Chapter 3 Study Guide
1. Compare natural immunity and passive artificial immunity, describing the causitive mechanism and giving an example.
Natural immunity is when a person is exposed to an antigen, whether directly in the outside environment, or whether the antigen is purposefully injected into the person. In turn, the immune system may stimulate the production of antibodies. In natural artificial immunity, the antigen injected as a vaccine may be introduced in the form of toxicoid or as a booster, such as for tetanus.
In passive artificial immunity, antibodies are injected into the person. For example, antiserum antibodies for rabies or antivenum may be injected. This may be necessary to give protection to someone who has developed a disease/illness, but who has not yet developed immunity, say for a hepatitis B patient.
∙ Antibiotic = drugs derived from organisms
Eg pencillin is made from mold
∙ Antimicrobial = used to classify drugs that treat certain microbes, include antiviral, antibacterial, and antifungal. These are unique to each organizem ,and they are not interchangeable. Don't forget about the age old question of What are the ancient beliefs about blood-drinking creatures in various cultures?
∙ Antiviral=a drug that is used to treat viral diseases by decreasing the virus’s rate of replication. However, it does not kill the virus or cure the infection. There is no cure for such diseases caused by viruses like HIV and AIDS.
∙ opportunistic = usually harmless, living organisms can cause infections in areas of the body, including resident flora, if they are spread from one nonpathogenic location to another, or if a balance between the microbes is not maintained. Opportunistic infections are common in post-organ transplants, in AIDS, and also in cervical, colon and skin cancer cases.
∙ prophylactic = another word for antimicrobial drugs; one should especially take this before undergoing any invasive procedure that may expose them to any opportunistic infection, and which involves blood loss or tissue extraction. One should especially consider this especially if he is at risk for immunodeficiency diseases
∙ pruritic = another word for itchy; is a local effect of the skin to a hypersensitivity reaction to an allergen
3. Please note the role(s) of the following with regards to the immune system: Don't forget about the age old question of Where is sigmund freud born?
∙ macrophage Macrophages, developed from monocytes, are critical for the primary immune response. They develop antigens, which lymphocytes then respond to in the primary immune response. Macrophages also produce chemical mediators such as monokines and interleukins in activation of additional leukocytes and in inflammatory response, which accompanies a secondary immune response.
∙ Lymphocyte Lymphocytes are immunocompetent cells that exist as T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes. They are one of white blood cells produced by the bone marrow. They are mature cells that are able to recognize and respond to antigens. They participate in the primary
immune response. T lymphocytes participate in cell-mediated immunity, and B lymphocytes participate in humoral immunity.
∙ booster vaccination A vaccination that is given 5-10 years after the first in order to remind the immune system of the antigen and to respond more rapidly if it is later exposed to it.
∙ gamma globulins They are a subgroup of blood proteins that produce antibodies. They are even taken from the bone marrow and the thymus as a form of treatment for immunodeficiency. However, there has been limited success. If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of income stagnation?
4. Explain why anaphylaxix is considered life threatening. Anaphylaxis occurs within a series of minutes from the quick release of massive amount of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells into the blood, after the person was exposed to the allergen. As a result, general or system vasodilation occurs, leading to a sudden drop in blood pressure. Also, in the person who was exposed to the allergen, mucous can be released into the airway, the bronchi and bronchioles may be constricted, leading to airway obstruction, as seen in asthma. The person will eventually have trouble breathing from the decrease in oxygen to tissue, along with the circulatory obstruction. Ischemia will lead to a loss in consciousness of the person.
5. Define an autoimmune disease, and explain how the causative mechanism differs from a normal defense.
An autoimmune disease is a disease caused as a result of the body not being able to tolerate its own self-antigens, most of which are found on the body’s own cell membranes. The immune system cannot tell self-antigens from foreign antigens; so, it does not recognize, respond and develop a memory for them like it would for foreign cells that it normally does to develop immunity for. The body’s own immune system produces autoantibodies against these antigens. This may result in inflammation, further tissue damage, necrosis, and infection. Don't forget about the age old question of How do scaffold proteins make cellular response more efficient?
6. Differentiate between HIV + and AIDS. Why are opportunistic infections common with AIDS?
Being HIV+ involves the loss, partial or complex, of components of your immune system, increasing your risk of secondary infections and of cancer. HIV decreases the number of CD8 helper T lymphocytes. Thus, HIV decreases the ratio of CD8 helper to CD4 helper lymphocytes in the immune system.
AIDS is a chronic, infectious disease caused by HIV, and it may exist in a prolonged latent form, followed by a period of active infection. AIDS involves marked clinical manifestations and multiple complications. Thus, a person may have HIV for years but few, if any manifestations. Eventually, the person who is HIV+ just may develop AIDS. The change in the CD4+ to CD8+ ratio leads to risk of opportunistic infection in people with AIDS. GI effects in the final acute stage from opportunistic infections may include vomiting and diarrhea. Don't forget about the age old question of Where did the dog detect lars’ wife’s body?
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7. State 3 methods of transmitting HIV and 3 methods by which the virus is not transmitted.
3 ways of transmitting HIV include the transmission of shared, dirty, contaminated needles; having multiple sex partners; and having unprotected sex.
3 ways by which the virus is not transmitted is by disposing of dirty needles properly; having safe, protected sex; and having a C-section instead of giving natural childbirth in order not to spread the virus to the baby if the mother is HIV+, especially in high-risk areas.