Log in to StudySoup
Get Full Access to OleMiss - Psy 201 - Study Guide - Midterm
Join StudySoup for FREE
Get Full Access to OleMiss - Psy 201 - Study Guide - Midterm

Already have an account? Login here
Reset your password

OLEMISS / Psychology / PSY 201 / our ability to fulfill our potential through greater self-understandin

our ability to fulfill our potential through greater self-understandin

our ability to fulfill our potential through greater self-understandin


School: University of Mississippi
Department: Psychology
Course: General Psychology
Professor: Heather bliss
Term: Fall 2016
Cost: 50
Name: Final Review for Psychology 202
Description: Personality
Uploaded: 12/08/2016
8 Pages 84 Views 0 Unlocks

So Where does the Theory of Personality come from?

One May What a Personality Trait is?

So, What is Personality?

Final Review: Chapter 13- So, What is Personality?? - Consists of thoughts, emotional responses, and behaviors that are relatively stable over time and circumstances.  - These are a collection of personality traits One May What a Personality Trait is?? - These are the single concepts of personality (not the whole personality)  - All the aspects of perWe also discuss several other topics like biochemistry final exam
Don't forget about the age old question of the less elastic a monopolistic competitor's long-run demand curve, the
If you want to learn more check out protein study guide
If you want to learn more check out sarah feakins
Don't forget about the age old question of mus 172 study guide
If you want to learn more check out hibaq meaning
sonality traits can be seen across all cultures and environments.  So Where does the Theory of Personality come from?? - We only focused on the humanistic approach when discussing theories → The humanistic approach: Studying personality that emphasizes how people seek  to fulfill their potential through greater self-understanding - Proposed by Gordon Allport  - This guy said that personality was a “psychophysical system” that united mental and  biological processes.  Did You Know that Personalities Can Be Seen in Humans AND Animals - Wanna know who is more basic than us humans????? - Nonhuman animals still have personalities, but humans have more complex traits - Identical twins are more likely to have similar personalities than other siblings - ADOPTED identical twins share more personality traits than their adopted AND biological  parents - Parenting has NOTHING to do with personality Where Else Can We See Personalities… In INFANT?? WAAA... - Temperaments - Biologically based tendencies to feel or act in a certain way - Activity level: Overall amount of energy and behavior a person exhibits - Ex: If a child is interested and wants to roll/play or if he/she wants to just sit there - Emotionality: Intensity of emotional reactions  - Ex: Whether or not a baby freaks out  - Sociability: General tendency to affiliate with others  - Ex: Baby wants to socialize with other babies, or not - Infant temperament correlates with both the general structure of adult personality and specific behavioral patterns observed in adults Person- Centered Approach - Carl Rogers emphasized the importance of people’s subjective understanding of their lives - What or how something feels to the person and how they understand those feelings is more  important. - Encouraged parents to raise children with positive regard so that they might become fully  functioning peopleBig 5 & OCEAN - Five-factor theory: idea that personality can be described using five factors - Openness to experience - Conscientiousness - Extraversion - Agreeableness - Neuroticism - These factors are continuum from low to high and made up of other lower order factors  But Ya Know… People Aren’t Always Consistent… - Situationism: theory that behavior is determined more by situations than by personality  traits - Strong situations tend to mask differences in personality because of the power of the social  environment - Ex: Going to a funeral or church - Weak situations tend to reveal differences in personality (not as demanding) Behavior is Influenced by the Interaction of Personality and Situation - Interactionists: theorists who believe that behavior is determined jointly by situations and  underlying dispositions  - A reciprocal interaction occurs with a person and their social environment; both influencing  each other at the same time to produce specific types of behavior However, We Know Personality is Stable - Research suggests that personality changes somewhat in childhood but becomes more  stable by middle age - Personality is stable by the time you’re 40.  - With age, people become less neurotic, less extraverted, and less open to new experiences (parts of OCEAN); they also tend to become more agreeable and more conscientious - Age changes your personality just a little - The pattern of personality changes across age holds in different cultures suggesting a  physical function rather than a function of the environment Chapter 14- Psychological Disorders - Psychopathology: sickness or disorder of the mind - Etiology: factors that contribute to the development of a disorder Do You Think You Have Psychological Disorder… Well, You Must Qualify - Does the person act in a way that deviates from cultural norms for acceptable behavior? - Ex: Wearing a onesie to class instead of home - Is the behavior maladaptive? - Is the behavior self- destructive?- Does the behavior cause discomfort and concern to others, thus impairing a person’s social  relationships?  - Psychopathology is increasingly defined in terms of maladaptiveness - That is, a person with psychopathology exhibits thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that are  maladaptive rather than deviant - The kicker is that the symptoms of the disorder must interfere with at least ONE  aspect of the person’s life, such as work, social relations, or self-care. - Many behaviors considered normal in one MAY BE considered deviant in other settings.  - Maladaptive behaviors interfere with the ability to function within society - Deviant behaviors tend to move away from the norm but not always hinder function  But, How are Psychological Disorders Classified? - In 1952, American Psychiatric Association published the 1st edit. of Diagnostic and  Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)  - DSM- 5 (released in 2013), disorders are described in terms of observable symptoms With All Good Things There Is a Bad Side… - One problem with DSM approach is that it implies that a person either has a psychological  disorder or does not ( this is known as a categorical approach). - Ya in or you’re out  - Rarely does anyone fit into one precise category - This can make accurate diagnoses harder to do. AHA!! We Found a Solution!! - Research Domain Criteria (RDoC): a method that defines basic aspects of functioning and  considers them across multiple levels of analysis, from genes to brain systems to  behavior.  - RDoc was created to improve the accuracy of diagnosis by use of current studies and  technology; essentially get rid of the categories and create a dimension.  What Ways Do We Test Psychological Disorders? - Psychological testing: - Process often includes self-reports, observations, and interviews. - Neuropsychological testing: - Process test the client on various physical actions, copying a picture, sorting cards, etc. - By highlighting actions that the client performs poorly, the assessment may indicate  problems with a particular brain region Have You Ever Thought What Causes These Psychological Disorders? - Diathesis-stress model:  - Diagnostic model that proposes that a disorder may develop when an underlying  vulnerability is coupled with a precipitating event - It’s when factors impair our ability to cope with the stress that we develop a psychological  disorderJust because of vulnerability to a disorder doesn’t mean you will have it but the  environment does play a bigger role Anxiety Disorders  - Anxiety disorder: psychological disorder characterized by excessive fear and anxiety in  the absence of true danger - Specific phobic: intense uncontrollable fear of specific objects or events - Ex: See a snake and freak out, fear of elevators or planes, specific things triggers fear - Social Anxiety Disorder: fear of being negatively evaluated by others - Ex: Fear of public speaking, speaking up in class, meeting new people, and eating in front of  others - One of the earliest forms of anxiety disorder to develop, often beginning around age 13  - Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD): a diffuse state of constant anxiety not associated  with any specific object or event - Constant higher state of anxiety - Ex: Think of the girl working in a lab and the lady standing over her shoulder. Those who  come up with a funny story have little anxiety, while those come up with a negative story  have higher anxiety levels.  - Agoraphobia: anxiety disorder marked by fear of being in situations in which escape may  be difficult or impossible - Ex: Being on a bus or car and not be able to escape. You’re not afraid of leaving home but  afraid of situations where you can’t escape *Side Note on Panic Attacks: Anyone with other anxiety disorder can have one, people  before they are treated usually go to the ER thinking they are having heart attack  - Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): disorder characterized by frequent intrusive  thoughts and compulsive action ** Like Sierra has the frequent intrusive thought of always needing to wash her hands and so she pleases that thought by actually doing it.  - Obsessions: recurrent, intrusive, and unwanted thoughts or ideas or mental images- Compulsions: particular acts that the OCD patient feels driven to perform over and over  again - Most common compulsive behaviors are cleaning, checking, counting [The Three C’s].  - Those with OCD anticipate catastrophe and loss of control.  - Yes, Sierra believes that it will be a catastrophe if she touches something germy  and then she feels as if she has no control of what is happening to her.  - Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD): disorder that involves frequent nightmares,  intrusive thoughts, and flashbacks related to earlier trauma - Marked by an inability to forget *OCD & PTSD are 2 unique anxiety disorders that are characterized by frequent intrusive  thoughts.  Mood Disorders - Major depression: disorder characterized by severe negative moods or a lack of  interest in normally pleasurable activities  - Last several months to years - Highest rates being women in developing countries, although affects 6-7% of Americans in  any 12 month period (she said to know what a developing country is) - Persistent depressive disorder: a form of depression that is not severe enough to be  diagnosed as major depressive disorder, sometimes called dysthymia.  - Lasts 2-20 years - Affects approximately 2 to 3 percent of the population  - Must be depressed for 2 years to get this diagnosis What Causes Depression? - Biological components: - Deficiency of one or more monoamines (serotonin, dopamine, etc.) - Damage to the left prefrontal cortex (but NOT the right) - Biological rhythms - Situational components: - Number of studies have implicated life stressors in many cases of depression  - Ex: Developing terminal illness or seeing someone have this illness. Failing classes and  losing your scholarships What are the Cognitive Components of Depression? - People with depression think negatively about themselves, their situations, and the future - These negative thoughts about self, situation, and the future is known as cognitive triad - These dysfunctional cognitive patterns are a cause rather than a consequence of  depression  - Learned helplessness: a cognitive model of depression in which people feel unable to  control events in their livesLearned helplessness: You think you can’t change the situation you’re in so you give up Bipolar Disorders - Consists of episodes of mania and extreme depression which can last for around a week at a time  - Two types: - Bipolar I- Extreme mania with depressive episodes - More likely to get hospitalized (EXTREME MANIA) - Bipolar II- Extreme depression with mild maniac episodes  - Mild manic (EXTREME DEPRESSION) - Less common than depression - Affects men and women equally - Has a strong genetic component Dissociative Disorders - Dissociative disorders: disorders that involve disruptions of identity, of memory, or of  conscious awareness - These disorders are believed to result from extreme stress - Dissociative amnesia: a person forgets that an event happened or loses awareness of a  substantial block of time - Person with this disorder may suddenly lose memory for personal facts, including his or her  identity and place of residence - Dissociative fugue: rarest and most extreme form of dissociative amnesia that involves a  loss of identity; involves travel to another location and sometimes the assumption of a new  identity. - Fugue state often ends suddenly, with the person unsure how he/she ended up in unfamiliar  surroundings - Typically, the person does not remember events that occurred during the fugue state - Dissociative identity disorder (DID): the occurence of two or more distinct identities in  the same individual - Formally known as multiple personality disorder - Most people with DID are women who report being severely abused as children. Schizophrenia - Schizophrenia: a psychological disorder characterized by split between thought and  emotion; it involves alterations in thoughts, in perceptions, or in consciousness - Term schizophrenia literally means “splitting of the mind” - Schizophrenia involves alterations in thought, perceptions, or consciousness - Essence of schizophrenia is a disconnection from reality, or psychosis - Positive symptoms: excess in functioning, such as delusions, hallucinations, and  disorganized speech or behavior  - Negative symptoms: deficits in functioning, such as apathy, lack of emotion, and slowed  speech and movement Neurodevelopmental Disorders: - Neurodevelopmental disorders occur in children and represent a deviance from normal  development - Autism spectrum disorder: developmental disorder characterized by deficits in social  interaction, by impaired communication, and by restricted interests. - In DSM-5, there are two essential features of autism spectrum disorder. - Impairments in social interactions - Ex: don’t care much about making or keeping friends - Restrictive or repetitive behaviors, interests, or activities  - Ex: Aaron loves sports so he consumes his time learning and watching sports.  - From 1991 to 1997, a dramatic escalation—of 556 percent—occurred in the number of  children diagnosed with autism. - Based on the DSM-IV diagnosis of autistic disorder, approximately 3 to 6 children out of  1,000 showed signs of autism, and males with the disorder outnumbered females 3 to 1 - This increase in diagnoses is most likely a direct result of change in diagnostic criteria to  include much milder cases Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder - Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): disorder characterized by  restlessness, inattentiveness, and impulsivity  - Children are often friendly and talkative, but they can have trouble making and keeping  friends because they miss subtle social cues and make unintentional social mistakes - They typically have normal levels of intelligence Personality Disorder - Long-lasting interaction style + problems in work and social situations= personality disorder - People with personality disorders consistently behave in maladaptive ways, show a more  extreme level of maladaptive behavior, and experience more personal distress and problems as a result of their behavior - The difference between personality disorders and psychological disorders is that  typically the person suffering from a personality disorder are unlikely to realize they have a  problem, whereas those with psychological disorders do.  - Borderline personality disorder: a personality disorder characterized by disturbances in  identity, affect, and impulse control.  - Cannot tolerate being alone and have an intense fear of abandonment - Borderline individuals have affective disturbance. Emotional instability is paramount - Antisocial personality disorder (APD): personality disorder in which people engage in  socially undesirable behavior, are hedonistic and impulsive, and lack empathy.- Catchall diagnosis for individuals who behave in socially undesirable ways, such as breaking  the law, being deceitful and irresponsible, and feeling a lack of remorse for their behavior. - Key signs: lacking empathy, no remorse - True psychopaths display more extreme behaviors than those with APD. - Ceo’s of companies, not always criminals, or serial killers  <3 <3 <3 <3 <3 <3 <3 <3 <3 <3 <3 <3 <3 <3 <3 <3 <3 <3 <3 <3 <3 <3 <3 <3 <3 <3  <3 <3  YOURE  DONE!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ­ Inspired by AJS and  Heather Bliss

Page Expired
It looks like your free minutes have expired! Lucky for you we have all the content you need, just sign up here