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ERIE COMMUNITY COLLEGE / Biology / BIOL 241 / What is the difference between natural passive immunity and artificial

What is the difference between natural passive immunity and artificial

What is the difference between natural passive immunity and artificial

Description

Chapter 3 Study Guide


What is the difference between natural passive immunity and artificial passive immunity?



1. Compare natural immunity and passive artificial immunity,  describing the causitive mechanism and giving an example.

Natural immunity is when a person is exposed to an antigen, whether  directly in the outside environment, or whether the antigen is purposefully  injected into the person. In turn, the immune system may stimulate the  production of antibodies. In natural artificial immunity, the antigen injected  as a vaccine may be introduced in the form of toxicoid or as a booster, such  as for tetanus.  

In passive artificial immunity, antibodies are injected into the person. For  example, antiserum antibodies for rabies or antivenum may be injected. This may be necessary to give protection to someone who has developed a  disease/illness, but who has not yet developed immunity, say for a hepatitis  B patient.  


What are some of the antiviral drugs used to treat viral diseases?



2. Define

∙ Antibiotic = drugs derived from organisms

Eg pencillin is made from mold

∙ Antimicrobial = used to classify drugs that treat certain microbes,  include antiviral, antibacterial, and antifungal. These are unique to  each organizem ,and they are not interchangeable. Don't forget about the age old question of What are the ancient beliefs about blood-drinking creatures in various cultures?

∙ Antiviral=a drug that is used to treat viral diseases by decreasing the  virus’s rate of replication. However, it does not kill the virus or cure the infection. There is no cure for such diseases caused by viruses like HIV  and AIDS.

∙ opportunistic = usually harmless, living organisms can cause  infections in areas of the body, including resident flora, if they are  spread from one nonpathogenic location to another, or if a balance  between the microbes is not maintained. Opportunistic infections are  common in post-organ transplants, in AIDS, and also in cervical, colon  and skin cancer cases.


What does pruritic mean?



∙ prophylactic = another word for antimicrobial drugs; one should  especially take this before undergoing any invasive procedure that may expose them to any opportunistic infection, and which involves blood  loss or tissue extraction. One should especially consider this especially  if he is at risk for immunodeficiency diseases

∙ pruritic = another word for itchy; is a local effect of the skin to a  hypersensitivity reaction to an allergen  

3. Please note the role(s) of the following with regards to the  immune system: Don't forget about the age old question of Where is sigmund freud born?

∙ macrophage Macrophages, developed from monocytes, are critical for the primary immune response. They develop antigens, which  lymphocytes then respond to in the primary immune response.  Macrophages also produce chemical mediators such as monokines and  interleukins in activation of additional leukocytes and in inflammatory  response, which accompanies a secondary immune response.  

∙ Lymphocyte Lymphocytes are immunocompetent cells that exist as T  lymphocytes and B lymphocytes. They are one of white blood cells  produced by the bone marrow. They are mature cells that are able to  recognize and respond to antigens. They participate in the primary

immune response. T lymphocytes participate in cell-mediated  immunity, and B lymphocytes participate in humoral immunity.

∙ booster vaccination A vaccination that is given 5-10 years after the  first in order to remind the immune system of the antigen and to  respond more rapidly if it is later exposed to it.

∙ gamma globulins They are a subgroup of blood proteins that produce  antibodies. They are even taken from the bone marrow and the thymus as a form of treatment for immunodeficiency. However, there has been  limited success. If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of income stagnation?

4. Explain why anaphylaxix is considered life threatening. Anaphylaxis occurs within a series of minutes from the quick release of massive amount  of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells into the blood, after the  person was exposed to the allergen. As a result, general or system  vasodilation occurs, leading to a sudden drop in blood pressure. Also, in the  person who was exposed to the allergen, mucous can be released into the  airway, the bronchi and bronchioles may be constricted, leading to airway  obstruction, as seen in asthma. The person will eventually have trouble  breathing from the decrease in oxygen to tissue, along with the circulatory  obstruction. Ischemia will lead to a loss in consciousness of the person.

5. Define an autoimmune disease, and explain how the causative  mechanism differs from a normal defense.

An autoimmune disease is a disease caused as a result of the body not  being able to tolerate its own self-antigens, most of which are found on the  body’s own cell membranes. The immune system cannot tell self-antigens  from foreign antigens; so, it does not recognize, respond and develop a  memory for them like it would for foreign cells that it normally does to  develop immunity for. The body’s own immune system produces  autoantibodies against these antigens. This may result in inflammation,  further tissue damage, necrosis, and infection. Don't forget about the age old question of How do scaffold proteins make cellular response more efficient?

6. Differentiate between HIV + and AIDS. Why are opportunistic  infections common with AIDS?

Being HIV+ involves the loss, partial or complex, of components of your  immune system, increasing your risk of secondary infections and of cancer.  HIV decreases the number of CD8 helper T lymphocytes. Thus, HIV decreases the ratio of CD8 helper to CD4 helper lymphocytes in the immune system.  

AIDS is a chronic, infectious disease caused by HIV, and it may exist in a  prolonged latent form, followed by a period of active infection. AIDS involves  marked clinical manifestations and multiple complications. Thus, a person  may have HIV for years but few, if any manifestations. Eventually, the person who is HIV+ just may develop AIDS. The change in the CD4+ to CD8+ ratio  leads to risk of opportunistic infection in people with AIDS. GI effects in the  final acute stage from opportunistic infections may include vomiting and  diarrhea.  Don't forget about the age old question of Where did the dog detect lars’ wife’s body?
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7. State 3 methods of transmitting HIV and 3 methods by which the  virus is not transmitted.

3 ways of transmitting HIV include the transmission of shared, dirty, contaminated  needles; having multiple sex partners; and having unprotected sex.  

3 ways by which the virus is not transmitted is by disposing of dirty needles  properly; having safe, protected sex; and having a C-section instead of giving  natural childbirth in order not to spread the virus to the baby if the mother is HIV+,  especially in high-risk areas.

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