) o Freedom from fear = security o Freedom of speech & worship = opposed the Nazism ▪ Freedom of speech expanded: WV Board of Ed. V. Barnette (1943) ∙ School children who were Jehovah’s witnesses, refused to salute flag during allegiance ∙ Supreme Court said your freedom of religion doesn’t mean you have to salute the flag or stand for the national anthem ▪ Open patriotism ∙ Freedom from want o Most ambiguous & most meaningful of 4 freedoms ▪ Guaranteed employment ▪ Amer. “standard of living” o “New deal” or “American Freedom”? ▪ Dangerous step towards socialism ∙ WWII & Consumerism o Patriotism/freedom connected w/ consuming o “5th Freedom”: Free enterprise o Postwar world filled with consumer goods o War = crusade to protect US abundance & consumerism ∙ Ambiguities of Four Freedoms o End of racism/Jim crow? ▪ Start of freedom should free African Americans from racism o Asian Exclusion ▪ Allowed Chinese but only 105 a year o Mexican-Americans immigration ▪ Bracero Program, 1942 ▪ Brought a lot of Mexican immigrants to US ∙ Backlash: 1943 Zoot Suit Riot o 5-day riot in LA ∙ Animosity toward Japanese o Pearl Harbor + longstanding prejudice = hatred of Japanese o Gov’t propaganda cast Japanese a beast ∙ Internment o Every Japanese-American considered a spy ▪ Over 120,000 interned o Fear of invasion ???? FDR removed J-A’s from west coast (+120K) o Supreme Court – internment OKHIS 2110 11/3/16 ∙ WWII – An Open Moment? o Freedom & tolerance = civil rights? ▪ Nazi & Japanese mocked Jim Crow ▪ Conditions of Black Americans increasingly hard to justifyHIS 2010 11/8/16 The Cold War & Domestic Anticommunism ∙ Media was a huge factor for the red scare o I.e. The Red Menace ∙ Beginning of Cold War: Foreign Affairs o Both US & USSR saw the other as a threat that wanted to take over the world o US & USSR: Secure Europe as a buffer ▪ Use Germany as a buffer zone ∙ Split into 4 zones: British, French, America, & USSR o Eventually became east and west Germany o Negotiate w/ USSR ▪ Truman didn’t trust soviets but still wanted to negotiate o Greek Civil War, 1946-47 ▪ Right wing (supported by Britain) vs. West wing communist (supported by USSR) ∙ Britain went bankrupt so US took Britain’s place in Greece ∙ US against Communism because it destroyed capitalism & democracy while Soviets against capitalism because it’s unfair o Berlin Airlift, 1948 o Truman Doctrine: “Containment” ∙ Onset of Cold War: Internal Affairs o Henry Wallace ▪ Progressive Party Candidate for Pres., 1948 ∙ Equality (racial & econ) o Didn’t believe in Jim Crow, thought it was a destroyer of democracy ∙ Friendly relations w/ USSR ▪ Considered Communist sympathizer o Operation Dixie CIO (Congress of Industrial Organization) ▪ Labor campaign in south, 1946-1948 ∙ Was a Union that was more left wing (communist) o Didn’t agree with Jim Crow system ▪ Commies + Race + USSR = O.D. Failure ▪ *Communists everywhere* ∙ McCarthyism o Named bore Wisc. Sen. J. McCarthy o Crusade to expose & expel “Commies” o Longest lasting & most wide spread campaign of repression: ▪ Broad coalition ∙ Can be anyone in the US to help expose communistHIS 2010 11/8/16 ▪ Dissent = disloyalty ∙ Images of the Red Menace: Criminality o Commies are everywhere & dangerous o Criminality: involvement in leftist activity was criminal ▪ Prosecutions & convictions for membership in/affiliation w/ CP ∙ IRM: The Generic “Commie” o All commies were the same: vicious, godless o All commies were puppets, brainwashed, robots, etc. ▪ All commies under control of USSR that are meant to destroy the US gov. ▪ (The Manchurian Candidate) ∙ IRM: Worldwide Conspiracy o Commies aimed to overthrow US o All directed from Moscow o Secrecy: ▪ Members of communist groups operated in secret ▪ V.I. Lenin: Commie must always work in secret ∙ IRM: Body & Soul Imperiled o Disease metaphors ▪ “germ of death for our society” ▪ Political cancer o Spiritual & cultural Health ▪ “Moral foe of Christianity” ∙ Marx thought that capitalist class was exploiting working class ∙ 2 things that structures society o Labor o Superstructure ▪ Religion ▪ Culture ▪ Nationalism ▪ Nuclear family ▪ Distract working class from exploitation and should be pushed away for t working class to see that they are being exploited ▪ Communism subverts the family ∙ The Bomb o Dropped in Japan in 1945 o Arms Race ???? Hydrogen Bomb ▪ There can be a nuclear war at any momentHIS 2010 11/8/16 o National interstate & defense Hwy act (1956) ▪ Nuclear fear justified this ▪ We need a network of roads that would help people evacuate from populated areas o “Duck & Cover” o Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 ▪ 1959, Cubans got rid of US ▪ Hysteria eases ∙ No one wants to use bomb ∙ Mass consumerism and the Cold War: The Kitchen Debate o American exhibit in Moscow 1959: ▪ abundance on display, “what freedom means to us” ▪ Hosted American exhibition where they can show their products in USSR o Nixon: MC = classless society ▪ We’re beating USSR at its own game ▪ We’re closest to Socialism through capitalism o MC = freedom of choice ∙ MC: Diplomacy o Marshall Plan- rebuild Euro markets, hold off communism ▪ A lot of Europe couldn’t support own people ∙ A lot of desperation o Eisenhower: meet USSR’s challenge w/ trade ▪ “we must meet the soviet challenge in the battlefield of change” o Kennedy: American goods, not bombs ∙ Search for Security in 1950’s o Religion: ▪ US: Christian ∙ Billy Graham- religious leader o 49% to 70% church going increase o Everyone was getting married ▪ 1930’s average age woman: 23; men: 25 ▪ 1950’s average age woman: 20; men: 22 ▪ USSR: atheist o Family Life ▪ Dramatic increase in marriages & birthrate ∙ Baby boom ∙ 1948-1953 more babies in US than previous 3 decades combined ▪ Cult of domesticity ∙ Must contain women to ensure that families grow with strong moral fiberHIS 2010 11/8/16 ∙ “Containment” o Contain communism abroad & (commie) sexual deviance at home o “Loose women”, “bombshell”, “lavender scare” (homosexuals are morally weak and more susceptible to communism) = danger to America ∙ Dr. Strangelove (1964) o Satirical take on the Cold War: ▪ Nuclear War (MAD) ▪ Anti-communism ▪ American/world securityHIS 2010 11/15/16 The Civil Rights Movement ∙ “Classical” CRM o Direct-action, non-violent protest o Court cases o Nat’l legislation o 1954 to 1965- only in the south ∙ “Long” CRM o Started in 1930’s o Beyond the south ▪ “I have a dream” speech first recited in Detroit ▪ MLK fought for housing rights in Chicago o Racial problems tied to class ▪ NAACP founded in 1909 o Beyond 50’s & 60’s ∙ Civil Rights Unionism o 1930’s-1940’s ▪ End of Jim Crow + economic empowerment ∙ Operation Dixie o Attempt to make labor gangs in the south ▪ Extend New Deal to all ∙ Blacks excluded from New Deal @ beginning b/c southern democrats had seniority in Congress ▪ Employment in wartime & after ∙ Pressure gov’t to give jobs to AA’s in private companies during and after war to increase economic stability ∙ Lackey Plant (plane builder) o 20,000 on payroll ▪ 9 AA’s; all janitors ∙ CRU & March on Washington, 1941 o Unions, NAACP, etc. Demanded wartime jobs ▪ A. Philip Randolph ∙ Labor leader & CRA o Equality/freedom for All Americans ▪ Extend New Deal to all o Fair Employment Practices Commission (FEPC), 1941 ▪ Created by FDR ▪ Outlaw discrimination in Fed./defense jobs ∙ Arms forces didn’t desegregate till later ∙ Hypocritical for fed to discriminateHIS 2010 11/15/16 ∙ CRU & Voting Rights o Voting linked to poverty/prosperity o CIO: union/voter drive ▪ Fought against southern democratic control ▪ Did union drive around south ▪ Large attempts to get people registered ∙ Difficult b/c of regulations inputted from 1890 to keep blacks from voting o Smith v. Allwright (1944): all-white primary outlaw ▪ Back then, whoever won the democratic primary, wins office ∙ Only whites were allowed to vote in primary ▪ Supreme court determined this unconstitutional o Black vets demanded the vote (Medgar Evers, Etoy Fletcher, etc.) ▪ Medger Evers: Leader from Jackson, MS ∙ Vet from WWII & leader for NAACP ∙ Assassinated in 1963 ∙ CRU & WWII o Linked Nazis & Jim Crow ▪ Civil rights unionists were the first to highlight the connection of Nazis minority of Jews & Slavs to America’s discrimination of blacks. o “Double V” Campaign ▪ Victory over fascism abroad = victory over Jim Crow o Democrats’ Civil Rights platform (1948) ▪ Democrats saw potential voters in AA’s so made civil rights part of platform o Military desegregation (1948) ∙ CRU Contested o FEPC attacked as “Commie Tactic” ▪ Strom Thurmond was senator who was against labor unions & civil rights o Taft-Hartley (1947) ▪ Piece of legislation that rolled back labor gains ∙ No more strikes ∙ No more unions involved in politics o Voting rights denied ▪ Theodore Bilbo – believed desegregation would lead to the apocalypse and promoted violence against AA’s to keep them from voting o “Dixiecrats”, 1948 ▪ Democrats that broke from party ▪ Against labor gains ▪ Defended segregation as core Amer. Freedom ▪ Strom Thurmond part of itHIS 2010 11/15/16 ∙ Cold War & the CRM o Cold war narrowed CRM ▪ End of CRU o Cold War Strengthened CRM ▪ CRM fitted to Cold War ideas that US was leader in free world ∙ US wants to look good around world to gain allies ∙ The Jimmy Wilson Story o Jimmy Wilson Story ▪ Robbery & attempted rape in 1950’s Alabama ∙ Wilson was worker for 82-year-old white woman who would regularly pay him. He asked for $1.95 for taxi and they argued, she threw the money in coins on the bed and he took it. ▪ Convicted, sentenced to death by electric chair for robbery of $1.95 o Worldwide outrage o How could US be free-world leader & allow this? ∙ Civil Rights Reform 1950’s-1960’s o US as nation of progress, democracy, equality o Brown v. Board (1945): Separate is inherently unequal o Brown v. Board pt. 2: that integration should be done slowly o Massive Resistance: ▪ Many didn’t get integrated till 1968 ▪ Avoid implementing Brown ▪ “Southern Manifesto” (Brown = tyranny/communism) ∙ Local rule is center of American democracy, having centralized government telling people what to do is communism o Incremental, non-radical change ∙ Bus Boycott o Baton Rouge, 1953 IL. ▪ 1st bus boycott ▪ Didn’t want Jim Crow to disappear, just wanted better living conditions ▪ Change within Jim Crow o Montgomery, 1955 ▪ Purposefully got Rosa Parks arrested so Montgomery bus system would go under fire ▪ Shifted to attack Jim Crow ▪ MLK became famous ▪ Media attention (create crises) ▪ Browder v. Gayle (1956) ∙ Supreme Court: the continuous segregation of buses in Alabama is unconstitutional under 14th amendmentHIS 2010 11/15/16 ∙ Protecting Democracy o Fed Gov’t Action: ▪ Little Rock school integration (1957) ∙ Get some AA’s kids into schools ∙ 9 AA children put into Little Rock High School o Eisenhower sent national guard to ensure school was integrated ▪ Freedom Riders Protected (1961) ∙ New York group CORE (Congress of Racial Equality) o Integrated buses from NY to Alabama ▪ Fired at in Alabama o Rob Kennedy (Secretary of State) allowed their arrest in Mississippi but ensured their safety ▪ Civil Rights Act of 1957 ∙ Linden Baines Johnson (senator at time) passed law o Thurmond filibustered for 24 hours to oppose law o Democracy & Consumerism ▪ Greensboro, NC Sit-Ins, 1960 ∙ 4 students from ENT university decided to sit at segregates lunch counter o Were denied service but it created more and more sit-ins around US ∙ Victory of CRM o Birmingham 1963: ▪ Authorities involved in KKK ▪ George Corny Wallace (governor): “Segregation Now, Segregation Tomorrow, Segregation Forever” ▪ Violence, Media, “moral crisis” ∙ Sept. 1963, bombing in Birmingham o KKK put bomb in Baptist church which killed 4 little girls ∙ John F. Kennedy started advocating for civil rights because of media’s coverage of violence in Birmingham ∙ Civil Rights Act of 1964 o After Selma (march for people’s right to vote): Violence media ▪ Voting Rights Act of 1965HIS 2110 11/29/16 A Great Society America in 1960’s ∙ The Great Society o JFK’s campaign o Abundance & liberty for all ▪ War on poverty ∙ Equal opportunity act ▪ Tax cuts ▪ Civil rights ∙ The Civil Rights Act of 1964 o Created b/c of horrors in Alabama ▪ Wallace (AL): “Segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever” o Public changed on civil rights in 1963 ▪ American Consensus on racial progress o JFK’s CRA 1963 ▪ Title II: no discrimination in public accommodation ∙ Hotels, motels, buses, trains, etc. ∙ Were center of Jim Crow & consumer marketplace o LBJ’s CRA: ▪ Title VII: prohibited discrimination in workplace ∙ Affected job market place ▪ EEOC (Equal Employment Opportunity Commission o Also covered school desegregation & voter registration o Opposition: ▪ Sen. Goldwater (AZ) ∙ Seen as radical conservative ▪ Sen. Dick Russell (GA): CRA = communistic assault on liberty ∙ Voting Rights Act of 1965 o Aug. 6, 1965, Act was signed by LBJ o Great Society continued ▪ Environmental protection ∙ Wilderness Act ∙ Highway Beautification Act ▪ Medicare, etc. ∙ Universal healthcare for the elderly o Selma, AL 1965, 1000’s marched for vote; met w/ violence – TV, newspapers, etc.HIS 2110 11/29/16 ▪ Encourages LBJ to pass the law o VRA: prohibited disfranchisement o LBJ: ▪ “the most hopeful times” ▪ “America had achieved unity” ∙ Blood & Fire: Watts 1965 o Aug. 12, 1965: riot in black neighborhood in LA o 2 men arrested & brutalized by LAPD ▪ Crowd witnessed the arrest & riot started after man claimed he saw cop kick pregnant woman in the stomach o Police brutality, joblessness, black anger o All captured on TV o +6000 residents involved o 6 days, 40 deaths, 1000 injuries & 3500 arrests o Worst riot since New York Draft Riots ∙ Blood & Fire: Detroit o July, 1967 ▪ Police busted illegal drinking joints ▪ Police decided to detain everyone in bar & placed them on the sidewalk till 4AM ∙ People started crowding till 8 AM which eventually started a riot o 17,000 law enforcement officers o 43 dead, 7000 arrested, 2500 buildings destroyed o Other ‘60s riots: ▪ Cleveland (‘68) ▪ DC (‘67) ▪ Chicago (‘68) ▪ Newark (‘67) ∙ Post-1965 CRM: Economics & Separatism o “Radical” voices: ▪ Malcolm X ▪ Black Power ▪ Black Panther, etc. o People began to realize that US was not as united as they thought o Economic Issues ▪ Black unemployment high & wages low ∙ Unemployment: 2x white unemployment ∙ Family Income: ½ white family income ▪ “Where Do We go from Here?” ∙ Wanted structural change of American society (MLK 1967)HIS 2110 11/29/16 ∙ Links b/w poverty, racism o Economic critique + separatism = CRM dangerous ∙ The Vietnam War o Vietnam ▪ Colonized by France in 1880s ∙ Nazi France “Vichy France” when Nazis put puppet gov’t in France ▪ Japan in WWII ▪ Sought independence in/after WWII ∙ Kicked French out in 1950 o Communism rises in Northern Vietnam o US aided France; had 16K “military advisers” in Vietnam by 1963 o Gulf of Tonkin, 1964: “escalation” ▪ North Vietnamese ships attacked US ships (not clear if this actually happened) o 1969: 560K US troops in Vietnam ∙ Antiwar Protest o 100,000 marched against war in NY – clergy, politicians, suburban mothers, soldiers, & hippies o Soldiers: “the war is a lie” o George Kennan (believed in containment of communism in Europe) was against war o MLK: Vietnam was poisoning America o Dr. Benjamin Spock ▪ “The Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care” claimed that you should nurture and show children love rather than be harsh on them ▪ Was Anti-war & many opposed his views o Most Americans disliked Vietnam & antiwar protests: waning trust in the US gov’t ∙ New Left o Dissatisfied w/ post-war US; “Alienation” ▪ “up against the wall motherfucker, this is a stick up!” – Amiri Baraka o SDS (Students for a Democratic Society), Yippies, White Panthers: ▪ Anti-war ▪ participatory democracy ∙ Young should have say in democracy ▪ cultural revolution o Chicago 1968: Riots at DNC o Weather Underground: ▪ Days of RageHIS 2110 11/29/16 ∙ Destroyed neighborhoods ▪ Bombings ∙ Backlash: The Rise of Richard Nixon o A lot of beliefs = Wallace o Protestors = subversives, communists o Grave Problem: lack of respect for authority o CRM/gov’t had gone too far o Primary “civil right” was protection from disharmony & disorder ▪ Against the idea of being against a law = allowed to resist it (Belief of CRM)HIS 2010 12/1/16 Malaise America in the 1970’s ∙ “Crisis of Confidence” o Economic problems o Energy scarcity o Military defeat o Social unrest ▪ Crime increased o Political corruption ∙ Nixon o Pres. 1969-1974 o “Silent majority” ▪ Minority power is load (Civil rights, anti-war, etc.) so gov’t listens to them o Southern Strategy ▪ Nixon appeals to south through concerns of CRM o Expansion of welfare state ▪ Medicaid & Medicare expanded ▪ OCA created ∙ Nixon: Foreign Policy o “Realism” ▪ Believed in negotiation and maintaining peace ▪ People like Goldwater were anti-Nixon because they wanted to keep pushing American beliefs o Détente with USSR, China ▪ 1st president to go to communist China o Vietnam: ▪ Peace & Bombs ∙ 1972: Operation Linebacker pt. II “the Christmas Bombing” o Worst US bombing in history ▪ “Vietnamization” ∙ Passed down the responsibility of Vietnam to the southern Vietnamese ∙ South Vietnam formed The Republic of Vietnam ∙ Nixon: Watergate o Landslide victory in 1972 o CREEP ▪ Committee to Re-Elect the President ▪ EspionageHIS 2010 12/1/16 ∙ 1973, 5 men caught stealing files in Watergate Hotel which housed Democratic National Convention o Men duct taped latches to make sure they didn’t get locked out and were caught by worker o Political Corruption o Resigned in 1974 ∙ Energy Crisis: Oil o 1960s: US dependent on ME oil ▪ Middle East produce more oil ∙ Begin controlling their oil after WWII o OPEC ▪ Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries o Yom Kippur War, 1973 ▪ Syria & Egypt attack Israel ▪ ME countries unhappy that US helps so create embargo o Gas supplies dropped, prices spiked ???? rationing ▪ $0.20/gallon ???? $0.89/gallon ∙ Energy Crisis: Nuclear Power o Electric bills rising o Nukes = savior from our dependence of oil ▪ Cheap, abundant ∙ Thought it was so cheap people would get it for free ▪ Clean ▪ Domestic o Modern environmental movement o 1979: Three Mile Island/China Syndrome ▪ Nuclear meltdown would burn hole all the way to China o 40 nuclear plant built by late 1970’s but not allowed to be operate ∙ Economic Problems o Growing deficits and debt o International competition (Germany, Japan) ▪ Us world trade dominance ended o “Stagflation” ▪ Stagnate economy w/ high inflation o Deindustrialization ???? “rust belt” ▪ NE & Upper Midwest: many factories shut down, turn to rust ∙ Jimmy Carter o Opposite of Nixon: ▪ Honest, Washington outsiderHIS 2010 12/1/16 ▪ “Wasn’t corrupted by Washington” o Ineffective president ▪ Wasn’t helpful for economic policies o Deregulation ▪ Deregulated airlines, buses, etc. ▪ Didn’t help airlines or economy o Energy Conservation: “Moral Equivalent of War” ▪ Would wear sweaters on TV to encourage people to turn their heat off ∙ Iran Hostage Crisis o Carter Foreign Policy: ▪ Détente w/ USSR ▪ Peace in the ME o Iranian Revolution, 1979 ▪ Long discontentment against US ▪ Large oil nation but were controlled by Brittan ▪ 1950’s, Iran voted Mosaddegh who wanted to nationalize the oil supply & kick out BP ▪ US helped British by getting rid of Mosaddegh & placed a dictator Pahlvi o The Shah escapes to US, students took US embassy ▪ 66 hostages, 440+ days ∙ Cultural Decay o Sex, Drugs, & Rock n’ Roll (& Disco!) o Rising Crime rates ▪ Drug use on the rise ▪ “War on Drugs” begins ∙ Was used to shut protesters (AA’s & Hippies) up by placing them in jail o Feminism ▪ Radical feminism started ▪ National Organization of Women ∙ Betty Friedan founded ▪ Equal Rights Amendment ∙ 38 states needed to amend: 35 amended immediately ∙ Phyllis Schlafly was anti-ERA because she thought gender roles would disappear entirely & gov’t would increase & ruin the daily lives of citizens o Gay Rights, etc. ∙ 1970’s Film & TV o TV Revolution: “Rural Purge” ▪ Andy Griffith, Green Acres, etc. – taken off airHIS 2010 12/1/16 ▪ Mary Tyler Moore, The Jefferson, Good Times, etc. – on air o Golden Age of American Film: ▪ The Godfather, Jaws, Star Wars, etc. ∙ All in the Family o All in the Family = 1970s America ▪ Economic problems ▪ Cultural strife ▪ The rise of the New Right, etc. ∙ Rise of the New Right o Politics: Dispossession thru big gov’t ▪ Fueled by Goldwater, Nixon, & Reagan o The New Right: ▪ Minimal gov’t ▪ Low taxes ▪ Strong nat’l. defense o The Sunbelt: (Southern US from California to Maryland) ▪ Gov’t spending (military, roads, etc.) ▪ Demographic shift to South and Southwest ▪ Basis for NR political success ∙ Reagan Revolution o Social + Economic conservatism ▪ Social decay & economic failure is linked o “…gov’t is the problem” o Revolutionize America: return it to the people who built it o Rebuild American int’l power, prestige…