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OLEMISS / Psychology / PSY 201 / our ability to fulfill our potential through greater self-understandin

our ability to fulfill our potential through greater self-understandin

our ability to fulfill our potential through greater self-understandin

Description

School: University of Mississippi
Department: Psychology
Course: General Psychology
Professor: Heather bliss
Term: Fall 2016
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: Final Review for Psychology 202
Description: Personality
Uploaded: 12/08/2016
8 Pages 84 Views 0 Unlocks
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So Where does the Theory of Personality come from?




One May What a Personality Trait is?




So, What is Personality?



Final Review: Chapter 13- So, What is Personality?? - Consists of thoughts, emotional responses, and behaviors that are relatively stable over time and circumstances.  - These are a collection of personality traits One May What a Personality Trait is?? - These are the single concepts of personality (not the whole personality)  - All the aspects of perWe also discuss several other topics like biochemistry final exam
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sonality traits can be seen across all cultures and environments.  So Where does the Theory of Personality come from?? - We only focused on the humanistic approach when discussing theories → The humanistic approach: Studying personality that emphasizes how people seek  to fulfill their potential through greater self-understanding - Proposed by Gordon Allport  - This guy said that personality was a “psychophysical system” that united mental and  biological processes.  Did You Know that Personalities Can Be Seen in Humans AND Animals - Wanna know who is more basic than us humans????? - Nonhuman animals still have personalities, but humans have more complex traits - Identical twins are more likely to have similar personalities than other siblings - ADOPTED identical twins share more personality traits than their adopted AND biological  parents - Parenting has NOTHING to do with personality Where Else Can We See Personalities… In INFANT?? WAAA... - Temperaments - Biologically based tendencies to feel or act in a certain way - Activity level: Overall amount of energy and behavior a person exhibits - Ex: If a child is interested and wants to roll/play or if he/she wants to just sit there - Emotionality: Intensity of emotional reactions  - Ex: Whether or not a baby freaks out  - Sociability: General tendency to affiliate with others  - Ex: Baby wants to socialize with other babies, or not - Infant temperament correlates with both the general structure of adult personality and specific behavioral patterns observed in adults Person- Centered Approach - Carl Rogers emphasized the importance of people’s subjective understanding of their lives - What or how something feels to the person and how they understand those feelings is more  important. - Encouraged parents to raise children with positive regard so that they might become fully  functioning peopleBig 5 & OCEAN - Five-factor theory: idea that personality can be described using five factors - Openness to experience - Conscientiousness - Extraversion - Agreeableness - Neuroticism - These factors are continuum from low to high and made up of other lower order factors  But Ya Know… People Aren’t Always Consistent… - Situationism: theory that behavior is determined more by situations than by personality  traits - Strong situations tend to mask differences in personality because of the power of the social  environment - Ex: Going to a funeral or church - Weak situations tend to reveal differences in personality (not as demanding) Behavior is Influenced by the Interaction of Personality and Situation - Interactionists: theorists who believe that behavior is determined jointly by situations and  underlying dispositions  - A reciprocal interaction occurs with a person and their social environment; both influencing  each other at the same time to produce specific types of behavior However, We Know Personality is Stable - Research suggests that personality changes somewhat in childhood but becomes more  stable by middle age - Personality is stable by the time you’re 40.  - With age, people become less neurotic, less extraverted, and less open to new experiences (parts of OCEAN); they also tend to become more agreeable and more conscientious - Age changes your personality just a little - The pattern of personality changes across age holds in different cultures suggesting a  physical function rather than a function of the environment Chapter 14- Psychological Disorders - Psychopathology: sickness or disorder of the mind - Etiology: factors that contribute to the development of a disorder Do You Think You Have Psychological Disorder… Well, You Must Qualify - Does the person act in a way that deviates from cultural norms for acceptable behavior? - Ex: Wearing a onesie to class instead of home - Is the behavior maladaptive? - Is the behavior self- destructive?- Does the behavior cause discomfort and concern to others, thus impairing a person’s social  relationships?  - Psychopathology is increasingly defined in terms of maladaptiveness - That is, a person with psychopathology exhibits thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that are  maladaptive rather than deviant - The kicker is that the symptoms of the disorder must interfere with at least ONE  aspect of the person’s life, such as work, social relations, or self-care. - Many behaviors considered normal in one MAY BE considered deviant in other settings.  - Maladaptive behaviors interfere with the ability to function within society - Deviant behaviors tend to move away from the norm but not always hinder function  But, How are Psychological Disorders Classified? - In 1952, American Psychiatric Association published the 1st edit. of Diagnostic and  Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)  - DSM- 5 (released in 2013), disorders are described in terms of observable symptoms With All Good Things There Is a Bad Side… - One problem with DSM approach is that it implies that a person either has a psychological  disorder or does not ( this is known as a categorical approach). - Ya in or you’re out  - Rarely does anyone fit into one precise category - This can make accurate diagnoses harder to do. AHA!! We Found a Solution!! - Research Domain Criteria (RDoC): a method that defines basic aspects of functioning and  considers them across multiple levels of analysis, from genes to brain systems to  behavior.  - RDoc was created to improve the accuracy of diagnosis by use of current studies and  technology; essentially get rid of the categories and create a dimension.  What Ways Do We Test Psychological Disorders? - Psychological testing: - Process often includes self-reports, observations, and interviews. - Neuropsychological testing: - Process test the client on various physical actions, copying a picture, sorting cards, etc. - By highlighting actions that the client performs poorly, the assessment may indicate  problems with a particular brain region Have You Ever Thought What Causes These Psychological Disorders? - Diathesis-stress model:  - Diagnostic model that proposes that a disorder may develop when an underlying  vulnerability is coupled with a precipitating event - It’s when factors impair our ability to cope with the stress that we develop a psychological  disorderJust because of vulnerability to a disorder doesn’t mean you will have it but the  environment does play a bigger role Anxiety Disorders  - Anxiety disorder: psychological disorder characterized by excessive fear and anxiety in  the absence of true danger - Specific phobic: intense uncontrollable fear of specific objects or events - Ex: See a snake and freak out, fear of elevators or planes, specific things triggers fear - Social Anxiety Disorder: fear of being negatively evaluated by others - Ex: Fear of public speaking, speaking up in class, meeting new people, and eating in front of  others - One of the earliest forms of anxiety disorder to develop, often beginning around age 13  - Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD): a diffuse state of constant anxiety not associated  with any specific object or event - Constant higher state of anxiety - Ex: Think of the girl working in a lab and the lady standing over her shoulder. Those who  come up with a funny story have little anxiety, while those come up with a negative story  have higher anxiety levels.  - Agoraphobia: anxiety disorder marked by fear of being in situations in which escape may  be difficult or impossible - Ex: Being on a bus or car and not be able to escape. You’re not afraid of leaving home but  afraid of situations where you can’t escape *Side Note on Panic Attacks: Anyone with other anxiety disorder can have one, people  before they are treated usually go to the ER thinking they are having heart attack  - Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): disorder characterized by frequent intrusive  thoughts and compulsive action ** Like Sierra has the frequent intrusive thought of always needing to wash her hands and so she pleases that thought by actually doing it.  - Obsessions: recurrent, intrusive, and unwanted thoughts or ideas or mental images- Compulsions: particular acts that the OCD patient feels driven to perform over and over  again - Most common compulsive behaviors are cleaning, checking, counting [The Three C’s].  - Those with OCD anticipate catastrophe and loss of control.  - Yes, Sierra believes that it will be a catastrophe if she touches something germy  and then she feels as if she has no control of what is happening to her.  - Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD): disorder that involves frequent nightmares,  intrusive thoughts, and flashbacks related to earlier trauma - Marked by an inability to forget *OCD & PTSD are 2 unique anxiety disorders that are characterized by frequent intrusive  thoughts.  Mood Disorders - Major depression: disorder characterized by severe negative moods or a lack of  interest in normally pleasurable activities  - Last several months to years - Highest rates being women in developing countries, although affects 6-7% of Americans in  any 12 month period (she said to know what a developing country is) - Persistent depressive disorder: a form of depression that is not severe enough to be  diagnosed as major depressive disorder, sometimes called dysthymia.  - Lasts 2-20 years - Affects approximately 2 to 3 percent of the population  - Must be depressed for 2 years to get this diagnosis What Causes Depression? - Biological components: - Deficiency of one or more monoamines (serotonin, dopamine, etc.) - Damage to the left prefrontal cortex (but NOT the right) - Biological rhythms - Situational components: - Number of studies have implicated life stressors in many cases of depression  - Ex: Developing terminal illness or seeing someone have this illness. Failing classes and  losing your scholarships What are the Cognitive Components of Depression? - People with depression think negatively about themselves, their situations, and the future - These negative thoughts about self, situation, and the future is known as cognitive triad - These dysfunctional cognitive patterns are a cause rather than a consequence of  depression  - Learned helplessness: a cognitive model of depression in which people feel unable to  control events in their livesLearned helplessness: You think you can’t change the situation you’re in so you give up Bipolar Disorders - Consists of episodes of mania and extreme depression which can last for around a week at a time  - Two types: - Bipolar I- Extreme mania with depressive episodes - More likely to get hospitalized (EXTREME MANIA) - Bipolar II- Extreme depression with mild maniac episodes  - Mild manic (EXTREME DEPRESSION) - Less common than depression - Affects men and women equally - Has a strong genetic component Dissociative Disorders - Dissociative disorders: disorders that involve disruptions of identity, of memory, or of  conscious awareness - These disorders are believed to result from extreme stress - Dissociative amnesia: a person forgets that an event happened or loses awareness of a  substantial block of time - Person with this disorder may suddenly lose memory for personal facts, including his or her  identity and place of residence - Dissociative fugue: rarest and most extreme form of dissociative amnesia that involves a  loss of identity; involves travel to another location and sometimes the assumption of a new  identity. - Fugue state often ends suddenly, with the person unsure how he/she ended up in unfamiliar  surroundings - Typically, the person does not remember events that occurred during the fugue state - Dissociative identity disorder (DID): the occurence of two or more distinct identities in  the same individual - Formally known as multiple personality disorder - Most people with DID are women who report being severely abused as children. Schizophrenia - Schizophrenia: a psychological disorder characterized by split between thought and  emotion; it involves alterations in thoughts, in perceptions, or in consciousness - Term schizophrenia literally means “splitting of the mind” - Schizophrenia involves alterations in thought, perceptions, or consciousness - Essence of schizophrenia is a disconnection from reality, or psychosis - Positive symptoms: excess in functioning, such as delusions, hallucinations, and  disorganized speech or behavior  - Negative symptoms: deficits in functioning, such as apathy, lack of emotion, and slowed  speech and movement Neurodevelopmental Disorders: - Neurodevelopmental disorders occur in children and represent a deviance from normal  development - Autism spectrum disorder: developmental disorder characterized by deficits in social  interaction, by impaired communication, and by restricted interests. - In DSM-5, there are two essential features of autism spectrum disorder. - Impairments in social interactions - Ex: don’t care much about making or keeping friends - Restrictive or repetitive behaviors, interests, or activities  - Ex: Aaron loves sports so he consumes his time learning and watching sports.  - From 1991 to 1997, a dramatic escalation—of 556 percent—occurred in the number of  children diagnosed with autism. - Based on the DSM-IV diagnosis of autistic disorder, approximately 3 to 6 children out of  1,000 showed signs of autism, and males with the disorder outnumbered females 3 to 1 - This increase in diagnoses is most likely a direct result of change in diagnostic criteria to  include much milder cases Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder - Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): disorder characterized by  restlessness, inattentiveness, and impulsivity  - Children are often friendly and talkative, but they can have trouble making and keeping  friends because they miss subtle social cues and make unintentional social mistakes - They typically have normal levels of intelligence Personality Disorder - Long-lasting interaction style + problems in work and social situations= personality disorder - People with personality disorders consistently behave in maladaptive ways, show a more  extreme level of maladaptive behavior, and experience more personal distress and problems as a result of their behavior - The difference between personality disorders and psychological disorders is that  typically the person suffering from a personality disorder are unlikely to realize they have a  problem, whereas those with psychological disorders do.  - Borderline personality disorder: a personality disorder characterized by disturbances in  identity, affect, and impulse control.  - Cannot tolerate being alone and have an intense fear of abandonment - Borderline individuals have affective disturbance. Emotional instability is paramount - Antisocial personality disorder (APD): personality disorder in which people engage in  socially undesirable behavior, are hedonistic and impulsive, and lack empathy.- Catchall diagnosis for individuals who behave in socially undesirable ways, such as breaking  the law, being deceitful and irresponsible, and feeling a lack of remorse for their behavior. - Key signs: lacking empathy, no remorse - True psychopaths display more extreme behaviors than those with APD. - Ceo’s of companies, not always criminals, or serial killers  <3 <3 <3 <3 <3 <3 <3 <3 <3 <3 <3 <3 <3 <3 <3 <3 <3 <3 <3 <3 <3 <3 <3 <3 <3 <3  <3 <3  YOURE  DONE!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ­ Inspired by AJS and  Heather Bliss

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