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FSU - POS 2002 - FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE - Study Guide

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FSU - POS 2002 - FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE - Study Guide

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background image Chapter 13: Elections and Electoral Systems An  electoral system  is a set of laws that regulate electoral competition between  candidates or parties or both. An  electoral formula  determines how votes are translated into seats. The  district magnitude  is the number of seats allocated to each district In single member districts, DM=1 This can range from 1 to 100+, in nationwide districts. multimember district  means there are more than one representatives elected  from a particular district Senate districts in the United States, DM=2 majoritarian electoral system  is one in which the candidates or parties that  receive the most votes win. unanimous majority  is the option that wins the support of all voters. Geographic constituencies  are central to all majoritarian electoral systems. Determines the universe of the applicable “majority”. Majoritarian systems are  “candidate centric” Voters select individuals, rather than parties High on “identifiability” In a  single-member district plurality (SMDP) system  voters cast a single vote  for a candidate in district.  The candidate with the most votes wins. Examples: United Kingdom, India, Canada, Nigeria, Zambia, United States Congress
background image o Advantages Straightforward Identifiable representative Candidates incentivized to appeal to the median voter. o Disadvantages Absolute majority unnecessary Unrepresentative outcomes Voters who favored other candidate are out of luck Encourages strategic voting Voters avoid “wasting” their vote The  alternative vote  is a system of preferential voting. Preference voting  involves voters ranking candidates in order of preference on  the ballots. Voters in single member districts  rank order  the candidates. A candidate who receives an  absolute majority  is elected.  If no candidate wins an absolute majority, the candidate with the fewest votes is 
eliminated and his votes are reallocated until one candidate has an absolute 
majority.
Alternative Voting Systems Advantages Identifiable representative Winner with absolute majority Voters’ preference ranking accounted for Incentivizes sincere voting Incentivizes the cultivation of a broad base of support Increased legitimacy Disadvantages It’s complicated! Requires a literate voting population Can still result in disproportional outcomes Two-Round Systems
background image two-round system (TRS)  has the potential for two rounds of elections. If no candidate wins an absolute majority, then a second election takes 
place.
Winner of the second round is elected. Majority-Runoff TRS Candidate-centered systems in single-member districts in which voters have a 
single vote.
A candidate with an absolute majority in the first round is automatically 
elected.
If no candidate obtains an absolute majority of votes, then the top two vote 
winners compete in a runoff election.
Whoever wins a majority in the second round is elected. Most common method of presidential election  Majority-Plurality TRS Majority-plurality TRS  are candidate-centered systems in single-member  districts in which voters have a single vote. Any candidate who obtains an absolute majority of votes in the first round is 
automatically elected.
If no candidate obtains an absolute majority of votes, then all candidates that 
overcome some preordained threshold of votes can contest the second round.
Two Round Majority Systems Advantages Winner obtains an absolute majority Voters may coalesce around candidates between first and second rounds Easy to implement in societies with high illiteracy Disadvantages Costly administration Disproportional Condorcet winner not guaranteed Can trigger violence in deeply divided societies Single Nontransferable Vote In  single nontransferable vote (SNTV) systems  voters cast a single candidate- centered vote in a  multi-member district.
background image The candidates with the highest number of votes are elected. Advantages : Multimember districts allow for minority representation Multiparty representation from a single district Disadvantages : Favors incumbent and well-organized parties Few incentives to build broad-based coalitions Incentivized to strategic voting Party Block Vote party block vote  is a candidate-centric system in multimember districts all  seats are allocated to the party that wins the majority.  Proportional Electoral Systems A proportional electoral (PR) system allocates seats to parties in proportion to the 
vote share the parties win in the district (or the nation).
Proportional translation of votes into seats. Proportional representation systems differ in important ways: The district magnitude The use of electoral thresholds The precise formula used to allocate seats to parties The type of party list employed.  District Magnitude District magnitude  is critical for determining proportionality.  The district magnitude is the number of representatives elected in a district. + district magnitude, + proportionality. Electoral Thresholds The  electoral threshold  stipulates the minimum percentage of votes a party  must win to gain a seat. Legally imposed (formal threshold) or exists as a mathematical property of 
the electoral system (natural threshold).
High “barrier to entry,” results in low levels of proportionality. Electoral Formulas: Quotas and Divisors

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School: Florida State University
Department: Political Science
Course: Introduction to Comparative Politics
Professor: Quintin Beazer
Term: Fall 2015
Tags:
Name: FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE
Description: CHAPTERS 13 - 16
Uploaded: 12/07/2016
16 Pages 103 Views 82 Unlocks
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