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COLORADO / Political Science / POLSCI 1001 / What happens once we have labeled things?

What happens once we have labeled things?

What happens once we have labeled things?


School: University of Colorado at Boulder
Department: Political Science
Course: Idea Industries
Term: Fall 2016
Cost: 50
Name: Idea Industries: APRD 1000 Final Exam Fall 2016 Study Guide
Description: This is the study guide for Mindy Cheval's APRD 1000 Fall 2016 Final Exam.
Uploaded: 12/08/2016
25 Pages 47 Views 23 Unlocks


What happens once we have labeled things?

A More Beautiful Question

Chapter 2

• What is questioning?

To feel or express doubt about; raise objections to. 

• What happens once we have labeled things?

“They become known quantities - we don’t think about them, may not even notice them.” ⇒ They go into the proper file drawers of the brain.

• What does Gopnik state is the research and development arm of the human species? Children

• What happens to children and when they question?

“As kids stop questioning, they simultaneously become less engaged in school” (45).

• Understand the ways that questioning impacts our current educational system.

“...our current system of education does not encourage, teach, or in some cases even tolerate questioning…” (46).

What is the difference between just asking a question or pursuing it?

School systems praise right answers and penalize wrong ones. Students get so caught up in succeeding that there is no time for extraneous questions.

• What are the five learning skills at the core of Susan Meier’s schools?

● Evidence: How do we know what’s true or false? What evidence counts? ● Viewpoint: How might this look if we stepped into other shoes, or looked at it from a different direction?

● Connection: Is there a pattern? Have we seen something like this before? ● Conjecture: What if it were different?

● Relevance: Why does it matter?

• Where will the future of learning-by-inquiry happen?

Montessori schools offer this teaching. They are private, expensive, and and exclusive. About less than 1% of schools offer this approach.

What happens with the more questioning you do?

If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of anatomy?

Chapters 3 and 4

• What industry was Land in when his daughter asked him the beautiful question?

“According to a More Beautiful Question, what industry was Land in when his daughter asked him the beautiful question?

● Photography”

• What are the required elements for asking a powerful WHY question?

● Question the questions we are asking

● Step back

● Notice what others miss

● Take ownership of a particular question

• Know whether challenger questions create dissonance or not.

“According to A More Beautiful Question, challenger questions create dissonance: ● True”

• Understand the “5 Whys” methodology.

“According to A More Beautiful Question, ‘the 5 Whys’ methodology is a practice of which of the following:

● Questioning others’ practices”

• What is the difference between just asking a question or pursuing it?

“According to A More Beautiful Question, the difference between just asking a question or pursuing it is the difference between flirting with an idea or living with it.

● True”

• Which companies ask “what if”?

“According to A More Beautiful Question, which of the following companies asked ‘what if’? ● Pandora”

• What does a challenge in questioning in business do? We also discuss several other topics like What is a social bond theory?

“According to A More Beautiful Question, a challenge in questioning in business is rapid change.

● True”

• What questions does a company ask to find their cause?

Chapter 5 + Conclusion

• What does Jaqueline Novogratz think about investment?

“What if we could invest as a means and not as an end?” ⇒ There was no way of knowing whether it would pay off in the long run.

• What does Jaqueline Novogratz suggest students should do?

She urged students to embrace uncertainty. ⇒ “Do what your heart tells you to do.”

• What’s important about the statement “climb the mountain not to plant your flag, but to embrace the challenge, enjoy the air, and behold the view”?

“According to A More Beautiful Question, the phrase above is a reaction to: ● Our overachieving culture”

• What happens with the more questioning you do?

“People who are good at questioning are comfortable with uncertainty” (186).

• What does experimentation lead to?

“If you randomly try things in life, it can lead to haphazard results; but if you bring thought to trying new approaches or experiences - if you take time to consider why they might be worth trying, and what might be the best way to test them out, and then assess whether the trial was a success and worth following up on - it’s a more practical way to bring change into your life” (195). We also discuss several other topics like What are the consequences of meiosis?

• What does the author say you must you do in order to risk failure? In the possibility of failure, one must ask how will they recover?

• What does the process of formulating your own beautiful question look like? Start with why. ⇒ Articulate a personal challenge in form of a question.


Hannah Rosenblom and David Irons of Crispin, Porter + Bogusky • Is everything advertising?


Someone had to start thinking about how people are going to interact with all of this.

• What did the need for experience design (UX) come out of?

What is UX?

● Experience design is the practice of designing products, processes, services, events, and environments with a focus placed on the quality of the user experience and culturally relevant solutions.

● To make things work better.


● By designing them through the lens of human behavior

• What is at the core of what experience designers do?

Strong Call to Action:

Message that has a direction to go

• What do experience designers base solutions for their clients off of?


● Personas - At a Glance

● Scenarios - Comic

○ Ask the questions ourselves

● Consumer’s Journey Don't forget about the age old question of How do we regulate respiration?

● Ecosystems

● Sitemap

● Wireframe - low fidelity

● Wireframe - high fidelity

● Interactive prototypes We also discuss several other topics like Why do banks securitize mortgages?

• Know the positive examples of interactivity that were mentioned

OTHER PEOPLE WE WORK WITH: Don't forget about the age old question of What is an example of a corporate crime?

● Everyone

● Strategy

○ Provide high quality insights about our target audience, their needs, goals, behaviors, and the cultures in which they exist

● Creatives:

○ Come up with and own the concept and creative vision that drives execution ● Developers

○ Build technical platforms and bring a practical perspective to possibilities ● Analytics

○ Measure and analyze how users interact with systems to help us optimize

Courtney Loveman and Bethany Lehner from Crispin, Porter + Bogusky • Why is interesting important in the development of ideas?


● Seeking out the interesting has made all of the difference in our personal journeys and in the work we do everyday


● CP-B’s mission is built on this tension between interesting and right.

● To create the most written about, talked about and outrageously successful work in the world for our brands.

● Strategist connect the dots.

● Most people say they want to be interesting, but then they act right.


● What if right actually meant “most controversial” “most memorable” or “most surprising”? ● When you disrupt people’s reality, you get them to interact with what’s going on.

• What do things that are interesting like to do?

Interesting: wants to be bold, disruptive, to shake things up and draw attention ● New and unexpected, but understandable

● Self-propelling

Right: Likes to be validate, to feel comfortable, to stay on the safe side

Barrett Brynestad of TDA Boulder

• What is advertising all about?

“Let’s be friends” - Get consumers to be friends with brands.

● Advertising is selling your soul to the devil.

● You must know your audience.

• Know what the video clip shown from the movie Bridesmaids illustrates about advertisers.

“According to Barrett Brynestad, the video clip shown from the movie Bridesmaids illustrates how no one likes it when advertisers:

● Aren’t engaging”

• Does advertising always have to be funny?

● No

• What do brands function the same way as?

“According to Barrett Brynestad, brands function the same way as humans, you may be more willing to be friends if you get to know them:

● True”


“How to Use Data to Make a Hit TV Show” by Sebastian Wernicke • How does Roy Price decide which show to pick for Amazon?

“...he holds a competition...So he takes a bunch of ideas for TV shows, and from those ideas, through an evaluation, they select eight candidates for TV shows, and then he just makes the first episode of each one of these shows and puts them online for free for everyone to watch.”

• What data points can they collect when you’re watching a show on Amazon?

“They record when somebody presses play, when somebody presses pause, what parts they skip, what parts they watch again. So they collect millions of data points, because they want to have those data points to then decide which show they should make.”

• Know what Google announced in 2009 that they were allowed to predict based off of Google searches.

“In 2009, Google announced that they were able, with data analysis, to predict outbreaks of influenza, the nasty kind of flu, by doing data analysis on their Google searches… It worked beautifully for year after year after year, until one year it failed… So even the most data-savvy companies, Amazon and Google, they sometimes get it wrong.”

• What tools are required for the planning process?

Data and Brains

“...They use data to first understand lots of pieces about their audience that they otherwise wouldn't have been able to understand at that depth, but then the decision to take all these bits and pieces and put them back together again… Amazon, on the other hand, they did it the wrong way around. They used data all the way to drive their decision-making…”

David Kelley TED Talk “Creative Confidence”

• What is guided mastery?

“...Bandura has a step-by-step process that was super successful. So he'd take people to this two-way mirror looking into the room where the snake was, and he'd get them comfortable with that. And then through a series of steps, he'd move them and they'd be standing in the doorway with the door open and they'd be looking in there. And he'd get them comfortable with that. And then many more steps later, baby steps, they'd be in the room, they'd have a leather glove like a welder's glove on, and they'd eventually touch the snake.And when they touched the snake everything was fine. They were cured. In fact, everything was better than fine. These people who had life-long fears of snakes were saying things like, ‘Look how beautiful that snake is.’ And they were holding it in their laps.Bandura calls this process ‘guided mastery.’...”

• What was the process that led Brian to change his perspective on creative experiences forever?

“...Brian was working on a project. He was making a horse out of the clay that our teacher kept under the sink. And at one point, one of the girls who was sitting at his table, seeing what he was doing, leaned over and said to him, "That's terrible. That doesn't look anything like a horse." And Brian's shoulders sank. And he wadded up the clay horse and he threw it back in the bin. I never saw Brian do a project like that ever again.”

• Should the world be divided into two groups: creatives and non-creatives? NO

“... It would be really great if you didn't let people divide the world into the creatives and the non-creatives…”

“How Technology Makes Creative More Intelligent”

• What brands are utilizing new technology to increase enhance the advertising for their product? How are they doing so?

Today’s ad experience must be about great content.

“To ensure the content is engaging, marketers must hand over some control to the consumers themselves. It’s no longer just about delivering the experience: It’s about building in interactive features that let users choose what they want to experience.” ● Ex) Stride Gum Gumulon Campaign

Advertisers need to see how their campaigns engage audience over long term. ● Ex) Oreo Twist Campaign - Reach out to millennials (growing demographic)

• What are some of the different platforms businesses are utilizing to do so? Concept of multi-screen, creative platforms.


Must appeal to multi-device culture. ⇒ Customers react differently on their phones, tablets, computers.

• How do we connect data with creativity?


“Designers and creative art directors have to collaborate with their digital counterparts from the start so that each element of the campaign is built with data fueling the creative, not bolted on as an afterthought.”

• What are the key strategies the author mentions?

● Create compelling and engaging brand experiences

● Connect data and creative

● Build multi-screen creative

● Measure and scale

Danielle Feinberg TED Talk “The Magic Ingredient that Brings Pixar Movies to Life”

• What influenced Danielle the most after beginning her work at Pixar? Working with lighting

• What did Pixar do to make their animation in Finding Nemo?

“According to Danielle Feinberg’s TED Talk, what did the do to keep their animation grounded and realistic in Finding Nemo?”

● Coded a light to mimic the physics of water movement

• What was important about WALL-E?

“His binoculars are one of the most critical acting devices he has. He doesn't have a face or even traditional dialogue, for that matter. So the animators were heavily dependent on the binoculars to sell his acting and emotions…”

• What do they use at Pixar to create their magic worlds?

“The idea that all the math, science and code I had been learning could come together to create these worlds and characters and stories I connected with,was pure magic for me.”

“Digital Media Law: Commercial Speech and Antitrust Law”

• What is commercial speech?

“At its most basic, commercial speech is ‘speech that proposes a commercial transaction’... more broadly as ‘expression related solely to the economic interest of the speaker and its audience’...”

• First Amendment as it applies to commercial communication.

“The First Amendment protected core expression - particularly political, cultural or artistic speech - while offering essentially no protection to categories of speech deemed to be of ‘such slight social values as a step to the truth’ that the government could prevent people from using them without offending the constitution. The Court placed advertising in the latter category, where false advertising remains today. Truthful advertising has since secured a kind of second-class protection subject to greater government regulation than core expression”

Court must determine:

1. The expression concerns a lawful activity and is not misleading

2. The government interest in the regulation is substantial

3. The regulation directly advances the interest

4. The regulation is no more extensive than necessary to serve that interest

• Know what the Central Hudson Test determines (don’t memorize each part). Federal Trade Commission’s regulatory role and responsibilities.

Federal Trade Commission protects consumers against unfair or deceptive trade practices.

• Requirements for endorsements on blogs.

“According to Digital Media Law, bloggers are exempt from endorsement rules since they are just average people.

● False”

• Deceptive, unfair, subliminal, and other forms of advertising.

Deceptive: may include false oral or written misrepresentations about a product or service, omissions meant to lead consumers to false conclusions, misleading price claims, and false warranties.

Endorsements and testimonials: Both advertiser and endorsers are held liable for false or unsubstantial claims made or for failure to disclose material connections between the advertiser and endorser.

Comparative: FTC encourages this. The advertiser must identify the basis for the comparison and the comparison must be accurate.

Subliminal: supposed to act on consumers subconsciously by transmitting messages to them below the threshold of their awareness.

• Know what the Lanham Act focuses on (don’t memorize each part). UNFAIR COMPETITION

“The statute provides a civil claim against anyone who ‘use in commerce… any false of misleading representation of fact, which… in commercial advertising or promotions, misrepresents the nature, characteristics, qualities, or geographic origin of his or her or another person’s goods, services, or commercial activities”

• What is a ‘sin’ product? Can they advertise? Why or why not?

Sin products are immoral or unhealthy products:

● Gambling

○ Legal to advertise state-sponsored lotteries, and lotteries conducted by non-profits or government organizations.

● Alcohol

○ Advertisements can’t target youth (Be within 500 feet of any church, school, or public playground)

● Tobacco products

○ Cannot be advertised

“Ethics 1: Stereotyping - The Commodification of Identity”

• Definition of stereotypes.

Stereotyping: a character shortcut or a form of shorthand that groups a number of shared characteristics under one label

• Dividing the market into different types of consumers vs. stereotyping - differences?

“A basic strategy of marketers or marketing communicators is to divide the market into types of people or consumers, on the basis of some identifiable and common attributes. This process of segmentation allows for an understanding of people, their habits, and their personalities and characteristics and assists in the creation of relevant messages for those segments or target audiences.”

• Examples of stereotyping vs. problematic stereotyping

Stereotypes: (Not necessarily a bad thing)

● Mother

● Wife

● Mexican

● Homosexual

Problematic Stereotyping:

● Gender

● The sexual woman

● The thin ideal

● The domestic woman

● Ethnic and racial stereotyping

● Omission and underrepresentation

• Desirable vs. undesirable results of stereotyping


● Effective and efficient communication about products to consumers through typical images that consumers can identify.


● Deceptive (misrepresents or underrepresents)

● Promote product by degrading people through portraying them in negative way

• Ways commercial communication damages society, culture and democracy. ● Compromises people’s dignity for the sake of a product

● People are insulted, ridiculed, and demeaned


Solving problems via strategy.

• Four areas strategist research to find insight

1. Understanding Everything About the Physical Product

2. The Market

3. Look At The User

4. Look At The Culture, product culture, and general culture ( the mood)

• Why is culture important in strategy development?


• Why are questions important in strategy development?

● The beginning of every strategy starts with questions.

⇒ You can’t begin fixing something, unless you know what you’re going to fix ● Questions allow us to create choices.

● Ideas are about making choices:

• What right questions did Under

Armor, Puma, Apple and Clearasil ask

to find insight?


● Highlighted how the brand

connected to marker culture


Audi Commercial:

● “This is the luxury car for young people”

● Ex) Audi doesn’t compete with Ford. It competes with other luxury cars such as Mercedes and BMW


● Who are we playing with and what do they offer?

● How can we disrupt the norms in the market?


● Puma knows they weren't an athletic shoe or fashion shoe. Puma decided they would create their own world.

● “After hours athlete” Ad


● How is the product, category perceived within US culture?

● How might culture change perception of this category or brand?


● “Where did the American Dream go?” Campaign

● “All homes are created equal”


● What does the brand offer that is better than the competition?

• What is a creative brief? What is the key component?

Creative Brief is the first step in the creative process.

● What is it that we’re trying to accomplish?

● Strategic Plan that a client and agency agree on.

○ Ex) Brief: Who are we talking to? What is the single most important message we want to communicate? Why should people believe this? What tone of voice should we use? What do we want people to feel? What are the requirements? Where should we put it?

“According to Lecture, which of the following is the key component to any creative brief? ● An insight”

• Why do strategists dig holes?

Strategy is about digging for information ⇒ There are different “hole digging” options


● Ex) Oreo:

○ Hiistory

○ How is the cookie doing in the market

○ Components of the brand/product

○ Manufacturing

○ Retail

○ Cultural ties

○ Consumer ties


● Snack industry

● Packaged food industry

● Trends in foods

● Nutrition within cultural

• Why do you need good strategy in commercial communication?

• Problem, insight and idea behind Ortho Fire Ant, Puma, Cole Haan, How have companies used facts/research as the foundation of a campaign?

COLE HAAN Born in 1928:

● Not for younger, fashionable audience

● Cole Haan = comfortable, conventional brown

shoes; Everyone’s mom’s favorite brand

● Serious shoe problem

● Partnership with Nike = increase style and


● Everyone who used the shoe had a 20 hour


● Fashion and comfort come together


● Puma knows they weren't an athletic shoe or fashion shoe. Puma decided they would create their own world.

● “After hours athlete” Ad

Ortho Fire Ant:

● The insight leading into this radio ad was that fire ants were not lovable.

Creating ideas: Finding insights. Different types of ideas.

• What are the four steps in the creative process?

● Creative brief

● Concepts

● Campaigns

● Production

• What is disruption? How is it used?

When people’s reality is disrupted, they interact with what’s going on. And when they interact, it is no longer just an ad. It’s cultural currency.

• How does the conflict between interesting versus right impact communication? Examples of making common items interesting.

Make Boring Things Interesting

● Ex) Cars 75 years ago

○ Problem: Accidents on the road

○ Need: A way to increase communication

○ Basic Idea: Use cars to talk to each other

○ Executional Idea: Break lights and turn signals.

● Ex) Coke Share a Coke with a Friend: Inspire creativity, passion, optimism, and fun ○ Had nothing to do with the product, just making the product more fun

● Ex) Mercedes vs Jaguar:

○ Mercedes made an interesting chicken commercial.

○ Jaguar took the risk and made a spoof of Mercede’s commercial.

○ This risk made Jaguar interesting

• What is a basic idea versus an executional idea?

“A basic idea is a:

● Concept”

“According to lecture, Mercedes-Benz demonstrating their car’s stability control feature using a chicken is an example of:

● A creative executional idea”

Creating and executing ideas. The art and science of making stuff. • What is the process of executing ideas?


● Message

● Placement


● Producing advertising

● Design press packets

● Executing publicity tours

● Bringing designed objects to market


● developing/executing purchased media

● News release distribution

● Event placement

● Influencer marketing execution

• How is technology impacting the commercial communication field?

• What is media? What is its main function?

**A relationship between the media and the consumer**

WHY DOES MEDIA EXIST? ⇒ Trying to find an audience

● Functionality

● Money

● Relevance:

○ Media consumed at home

○ Media consumed work

○ Media consumed on the go

● Fulfills a need

○ From Entertainment and information

● Strength of the network

○ People Magazine: Changes content

■ Reaches 43.7 million people weekly

○ US Magazine:

■ Reaches 14 million people weekly

● Strength of Brand

○ The Washington Post

○ Rolling Stone

● Size of audience

○ Facebook

● Value:

○ Cost of property based on audience dynamics

■ Walking Dead: $400,000/30 Seconds = 16 million viewers

■ Big Bang Theory: $345,000/30 Seconds = 16.7 viewers

• How do ideas drive media selection?

• How is media targeting developed? What are the three different approaches?

WHAT MEDIA DOES… determines who needs to be influenced… and figures out how to get a message to them.

• How is programmatic changing media targeting?

Ethics and regulations in commercial communication

• Eight controversial issues - define/identify/be able to identify examples. 1. Puffery : “An expression of opinion not made as a representation of fact”

a. Budweiser - “Nothing Beats a Bud”

b. “World’s Best Coffee”

c. Jif - “Choosy Moms Choose Jif”

d. Coors Light - “Cold as the Rockies”

e. Snapple - “Made from the Best Stuff on Earth”

f. Papa John's - “Better Ingredients, Better Pizza”

2. Decency: Sexual innuendo, violence

a. MAC Makeup- Miley Cyrus


b. Abercrombie and Fitch

c. Axe / Lynx Ads

3. Stereotyping: Perpetuation of

negative values in the context of a


a. Men and women

b. Materialistic Ideal

c. The Perfect (fill in the blank)

d. Sex

e. Fear and Guilt

4. Deceptive Communication

5. Children

a. Fruit-Loops website

b. Eggo: Punished because it kids bought the product due to animated characters, not food product.

c. Ring Pop “Rock that Rock” ad:

i. Targeted kids to post pics with ring pops without parent permission. d. Kids dressed as adults

i. Calvin Klein: Kids wore these products. It was acceptable in some magazines (where mothers were the target audience) and not in others. e. Children and Technology:

i. Apple refunded $32.5 million because of kids spending money in games. ii. Inmobi- they tracked the locations of hundreds of millions of consumers , including children, without their consent.

6. Controversy

a. Condoms

i. Scented Condom Ad

b. Drugs

i. Sisley Fashion junkie - Ad plays on model stereotype that they do cocaine.

c. Alcohol

i. Bloomingdales “Spike your best friends eggnog when they’re not looking” d. Religion

i. Benaton- pushing social issues, recently they photoshopped world leaders kissing each other, unhate campaign

ii. Virgin mobile- ad, it’s a holiday for all of us...offensive

7. Disclosure

a. In-feed native ads

b. #spon- sponsored

8. Privacy

a. Facebook - punished for

updating privacy agreement

without telling users.

b. Walmart collects 2.5

petabytes of data/hour

9. Just Not Tasteful (Mindy’s Opinion)

a. Crispin Porter Bad Super

Bowl Ad - Offensive to Tibet,

promoted Groupon

• Purpose of the FTC.Three types of regulation.

Federal Trade Commission: A bipartisan federal agency with a unique dual mission to protect consumer and promote competition.

1. Regulation - Someone makes you do it

2. Co- Regulation - parties work together

3. Self- Regulation - Individual action

• Purpose/concerns of regulation.

• Five FTC concerns – be able to identify examples.

1. Deception

a. X-box offers incentive to those who talk nicely about them

b. Nissan and Dune buggy video - Nissan truck was being supported by cables.

2. Comparisons

a. Must be accurate (significant statistical information)

3. Endorsements

a. Must be who they say they are and they must use the product

4. Demonstrations

a. Must clarify if simulation

b. Must identify pro driver, or what they are doing

5. “Bait and Switch”

a. Must do what you say you will do

• Remedies for deceptive advertising – be able to identify case examples.

1. Content decree- FTC asks the marketer to stop

2. Cease & Desist- FTC gets court order to force marketer to stop

3. Corrective Measures- FTC mandates new communication to correct false perceptions 4. Consumer Redress- FTC mandates reimbursement

• Six government regulatory groups (ex: FDA) – be able to identify examples of issues each would be involved with.

1. FDA - Packaging and Labeling

2. FCC - Broadcast Advertising

3. Postal Service - Magazines, direct mail

4. ATF - Liquor labeling, advertising

5. Potent Office - Trademarks

6. Library of Congress - Copyrights

• What is puffery and how is it different than deception?

Puffery: an exaggerated statement based on opinion, not fact.

● Jif: Choosy moms choose Jif

● Papa John's: Better Ingredients. Better Pizza.

Deception: may include false oral or written misrepresentations about a product or service, omissions meant to lead consumers to false conclusions, misleading price claims, and false warranties.

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