Study Guide Test 2
Study Guide Test 2 KIN202 Wesley Smith Applied Nutrition for Health & Performance
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This 35 page Study Guide was uploaded by Avi Fox on Wednesday April 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to KIN202 Wesley Smith Applied Nutrition for Health & Performance at University of Miami taught by Wesley Smith in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 363 views. For similar materials see Applied Nutrition for Health and Performance in Kinesiology at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 04/08/15
Be able to describe heart disease mechanisms related to high blood glucose high blood pressure cholesterol oxidation and inflammation What lifestyle methods can be used to combat HBP high blood glucose high blood pressure small LDLs oxidative stress and inflammation lose weight more omega 3 s more vegies exercise don t smoke gt195quot 8 What are the CAD risk factors Family history firstdegree relative male before age of 55 female before age of 65 Estrogen protects arterial wall Smokers have a 300 increase risk When you smoke all the particles rush to the heart The arteries that line a smoker s heart are much stickier than the average person High blood pressure have it measured on 2 different occasions and the systolic contract top is 140 or higher and the diastolic is 90 or higher LDL lt 130mgdl or HDL gt40mgdl Elevated fasting blood glucose Obese BMIgt30 Waistgt 40 Sedentary lifestyle 150 minutes a week of brisk walking or 75 minutes of vigorous training HDL 60 or more subtracts one risk factor Smoking increasing adhesion molecules General process of plaque forming behind the artery wall Lifestyle change is as effective or greater than medicine What is the criterion someone needs to meet to not be sedentary more than 150 minutes a week of moderate intensity or 75 minutes of vigorous intensity How does exercise elicit an antiinflammatory effect during exercise when the muscle relaxes it releases anti in ammatory enzymes Name 5 antiinflammatory phytochemicals Capsaicin Resveratrol Diallydisulfide Curcumin Catechins Quercetin Carotenoids Sulforphane What is the difference between the omega 6 omega 3 acid ratio of grassfed versus grainfed beef In grass fed omega 63 171 in grain fed its 17 71 Grass contains more omega 3 s vs the grain fed corn and grains contain higher omega6 s What is the set point theory It s a persons regulatory system for their natural body weight Each person has a set weight that their body gets used to and as a result when one either loses weight or gains weight the body tries to get back to that equilibrium point It is regulated by the hypothalamus and from feedback from the fat cells in the body When in life is fat cell number determined most Fat cell number is determined most during 0 1 3 5 and during adolescence 10 What is the firston lastoff theory This theory states that the place your body tends to store fat first is the last place that you ll lose it from Body fat distribution is determined by genetics gender and hormone regulation that can lead to different types of fat patterning Either android central its easier to lose because its not more fat cells the cells are just larger where as gynoid thighs butt and hip fat Is Characterized by a lot of fat cells therefore harder to lose but has no correlation to increase risk of disease 11 Be able to explain the Pima Indians and the Thrifty Genotype The thrifty genotype is the idea that back with our ancestors it was favorable to be able to store extra adipose tissue when food became scarce Now that we have so much of it available to us its not only not beneficial its maladaptive The pima Indians are a prime example the ones who continue to eat a hunter and gather lifestyle are lean and healthy but the ones who recently adopted a sedentary lifestyle are very good at storing extra adipose tissue and are more prone to obesity and diabetes 12 What substances lead to an energy burden on the liver causing it to put out more sugar and synthesize more fat Alcohol stress and inactivity raises cortisol levels and fructose 13 What is metabolic syndrome Metabolic syndromeneed 35 Risk of diabetes goes up 2400 Dominal obesity male 40inbelly button female 35in High blood pressure over 130 High triglyceridesover 150 circulating fats in blood Low HDL good cholesterol high density lipoproteins High blood glucosesugar blood glucose over 109 P PPPL Men waist circumference greater than 40 inches triglcerides over 150 HDL less than 40 Bp greater than 13085 fasting glucose greater than 100 Women waist circumference greater than 35 triglyceridesgt 150 hdl less than 50 bp 13085 fasting glucose 100 14 What is the Framingham Score it s a score that tells you your risk of getting cardio vascular disease in the next 10 years 15 What is a normal healthy blood pressure and how do changes in SBP and DBP alter heart disease risk Normal healthy blood pressure diastolic systolic lt115lt 75 For every 201 0 pts excess the risk for cardiovascular disease doubles 16 What are the risk factors for high blood pressure High salt diet Excess body weight BMI greater than 27 85 of people with hbp have a bmi greater than 25 alcohol and cigarette abuse Vitamin D deficiency aging and stress 17 Give 5 lifestyle modifications recommended for managing hypertension Reduce weight BMI 185 249 can reduce systolic by 5 20mm 10kg weight loss Adopt Dash Eating plan Diet rich in fruits Veggies and low fat dairy products Reduce saturated fats Reduce dietary sodium increase physical activity at least 30 minutes day Moderate alcohol consumption no more than 2 drinks day 18 Describe the DASH diet Diet rich in fruits Veggies and low fat dairy products Reduce saturated fats 19 What is homocysteine and how is it related to CAD It is a byproduct of methionine and metabolism during protein synthesis The higher homocystein the larger the risk of getting Coronary artery disease Can lower homocysteine by eating vegetables high in B9 folate Folate converts homocysteine back into methionine High levels of homocysteine is a marker for a diet high in meat and low in vegetables 20 What was the practical significance of the ARIC study The ARIC Atherosclerosis risk in communities study showed 4 things one can do over the course of 4 years to reduce your risk of CAD by 40 1 Don t smoke 2 Maintain a BMI under 30 3 Eat 5 tennis ball servings of fruits and veggiesday The less cooked and more skin the better they are 4 Doing vigorous exercise more than 150 minutes week where you are sweating 21 22 23 24 What were some major findings of the Diabetes Prevention Study That lifestyle change was 40 more effective than medication and to prevent 1 case of diabetics in 3 years 69 pre diabetics need to enroll in a lifestyle prevention program 139 would need to take medication Differentiate between type 1 and type 2 diabetes Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder where the pancreas is being attacked by immune cells and cant produce insulin Type 2 people become more resistant to insulin so the amount of insulin produced in the body needs to go up to compensate All that extra insulin get stored as fat Provide the 9 key nutritional guidelines specified in lecture that are instrumental in combatting obesity Eat breakfast eat for nutrient density avoid processed carbs sugars have aequate hydration high fiber diet between 25 35 CHO 45 replacing fat with protein to increase thermic effect of food 30 of protein can be used to digest the protein shoot for 500 cal deficit day be mindful when eating What is a calorie A calorie is the amount of energy it takes to raise lg of water by 1 degree Celsius 25 How many calories are in a lb of fat 3500 calorieslb 26 How would you design a weight management program designed for 1Lb per week of fat loss have a SOOcal deficitday 50073500 calories 1 lb 27 28 What are 10 key recommendations for weight gain High volume of weight training focused on muscle groups daily rather than Whole body exercises High volume of sets 812 repetitions each 400500 caloriesday 1618g of protein kgbw Have Whey protein before and during resistance training 51 gkgbw Within 30 minutes post consume chocolate soy milk or organic Whole milk and consume food to obtain 15 g of carb 5 protein Take 1 g creatine monohydrate per kgbw with the recovery meal creatine has a high phosphate used for ATP and increases osmotic pressure enzymes that create muscle can be turned on Beta alanine and HMB may be ergogenic for weight gain Sleep 8 hours per day Abstain from alcohol Hydrate optimally Alter the program Explain how each of the following can be used to potentially increase muscle mass during a workout want a 15g carb5 g protein kg bw whey protein it s a gold standard protein has the highest rate of absorption for the protein digestibility correct amino acid score It allows a rapid increase in the plasma amino acid pool without causing GI distress Organic Soy milk Although it isn t a complete protein it has more antioxidant and glutamine than whey protein making it an ideal recovery protein 29 Chocolate milk has 2 gold standard proteins have high concentrations of essential amino acids Whey and Casein Has a 31 ratio of sugar to protein Nestle quick chocolate milk was better for gaining muscle than many expensive supplements Want 15g carbs and 25 g protein per kg body weight Casin Protein HMB hydroximetho buteralate Ensure metabolite of leucine main branch chain amino acid found in catfish and grapefruit If you have leucine breakdown shows muscles breaking down Tricks muscles into thinking they need to defend themselves Helps preserve muscle from workout to workout Precursor to cholesterol found in cell membrane No negative side effects Found in cat sh and grapefruit Creatine 1 week 1525gday Followed by a 01gkgbwday with 31 carb to protein within 3 minutes post exercise Creatine helps replenish ATP quickly Shows that it can increase muscle mass but mostly muscle water When you increase osmotic pressure in muscle can increase enzymes for more protein People cycle it to maintain sensitivity Vegans have no creatine in their diet but respond very well to creatine supplements Beta Alanine combines with Histidine to form carnosine Buffers acid in the muscle cells that helps grow muscle Allows more anaerobic work weight liftingsprinting to be performed Starchy root vegetables Raises insulin levels and helps with replenishing glycogen stores Provide the staples for the Anticancer diet Adequate not excessive caloric intake higher the caloric intake the higher your metabolism the more oxygen you consume the more free radicals you produce The lower your RMR the lower free radicals produced Overeating can result in shorter lifespans by producing higher carcinogens More than 10 servings of vegetables a day including cruciferous vegetables 6 ounces of juice 1 serving High fiber diet No refined sugar and our Cancer only uses sugar for fuel A lower glycemic diet is the best diet Insulin is anabolic and promotes the turn over of the cells Low total fat but need essential fatty acids No red meats Balanced ratio of omega 3omega 6 Rich in folic acid and B 12regulating cell turn over replicating and preventing errors in DNA transcription Need to methylate it I Rich in antioxidants Want to lower in ammation 30 What is angiogenesis and provide some inhibitors of angiogenesis The formation of new blood vessels Soy resveratrol green tea onions garlic spice black tea Adding these phytochemicals you reduce the risk of cancer cells to produce blood vessels cant grow Connection between obesity and angiogenesis need a 1 mile of new blood vessels in order to make a 11b of fat 31 What is Cancer Without Disease we have tons of microscopic cancer cells in our bodies at all times however they are currently harmless because they cant grow 32 ldentify anticarcinogenic phytochemicals in each of the following 0 Green Leafy vegetables Vitamins BAC K quercetin Lutien Zeaxanthin 0 Brassicas Cabbage broccoli sprouts cauli ower sulfur rich Sulforaphane Indole3Carbinol Carotenoids 0 AlliumsOnions garlics and leaks Selenium Allicin makes you cry 0 Red fruits and vegetables Anthocyanins 0 Purples and Blue Plant Pigments Anthocyanins Ellagic acid Flavonoids 0 Orange and Yellow Vegetables Beta carotene lutein lycopene and carotenoids Teas and Indian Spices catechins and ECGC s turmeric 33What minerals make up bone density Calcium and phosphorous 34What is the RDA for calcium for a healthy young adult Up to 20 need 1200mg than need about lOOOmg 35When Does peak bone mass occur in men and women Early 20 s 36What is an indirect predictor of an individuals bone mass 37What are 5 prevalent vegetable sources of calcium Green leafy vegetables Edemame Grape leaves Seaweed Broccoli 38What is the technical definition of osteoporosis versus the practical definition Bone mineral density 25 standard deviations below peak bone mass when the fracture threshold is reached 39What is the hip fracture fall mortality rate in the elderly 24 die after 1 year 40 What is a women s risk of fracture from osteoporosis in her lifetime 41 What percentage of American children get 400mg of calcium day 8001200 RDA 12 42What is the female athlete triad Osteoporosis eating disorder and amenorrhea lose menstrual cycle 43 What is the relationship between menarch getting a period later in life ovarian cycle regularity and bone mass That estrogen binds to cells in bones called osteoblasts but when they have irregularities in menstrual cycle estrogen is usually to low The more years with a normal cycle the stronger the bones But women starting their menstrual cycle late and getting early menopause is a terrible combination 44What are 6 lifestyle strategies to prevent or ameliorate lone bone mineral density Having more Vitamin D calcium Women getting DeXi scans Not smoking Doing weight bearing exercise 45Where does vitamin D come from and how does it relate to bone mineral density Comes from sunlight and it allows you absorb more calcium 46ln a study with over 200K female patients how many had osteopenia 20000 had undiagnosed osteopenia 1000 had undiagnosed osteoporosis 47 How does osteoporosis compare as a cause of mortality in women Highest cause of mortality in women greater than ovarian and breast cancer combined 48 How does one die from osteoporosis From falling and fracturing bones getting DVT s and pulmonary embolism 49How much bone mass is lost after 1 week of bed rest 1 of bone loss per week of bed rest 50What is in cruciferous and green leafy vegetables that aids in bone formation 51 What interesting fruit may increase bone formation and why Prunes 52Think of a type of exercise program ideal for bone growth Weight bearing exercises Test 2 Role of lipoproteinscholesterol in heart disease Pathogens of heart disease Coronary Heart Disease Role of blood pressure in ammation oxidative stress and blood glucose Nutritional mechanisms of prevention 1 cause of death in the world Coronary artery disease food born illness that develops over time Could tell between Vietnamese and Americans by looking at the plaque in the arteries It starts at a young age and by 4050 have advances legions on the arteries Coronary arteries the small branches that carryoxygenated blood to the heart The plaque formed here doesn t give enough blood ow to the heart then cant give any blood to brain or the rest of the body Plaque forms behind the artery lining that causes in ammation and then it builds a bubble that can burst that causes a heart attack when a clot forms to stop it Bypass is trying to bypass these areas Insert a catheter with balloon and then insert a stent Extensive fatty deposits on the wall that can rupture 1 Damage to endothelial lining one cell layer thick smooth allows blood to ow without anything blocking it Damage can be caused by Stress from high blood pressure sugaracts as a reducing agentirritate the wall when its high in blood free radicals and in ammation 2 Creates permeable area and LDLsmall LDL gets in Cholesterol Lipoproteins comes out of liver as VDLDL deposits fat along body becoming LDL One enzyme created is Lipoprotein lipase removes fat and cholesterol from blood If you sit for a lot you lose a lot of those Gets to damage in the heart and gets sucked through the permeable area in the endothelial lining 3 The LDL turns rancidbeing oxidized activating in ammation recruiting 4 The causes the walls to get stickier adhesion molecules cause the walls to catch the white blood cells Macrophage big eater digests ldl creating a big foam 0611 Foam cell causes more oxidative stress Atherosclerosis legion the artery wall thickens as a result of invasion and accumulation of white blood cells for every 1 pts you raise you reduce risk of heart disease by 8 Raise by 4pts reduce risk by 32 HDL binds to foam cell and remove the cholesterol from inside your body and out of the artery Counters LDL People with small LDL have high triglycerides and small HDL If LDL is large doesn t get in High level of triglycerides is high level of insulin Eventually plaque can rupture as it expends into vessel Platelets come in and try to stop it High triglycerides and low HDL dyslipidemia CAD Risk factors 1 Family history firstdegree relative male before age of 55 female before age of 65 Estrogen protects arterial wall 2 Smokers have a 300 increase risk When you smoke all the particles rush to the heart The arteries that line a smoker s heart are much stickier than the average person 3 High blood pressure have it measured on 2 different occasions and the systolic contract top is 140 or higher and the diastolic is 90 or higher LDL lt 130mgdl or HDL gt40mgdl Elevated fasting blood glucose Obese BMIgt30 Waistgt 40 Sedentary lifestyle 150 minutes a week of brisk walking or 75 minutes of vigorous training 8 HDL 60 or more subtracts one risk factor Smoking increasing adhesion molecules General process of plaque forming behind the artery wall lifestyle change is as effective or greater than medicine gt195quot What is CRP C reactive protein Name plant chemicals phytochemicals that can lower CRP How does exercise lower CRP How does weight loss What are the Eiocsaniods The significance of the pe Monocyte Disagree with cholesterol as the main cause of but there are other factors that effect it such as the damage that comes first Blood vessels walls stick out adhesion molecules to bind to white blood cells as they pass In ammation linked to the white blood cells the adhesion molecules and the foam cells Jupiter trial lowering in ammation was more effective at keeping them alive then lowering cholesterol By lowering in ammation the other drugs were more effective Using CPR as an indicator of in ammation CRP over 10gdL the person has a dramatic increase in heart disease If you have systemic in ammation it s an indicator of heart disease Drug companies were upset because there products solely fought cholesterol in the liver Inactivity over 150 or 75 minutes of training is considered nonsedentary To be fit need to double that and add weight training Atherosclerosis an autoimmune disease that can be asystematic for almost 40 years But it can be reversed in as little as 10 days Inactivity in ammation linked to diabetes neurodegeneration Alzheimer s can be considered type 3 diabetes growth of tumors When working out IL6 is antiin ammatory we get when we work out Given Ecoli while working out on a bike The person didn t contract a fever because of the presence of Ecoli Muscles release these to lower in ammation Nutrition and In ammation Trans fat major promoter of in ammation Processed foods animal products increase in ammation Visceral obesity is a major promoter of in ammation Capsaicin phenolic compound of red chili with antioxidant protection Resveratrol found in grapes Highest found in red wine Has antioxidant and anti in ammatory Lowers adhesion molecules Diallyldisul de isolated from garlicRussian penicillin and brassicas has various anti in ammatory and antioxidant mechanisms of protection Shown to induce apoptosis of human colon cancer cells through cox 2 inhibitions Curcumin found in mustards yellow spices from ginger Catechins green and black tea EGCG polyphenol has color antiin ammatory and has shown to reduce cancer and shown to put it into remission Quercitin works like caffeine in the body by inhibiting adenosine Caffeine is a natural phytochemical Carotenoids major antiin ammatories Sulforphane NFKB inhibition Found in kale Plant based diet and exercise are major ways to reduce heart attacks by their majors Obesity Adiponectin antiin ammatory released in fat loss opposite of Leptin when you gain fat Speaker Functional Cardiology Utilizing the newest research through integrative approaches In ammation underlying cause of most diseases Chronic in ammation Diabetes neurological and neurodegenetive diseases pulmonary diseases osteoporosis cardiovascular disease congestive heart failure high cholesterol In ammation is in every stage of cardiovascular disease CRP and homositine markers for in ammation Current standard of care bp medication low fatsat fat diets low sodium lose weight the change is due to diet Losing fat lowers in ammation that lowers cardiovascular risk Integrative medicine treats individuals not just disease Dietary cholesterol doesn t equate to blood cholesterol What do we substitute fat with saturated fat for carbs no change but carbs for simple saturated fats lowered cardiovascular risk Not all fats treated equally Insulin helps us utilize sugar and lowers the blood sugar content Carb control is necessary increases risk of blood coagulation and increase in blood pressure Antiin ammatory diet approach certain foods decrease in ammation and increase immune response Eat a Wide variety of color to increase variety of phytonutrients Low glycemic fruits and non starchy vegetables should make up 50 Fruits and starchy vegies are best forms of carbohydrates Whole grains cooked in pot is next best Sardines Wild salmon canned salmon instead of canned tuna mercury Herbs and spices potent antiin ammatories and antimicrobials Bone broth potent antiin ammatory and for helping gut digestion Helps With arthritis and athletes Avoid alcohol transfat artificial avors synthetic colors preservatives artificial sweeteners high fructose corn syrupincreases dyslipidemia obesity High omega 6 omega 3 causes in ammation MSG rats become fat and insulin resistant breach in blood brain barrier MSG causes issues Morning star processed soy MSG yeast extract hydrolyzed yeast soups avored chips crackers Better fats fats in coconut thought to have better thermogenic effect have anti in ammatories and antimicrobials Extra virgin cold pressed olive oil is better than others because they have antioxidants UC Davis 69 extra virgin olive oil was fake diluted With other ingredients Ghee clarified butter all dairy removed One breed of rats With cardiovascular disease showed no negative With it being 5 of diet At 10 it did have an issue 2 other genetically bred rats had no problems Those With psoriasis had no problems Food sensitivities immune system is major regulator of in ammation if one is constantly given foods that we are allergic to leads to chronic in ammation Vegan diet success With diets is in the antiin ammatory approach foods they eat Nutrigenetics studies showing that you may have a predisposition but the genes expression is dependent on life style Eating right limiting stress getting enough sleep exercising Imbalance of omega3 s and 6 s in the diet omega6 promotes in ammation and blood clotting Omega3 s lower in ammation Optimally should be a 41 ratio its currently 401 Obesity BMI over 30 Between ages of 2040 BMI isn t helpful because people have changing muscle mass Weight circumference would be better Average person in a cardiac rehab center has a BMI over 30 Cardio metabolic disease is better cause it involves both Conventional treatments don t help lose weight just strengthen heart Losing 710 of body weight leads to a 60 reduction in in the risk of type 2 diabetes Larger portion sizes have increased obesity and they keep going up Mindless eating If the current trend doesn t change by 2200 all Americans will weigh at least 2201bs 100 kg Sugar it acts as a stimulant that is addictive and doesn t fill you up Produces high triglycerides that mess with your natural set point regulation First on Last off theory Wherever you first store fat is the last place you lose it Body fat distribution is determined by genetics and gender Its where your hormone receptors are Fat patterning Android Obesity central easier to lose because it is more about fat size linked to disease Gynoid obesity thighs buttocks and hip fat Characterized by a lot of fat cells that is harder to lose because they divide more Gynoid fat has no correlation to increase risk of disease Cell size an obese person has larger fat cell size but what is worse is that obese people have a lot more fat cells Childhood Obesity fat cell numbers are established at 0135 and adolescence Can gain and lose weight faster at these ages Breastfeeding gives more protein natural sugars and microbial that protects the baby 35 give kids food to shut them up Adolescence big problem comes with inactivity Lean mass has a higher density than fat mass more metabolically active than fat mass Includes muscle bone organs and other nonlipid containing tissue Kids need a caloric surplus to gain lean mass Evolution of Obesity thrifty genotype the ability to store adipose tissue in the body was an aid to survival because food was scarce But now that we have to much food it is no longer a beneficial adaptation Pima Indians originally hunters and gatherers the ones who continue to live as hunters are lean but the ones who recently adopted sedentary life style are more efficient at storing calories and have high rates of obesity and diabetes It s a criticism of the calories in calories out theory Inactive and stress fructose and alcoholgoes only to liver causes a liver fuel overload that turns into increased glucose output Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease NAFLD from eating a lot of sugar Leads to Cancer and heart disease Increased insulin production leads to increased sodium retention that leads to hypertension slide 52 NON HDL cholesterol under 190 Total cholesterol HDL LDL how fat gets deposited HDL is how cholesterol from blood vessels get eliminated 60 yr old male smokes BP gt 140 no medication Total cholesterol 210 HDL 30 This questionnaire is as accurate as taking a test Relationship between salt and hypertension What salt stress it Homosystine and its relationship with plant vs animal intake Key aspects of the diabetes prevention program DPP Type 15 diabetes How they diagnose diabetes and taking glucose measurement in a postprandial state after eating What does A1C represent Diabetes high blood sugar in type 1 you aren t producing insulin type 2 you aren t responding to the insulin 13 children expected to develop it 23 of minorities Leading cause of Kidney failure because it damages blood vessels Its also 1 cause of adult blindness because it has cells grow behind it Limb Amputations also comorbid 300 risk of cardiovascular mortality and a shortened lifespan by about 15 years ARIC Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study 4 things over the course of 4 years and reduce your risk of cardiovascular disease by 40 1 Don t smoke 2 BMI under 30 3 Eat 5 fresh veggies and fruits tennis ball size servings per day Less cooked more skin more fresh the better 4 Vigorous Exercise gt150 minutesweek 6 metabolisms or higher where you would perspire High Blood Pressure hypertension Essential Hypertension 9095 cases in which there is no medical cause Used to think that s the way your body needed it Huge paradox more people with hypertension than 20 years ago even though we have more medicine Hypertension stage 1 systolicdiastolic 140l60mmHg9099 mmHg need it checked on 2 separate occasions For every 20 point 10 points over 11575 doubles risk of CVD People with stage 1 hypertension might just be told to exercise because fitness can lower it 5 points losing weight can lower it 5 points and after a workout can lower it 10 points Stage 2 needs 2 medicines Salt Stress the problem with normal studies is they only look at immediate results Need to follow over along time which is Salt Stress Epidemiological studies indicate that in populations of normotensive and hypertensive subjects a strong association is observed between high sodium intake and increased aortic rigidity independent of both age and BP Homocysteine by product of methionine metabolism during protein synthesis Get rid of it through B9 folate that turns it back to methionine Homocysteine acts as a radical and damages blood vessel Increases risk of heart disease to that of smokers Taking folate supplements don t lower risk of CVD Methionine animal products So if you are high in meat and low in veggies High homocysteine is a marker of high meat to low veggies The more red meat and processed meat you consume the greater the risk of death cancer mortality and CVD however didn t look at organic meats and pasteur raised meats If you eat white meat you have a slight reduction in death Anything with hooves increases it and processed meats as well Diabesity Cardio metabolic disease Obese sibling you have a 42 increase risk But a close friend raises it to 171 Suggests its more lifestyle than genetics 1517 million people with diabetes in the US number one health care expenditure 60 million prediabetics Diabetes Prevention Study focused on lifestyle consultation vs normal doctors prescribing metformin that only told them to cut fats and exercise Lifestyle change only was 40 more effective than Medication group Metformin is the 2rld most prescribed drug in the US after Viagra sign of high blood pressure and a risk of prediabetics To prevent 1 case of diabetes in 3 years 69 prediabetics would need to enroll need 139 prediabetic would need to take medication Average diabetic costs clinics 10000year Lifestyle change could cut this in half through a comprehensive lifestyle change Retention rate of people taking medicine was 74 retention of people staying on diet Type 1 Diabetes body doesn t produce enough insulin in the pancreas Its an autoimmune disease because pancreas is being attacked by immune cells These are the diabetics that require insulin Type 2 Diabetes Become more resistant to insulin so the amount of insulin needs to go up to compensate All the insulin in the body than goes to making fat Type 15 diabetes Pancreas begin to die due to apoptosis cant compensate with making so much insulin Once this happens they can no longer produce insulin and they become type 1 Blood sugar kept rising and kept damaging all their blood vessels Diabetes sympotoms Starving vision blurry numbness in hands andor feet always thirsty sexual problems wounds don t heal sudden weight loss frequent urination and always tired lot of people are not getting diagnosed because they are right on the edge or diabetes Its better to test postprandial glucose do a 75g glucose challenge Frahamingham study whether your going to have cardio vascular disease in the next 10 years Diabetes Test inability to clear glucose from the body 2 hours post 75g glucose challenege Nondiabetic lt140 prediabetic 140199 diabetic 200 Fasting normal would be lt100 100125 125 Hemoglobin AlC marker of glucose stress in the blood lt6 is good over 7 at risk of developing diabeties 8 is diabetic The higher A1C the higher chance for these diseases Retinopathy The higher blindness Nephropathykidney failure Neuropathynerve damage microalbuminuriakidney damage Theres also a large correlation between medical cost and high AlC levels Characteristics of Diabetes 90 type 2 Type 1 autoantibodies they have immune cells that attack the beta cells in the pancreas where insulin is made Type 2 abdominal obesity that occurs gradually become insulin resistant at first and eventually it peaks The beta cells become worn out and drop down to low bringing them to type 1 Dietary Interventions Eat breakfast Eat for nutrient density Avoid processed carbssugar Adequate hydration High fiber 2535 CHO 45 Replacing fat with protein will increase Thermic effect of food 30 can be used to digest the protein Shoot for 500 kcal deficitday Mindful eating Intermediate fasting lower risk of developing CVD and diabetes just by dropping caloric intake by 500 caloriesday Promotes weight loss in obese limiting calories can reverse diabetes Potentially cardio protective 400g of glucose in the muscle 5g in blood 90g in liver to get rid of sugar need to trick the cells into thinking you re in a energy emergency If you would fast a couple days a week and go down to a very low calories can be good Energy Balance equation Calories P4kcalg CHO 4kcalg F9kcalg An overconsumption of 50kcalday can lead to 70kg bw gain over 3040 years Set point theory describes a person s natural weight as regulated by the body s hypothalamus and genetic feedback from the fat cells Your body is at equilibrium and eating to little or to much the body changes to try to get back to that equilibrium Thrifty genotype bodies are still geared to store fat because ancient man didn t have much food Natural selection favored those that could store extra adipose tissue during feasts fat Prevalence of obesity BMI gt29 kgmquot2 Obesity has doubled since the 1960 s Cost 117 billion 18 gdp spent on this epidemic Treatments have been available since 98 Shortterm regulation of adipose stores Ghrelin and CCK Orexigenic anything that makes you hungry Ghrelin Anorexigenic makes you feel full CCK Ghrelin stimulates NPY and AGRP in the hypothalamus and makes you hungry CCK stimulates POMC and CART that make you full Sleeping less than 8 hours stimulates ghrelin Longterm regulation Leptin fat cells release POMC and CART it and makes you fullanorexigenic Released in proportion to how many fat cells you have Like diabetes if you produce a lot of it the body becomes resistant so this happens over time not over a daily levels Less than 8hours you have less Leptin Insulin it is also proportional to adipose stores as adipose tissue decreases insulin decreases leading to higher appetite and lower metabolic rate Increased Leptin and insulin leads to a resistance to is increasing fat storage and morbidity Exercise significantly improves insulin sensitivity and lowers intraabdominal obesity The Edocannabinoid System Receptors in brain and tissues responding to cannabinoids produced in the body during stress recovery Exercise produces these marijuana like byproducts in the body more so than the endorphins the runners high When people exercise to lose weight they have to be conscious of how much they eat Glucocorticoids Cortisol is a precursor to other hormones and obese males start to produce more estrogen Rapid weight loss greater than 300 calories a day increases ghrelin decreases Leptin higher levels of exercise may be best method for loss of visceral adipose tissue Effective interventions for obesity target caloric deficit plus improved insulin sensitivity To maintain weight loss 25 years for greatest change of having it maintained for a lifetime 34 of adults making serious weight loss attempt resorted to dietary supplements Thinderella syndrome lose it and then it comes back More supplements users were from lowincome households The supplements aren t monitored but they believe that they are aren t for sustained weight loss Alli nothing more than soluble fiber has little pills in it Binds up fat in intestine and leads to anal leakage Most studies show the rapid regain of weight BMI kgmquot2 Underweight and Eating disorders BMI under 17 is associated with negative health Females with low fat storage can develop amenorrhea an abnormal menstrual cycle who are at risk for osteoporosis Female athlete triad osteoporosis eating disorder and amenorrhea Average female model is leaner than 98 of the avg American BIGOREXIA muscle dysmorphia becomes obsessed with gaining muscles Take tons of supplements and weight lifting 8090 of people who take steroids inject it End up reusing needles that are infected Weight Management Male needs 5 body fat women can have problems at 15 How to put together a systematic weight loss program for someone without a functional set point How to healthily gain weight Gaurdrailspreventioncom 11b fat 3500 calories People with healthy functional set point can create a deficit by reducing 3000 calories Week and then 500 calories by exercise or vise versa Trying to create a deficit of 3500kCal 1 cal raise 1g h20 by 1 degree Celsius kCAl 1kg h20 by 1 degree Celsius 1 mile 100 calories walkrun 35 miles a week cant eat any calories to compensate Easiest way is through diet not activity Extra calories get deposited on bones muscles and connective tissue in your 20 s with age the extra calories get stored in fat Ex slide 112 Avg hourlong trainer only 12 minutes doesn t really burn calories With a trainer get an extra 460 calorieswk if twice a week Exercise helps more idirect helps control blood 10 sugar sensitivity change that s better move more through out day increase sugar metabolism Have to remind them not to over eat after exercise Eat for weight loss and health can be completely different Better to eat healthy but just a caloric deficit Subtle adjustment can make a big difference eating is better Weight Gain Atkins diet most successful aspect was that it forced people to be conscious when selecting food causing caloric intake to drop To keep calories from fat and not muscles is to do weight training 3X a week if you don t its possible to lose more fat Sprinters can put on muscle long distance have more difficulty putting on weight Protein and Eating to Grow muscle muscle is 22 protein and 70 h20 454glb in one lb of muscle only 100g of protein only need 100g extraweek to gain 11b of muscle Why protein jugs work its more in your head you go to the gym and get motivated do heavier weights and eat more cause its mostly rice our and sugar People plateau after a while because your body adapts to release of these How much protein and how many calories to gain a pound of muscleweek Is it possible to lose fat and gain muscle simultaneously What supplements and foods have research supporting weight gain Prudent dietary guidelines for gaining weight Nutritional association with cancer what is meant by cancer without disease Gain muscle 14gday 100g of protein454glb of muscle Only 22 protein 58cal to grow new tissue Being new to weight training you are more sensitive to hormones in your body after working out After a while you lose this sensitivity and that s why you need to change up your workout The absolute number of calories is the most important but timing sugar and protein during and right after working out is optimal You can t effectively lose body fat and gain muscle at the same time Need caloric surplus to gain muscle and a caloric deficit to lose fat Can t just turn fat into muscle Bodybuilders bulking phase and then a cutting phase Proprietary blend they can put what ever they want in supplements and not show all ingredients under this Consumerlabcom tells you what supplements are safe and what is actually in it For the FDA to do anything they need to prove that its hurting people Creatine 1 week 1525gday Followed by a 0 lgkgbwday with 31 carb to protein within 3 minutes post exercise Creatine helps replenish ATP quickly Shows that it can 11 increase muscle mass but mostly muscle water When you increase osmotic pressure in muscle can increase enzymes for more protein People cycle it to maintain sensitivity Vegans have no creatine in their diet but respond very well to creatine supplements Chocolate milk has 2 gold standard proteins have high concentrations of essential amino acids Whey and Casein Has a 31 ratio of sugar to protein Nestle quick chocolate milk was better for gaining muscle than many expensive supplements Want 15g carbs and 25 g protein per kg body weight Organic Soymilk estrogen in soy has not been substantiated and it is beneficial It isn t complete protein but has more antioxidants and glutamine than whey protein Might be ideal as a recovery protein Root Starchy Vegetables yucca and starchy food Raises insulin levels and helps with replenishing glycogen stores Whey proteins gold standard protein based on the protein digestibility corrected amino acid score with the highest rate of absorption Allows a rapid increase in the plasma AA pool without GI distress HMB hydroximetho buteralate Ensure metabolite of leucine main branch chain amino acid found in catfish and grapefruit If you have leucine breakdown shows muscles breaking down Tricks muscles into thinking they need to defend themselves Helps preserve muscle from workout to workout Precursor to cholesterol found in cell membrane No negative side effects Beta Alanine combines with Histidine to form carnosine Buffers acid in the muscle cells that helps grow muscle Allows more anaerobic work weight liftingsprinting to be performed Prudent Weight Gain Guidelines High volume of weight training focused on muscle groups daily rather than whole body exercises High volume of sets 812 repetitions each 400500 caloriesday 1618g of protein kgbw Have whey protein before and during resistance training 51gkgbw Within 30 minutes post consume chocolate soy milk or organic whole milk and consume food to obtain 15 g of carb 5 protein Take 1 g creatine monohydrate per kgbw with the recovery meal creatine has a high phosphate used for ATP and increases osmotic pressure enzymes that create muscle can be turned on Beta alanine and HMB may be ergogenic for weight gain Sleep 8 hours per day Abstain from alcohol Hydrate optimally Alter the program Slide 130135 AntiCancer Diet Dr Schreiber self diagnosed cancer and came up with the anticancer diet 12 8090 of cancer is environmental Cancer cells can be present in the embryo but poor lifestyle can make the cancer cells replicate faster Having a healthy lifestyle can help stop them from spreading and help them get killed by the immune system AntiCancer Diet Adequate not excessive caloric intake higher the caloric intake the higher your metabolism the more oxygen you consume the more free radicals you produce The lower your RMR the lower free radicals produced Overeating can result in shorter lifespans by producing higher carcinogens More than 10 servings of vegetables a day including cruciferous vegetables 6 ounces of juice 1 serving High fiber diet No refined sugar and our Cancer only uses sugar for fuel A lower glycemic diet is the best diet Insulin is anabolic and promotes the turn over of the cells Low total fat but need essential fatty acids No red meats Balanced ratio of omega 3omega 6 Rich in folic acid and B 12regulating cell turn over replicating and preventing errors in DNA transcription Need to methylate it Rich in antioxidants Want to lower in ammation Angiogenesis William Li CAN we eat to Starve Cancer 19 billion capillaries in the body Blood vessels can adapt to any part of the body Can regulate the creation of blood vessels by releasing angiogenesis factors when its no longer needed uses inhibitors After an injury the body creates more to get back to base lines Certain diseases angrogenesis is out of balance and not enough lead to loss of circulation stroke chronic wounds Excessive cancer Cancer cells start out at 1 cubic centimeter 40 of women have microscopic cancers in mammary glands 50 of men have prostate cancer Cancer without disease When angiogenesis occurs cancer can replicate exponentially Tumors can circulate within the blood cells when they metastases and spread throughout Antiangiogenic therapy tumor blood vessels are poorly constructed and different from the rest and if you attack these blood vessels we can reduce and get rid of tumors 60 response rate in pets Preventing angiogenesis in order to stop blood vessels causing cancer diet causes 3035 of environmental factors Trying to eat foods to starve cancer All slow angiogenesis Red grapes by 60 because they have resveratrol strawberries soybeans A lot of anti cancer medicines foods and such have angiogenic inhibitors 13 23 servings of tomatoes have a reduced risk of 4050 Harvard study Adipose tissue is highly related to angiogenesis need blood vessels to create fat Can use this same application to fight obesity Can t make the mice lose to much weight Can create a healthy set point TAKE AWAY Cancer without disease we have tons of microscopic cancer cells in our bodies but they cant currently and don t harm us because they can t grow Lot of cancer treatments Obesity produces Leptin and promotes angiogenesis because fat cells need blood vessels to grow Need 1 mile of blood vessels for a lb of fat 9095 environmental Excessive food Lowest quartile has double the risk of cancer than those in the upper quartile 13 will develop cancer Cruciferous vegetables associated with 50 reduction in breast cancer Sulfuroane kills cancer causes apoptosis Fresh broccoli Kale Cabbage cauli ower has these chemicals that help Fiber carcinogenic foods don t last as long in our body due to fiber Fiber rich foods aren t from animal products either one could be the reason it helps Selenium very powerful antioxidant found in Brazil nuts is a coenzyme in GPX Helps with Natural killer cells type of T cell that looks for dangerous cells in your body does immune surveillance Not viruses or bacteria but your own Reduces oxidative stress reduces cells Brazil nuts high in selenium Chlorophyll green leafy vegetables reduces risk of carcinogenic compounds in red meats Can bind to heterocyclic amines formed during grilling meats to reduce formation of carcinogens High diet in Red meat is directly related to G1 cancers HCA s formed when meat is burnt and charred eliminates 100 of these is to microwave the steak before grilling it Tar on grill is carcinogenic Don t eat meat well done or charred and consume green leafy vegetables with it Folate helps with stable cell division process and stops mutant cells during cell replication Can decrease cancer Risk by 60 in actively dividing tissues like colon mucosa Omega 3 associated with reduced cancer fatty fish ax seed oil omega 6 associated with increases risk of cancer Red meat 221226 show positive relationship between met with increased colorectal cancer and higher rate of mortality Cancer cells can only grow with Glucose diet high in refined sugar is low in fiber less vitamin b s and e Vitamin D increased risk of skin cancer and premature aging of skin from sun exposure but its very healthy Need 1520 minutes between 102pm sun at peak activated in skin by sun Elderly African American and people on cholesterol 14 medicine need more time don t get activated as easily Shown to improve immune surveillance 77 decreased risk of incident rate of breast cancer in highrisk individuals Decreased risk of cancer all types 1100 IU of vitamin D from cod liver or 1020 minutes of sun Antioxidants help prevent oxidative damage if fat gets oxidized it disrupts DNA and has a high risk of cancer GREN leafy vegetables Vitamins B A C K Antioxidants Quercetin stimulant effects and improve health and exercise performance Lutien antioxidant and benefit vision Zeaxanthin benefits vision Brassicas Cabbage Broccoli sprouts cauli ower Sulfur rich Sulforaphane promotes proper cell functioning and reduced carcinogenesis Broccoli when its cut open or bit into INdole3Carbinol supports immune system selectivity and reduces cancer and helps with immune surveillance similar to how vitamin d Carotenoids Fat soluble antioxidant and protection against free radicals and sugar damage Vitamin A orange and yellow vegetable Alliums Onions garlic leeks Selenium powerful antioxidants for gpx enzyme Allicin antiin ammatory and antiblood clotting What makes you cry Willow bark extract aspirin how its antiin ammatory Anthocyanin s red fruits and veggies get into the water water soluble in our bodies 60 water these purple reddish pigments improve function of endothelial cells because they preserve nitric oxide for being antiin ammatory lower blood pressure antiin ammatory neuroprotective and pain numbing properties Should help reduce cancer specifically oral cancer Purple and blue pigments Anthocyanins Ellagic acid strawberries Antioxidant and anticarcinogen slows cancer cell activity and division Flavonoids Antioxidants that reduce the rupture of blood vessels and has antibiotic properties Should eat many different colors for synergy they work better together to prevent different types of cancers and expand longevity Orange and yellow veggies protects skin from damage and oxidation from environment Betacarotene vitamin A pre cursor Lutein Lycopene and carotenoids Dwarfism none had died from cancer use dieting to shut off growth factors after reaching adult height may curb cancer death 15 Low fat high fiber diet and exercise program can lower breast risk in vivo and tumor cell growth Dietary change makes bloodstream kill cancer in 12 days by lowering free growth factors in the body and bind the ones still there Also works with prostate cancer IGF has a high risk of cancer growth Osteoporosis over 6 million hip fractures by 2050 Promote activity to reduce osteoporosis world wide walking exercise Postmenopausal women should do better strength and balance and coordination to minimize falls 65 have a lyear mortality rate after falling a breaking a hip Kills more than breast and ovarian cancer combined By leading to frailty bed rest and blood clots in legs that becomes pulmonary embolism Nutrition and Bone Health Osteoporosis 6 million hip fractures by 2050 women are more at risk for developing it after menopause Lifestyle factors are important for prevention in children and adolescence Normal bone has a lot of connective tissue and is dense Osteoporotic bone lot more porous brittle and more susceptible to fractures Hits women around 60 where men reach the threshold much later Osteoporosis in women WHO bone mineral density 25 standard deviations below peak bone mass Measured by a deXiscan DXA Affects 34 million people Practical low bone mineral density 55 of the victims are 50 and older costs the public 17 billion 12 women and IA men will suffer an osteoporotic fracture after age 50 24 of hip fractures die within 1 year after the hip fracture Suffer DVT and pulmonary emboli Bone density increases from age 3 late puberty 13 of adult bone mass is acquired during adolescence 8 of vertebral bone mass and 20 of femoral bone mass can be lost within 57 years after menopause because estrogen plays a huge role in bone density Without estrogen replacement most women would use up to 25 of their bone mass by 60 50 by 70 Genetic factors explain 90 of the variation of bone mass in the spine and 70 of bone mass in the hip 20 yr daughter will have attained 90 of her mothers height and bone mass Son has a 400 higher risk of having low bone mineral density if his father has low bone mass Daughter has 500 risk if mother has it African American women have 1015 greter bone density than non black Women lose 25 of their bone mass 750g of 300g Smoking doubles the risk of earlier menopause by 25 years smoking is associated with reduced bone density and increased risk of fractures In men Excessive alcohol is the number one cause of osteoporosis 16 Nutrition 50 of children get less than 400mg of calcium per day need 1200mg 75 of women get less than 800mgday dieatary fiber increases calcium requirement Need 100mg of calcium 18g of fiber caldium reduced availability and absorption of both iron and zink americans drink 2X more beer and wine than milk Calcium Kinetics 98 of calcium stored in skeleton Consume 800mg only 300 get absorbed 20 gets lost to sweat 130 get lost in urine So Represent 2 of mass DRI Ai 13 yrs need 500mg 48 800 mg yourh adolescents 918 need 1300mg 1950 need 1000 and 50 and older need 1200 Vitamin D increases absorption Phytates in legumes inhibits digestion of calcium fiber and phosphorous can also reduce digestion Risk Factors for osteoporosis 0 Fracture after 50 Low bone mass Family history Low bmi Advanced age Low testosterone in men Estrogen deficiency Amenorrhea Anorexia Low calcium intake Smoking and drinking alcohol Caucasian or Asian Using corticosteroids Prevention Building strong bones before 30 having a healthy lifestyle getting bone mineral density tested consuming enough calcium and getting adequate sunlight Caffenine and osteoporosis few studies show that coffee reduces bone mineral density 1 study said cup of coffee would reduce by 5mg but 2 tablespoons of milk would make up for it 17 Bone mineral Density Scans the more dense the bones and soft tissues the less energy detected on the other side because some gets absorbed by tissues Expressed by Z and T scores based off pop age Women with low milk intake as children have low bone density and increased risk of fracture later in life Puberty and mid puberty dietary calcium strongly associated with bone mineral density and there was no difference between races Undiagnosed low bone mineral density in women over 50 10 had undiagnosed osteoporosis 50 had Osteopenia low bone mineral density In uence on lactation and pregnancy looked at different stages pre during and post 5 lower bone density during pregnancy bone mineral density increased 3 after pregnancy Vitamin K Calcium activates Osteocalcin strengthen bones promotes increases in bone mineral density Diet high in K and D will activate Osteocalcin Dietary factors adu1ts need 1g avg only gets 500 700mg female dancers gymnasts and endurance athletes are most common with this deficiency osteoporosis is 6080 genetic 2040 lifestyle D facilitates calcium uptake excessive meat salt coffee and alcohol consumption inhibits calcium absorption bone matrix formation also depends on K which is prevalent in GLVs and cruciferous vegetables Osteocalcin secreted by osteoblasts for bone formation but also involved with insulin production and adiponection relaes from adipocytes K is required for carboxylation and activation of osteocalcin Prunes phytoestrogens and polyphenols increases IGF1 and have and estrogen effect may also decrease in ammatory cytokine activity on bone mass May increase cancer risk Exercise highest amount of strain and torque on joint Activates osteocalcin Standing up and out of a chair is better than just doing squats Resting between exercises is important Female athlete triad at risk Eating disorder Osteoporosis Amenorrhea loss of menstrual cycle 18 Other factors Multiple or recurrent stress factures lean and low body mass highly competitive low self esteem perfectionist self critical depression Aging bone material form older individuals are less able to absorb calcium phosphorous and magnesium due to increased mineralization and changes in collagen properties Falls increased in elderly which can lead to fractures Falls are caused by neurological deficits as well as an up to 50 reduction in muscle power between the ages of 30 and 80 In young women in negative caloric balance hypogonadism can occur leading to increased turnover rates and osteoporosis Vitamin D supplementations reduces falls and fractures for every 15 patients prescribes Peak bone mass in females and males Females 25 males35 TEST Statistics female s vs males Definition Female athlete triad Type of exercise to improve bone mineral density Every week of bone density loss is 1 Bw11 AFSOO caloriesday How does one die from osteoporosis Breaking hip and other factors cant recover What substances leaves an energy burden on the liver High sugarfructose corn syrup alcohol Chocolate milk 31 carbsprotein fits this Whey purer forms so rapidly digested HMB decreases leucine which helps muscle recovery 19 DR W smith twitter TEST REVIEW Plant based diet Low in plants low in fiber high in cholesterol sat fat high in homocystine High in plants high fiber Risk for diabetes markerAlC levels Mineral used in Gluterfinyl peroxide GPX Selenium found in brazil nuts and soil Antioxide blood vessels become oxidated become rigid and atherosclerosis Enzyme SOD antioxidant maganeze copper and zinc assist with antioxide function Metabolic syndrome high BP high visceral fat waist circumference high triglycerides low hdl high glucose blood sugar Need 35 RISK increased 2400 Lose an inch from abdominal area lower bmi bp go down in ammation comes down hdl go up physical activity and diet Women stores extra in fat thighs man stores rst in waist last areas to come off respectively Phytochemicals improve vision gluteine Zeaxanthin carotenoids BACK Fatsoluble vitamins that fight uv radiation skin damage and reduce cancer risk precursors to vitamin A carotenoidsbeta carotene and lycopene Obese child has a 75 increase risk of being obese as an adult Fat cell number determined the most 0135 adolescence Cardio vascular disease factors obesity family history first degree male that has a heart attack before 55 female before 65 Smoking Inactiveless than 150 minutes week High LDL over 130 non hdl over 160 total cholesterol over 200 2 separate reading of bp over 14090 in a dr office HDL over 60 can subtract a factor from risk Red meat increase risk add vegetables preheat meat in microwave get rid of HCH carcinogens don t get it well done Charring makes it bad Consume organic and grass fed meat can be protective LDL more dangerous small and oxidized Predict smaller LDL s if triglycerides are elevated and HDL is lowdyslipidemia predicts that ldl are low High ldls and high hdl and triglycerides are low not so much of a problem 20 Osteoporosis silent disease most have osteopenia Reduce systemic in ammation more omega3 s more vegies weight loss exercise when your muscles relax they release antiin ammatory Pima Indians thrifty genotype the ones that remain huntergatherer are fit and healthy the ones who have joined us in a sedentary lifestyle rapidly are obese and diabetes Thrifty genotype more efficient at storing energy FOODS that contribute to weight loss in longitudinal yogurt had least weight gain probiotics haVing a healthy gut ora can prevent weight gain not cause weight loss Weight gain starchy root vegetables potatoes Losing weight really fast gain it back because leptin will be reduced so you are hungrier and metabolism is lower Grehlin goes up making you hungry also slowing metabolism CCK released by pancreas it goes down so same size meals don t fill you up Hunger is main part and metabolic rate gets slower Vegetables Phytochemical inndolaidcarbonalonions and garlic suforophane broccoli kale alliums and brassicas garlic onion Resveratrol red grapes and wine has higher levels Anthocyanin sred and blue pigments Smoking increases risk of osteoporosis increases risk of early menopause by 200 11b muscle100g protein the other 343 is water Only need 14gdayweek to gain 16 18 gkgbw Over 20 upperlimit female athlete triad ammenhoreapreserves red blood cells osteoporosis anorexia eating disorder Not anemia Calcium vitamin D and VitaminK green leafy vegetables recently found K Growing bone need weight bearing exercise to grow bone Diet liver fat fructose high fructose corn syrup vs sucrose has the same amount Coffee doesn t increase risk of heart disease 23 cups there is a reduction of heart disease Calcium green leafy vegetables edemame kale grape leaves seaweed broccoli llb fatweek 500calorie deficit Exercise is better through indirect mechanisms that affect William li 21 Interesting vegetable prunes Substance found in catfish and grapefruit HMB metabolite of leucine added to ensure Risk for cancer high meat not a lot of fiber processed and preserved not enough omega 3 s to much 6 What causes greater risk of osteoporosis in men alcohol diuretic lose a lot of calcium Cancer only uses glucose Kale has more nutrient density than anything else Get hungry endocanabonoids that are released Longterm regulator of release of fat cells leptin Ghrelin is released from the stomach Diabetes greates cause of blindness amputees and kidney faliures Watch hemoglobin AlC to fix because its an indicator of glucose damage lifestyle vs metformin lifestyle is better by 40 19 prediabetics by lifestyle 139 by medicine Lose 10 reduce risk of diabetes goes down by 60 normal bp 11575 every 20 pts systolic doubles and 10 diastolic doubles risk obese sibling 42 obese friend 171 Inhibitors of angiogenesis soy resveratrol green tea onions garlic spice black tea Adding these phytochemicals you reduce the risk of cancer cells to produce blood vessels cant grow Angiogenesis linked to obesity need a mile of blood vessels to make fat cant make you lose weight but prevent weight gain Leptin promotes angiogenesis Obesity and cancer can be connected through Leptin diet that is angiogenic can help combat weight gain and cancer Gaining weight as you age cancer risk goes up 22
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