Notes from Oct 21st Traditional Chinese Medicine YinYang ○ Holistic philosophy – you can’t consider anything in the world without thinking about its complement. ○ A dynamic equilibrium exists that controls the universe –If you want to learn more check out Human Anatomy Stvide guide A The diaphragm seperates what cavities?
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homeostasis. Balance. ○ Illness in Traditional Chinese Medicine is the result of imbalance. TCM practitioner has to find the source of imbalance ○ In Western medicine, the body is thought of as like a machine; we ○ Yin Organs: ▪ Heart ▪ Lungs ▪ Spleen – makes chi – energy that lets us move our bodies and ▪ Liver ▪ (solid organs) ▪ Kidneys ▪ Pericardium ○ Yang Organs: ▪ Small intestine ▪ Large intestine ▪ Stomach ▪ Gall bladder ▪ Bladder ▪ (hollow organ’s) ▪ Bladder ▪ Triple Burner – “the organ without a form” a relationship between several things that work together to ○ Meridians of the body ▪ 12, one for every organ in your body ▪ Loops, circling in and out of your body ▪ Chi moves around it; Chi can get blocked at pressure points (acupuncture points). By stimulating the pressure points, you can access the internal organs This allows physicians to “touch” the insides of your body ○ TCM goes back 1000s of years (like Indian Ayurvedic medicine in India) ▪ Text books are about as old Medicinal Plants in the Chinese Vascular Flora: ○ Families: 240/287 (84%) ○ Genera: 1,544/2,949 (52%) ○ Species: 4,941/26,092 (19%) Lycium chinense Chinese Wolfberry – good for ____ chi Angelica sinensis – dong quai Codonopsis pilosulaI – dang shen ○ Parsley ○ Roots ○ Tonics; stabilizing menstrual cycles and women’s reproductive stuff ○ Dong quai ○ Top of root is good for stopping bleeding ○ Bottom, spindly parts good for breaking up blood clots Licorice is a commonly used herb ○ It helps other herbs work better together ○ Tastes better Codonopsis pilosula ○ Cheaper version of ginseng; ○ wild collected are valued more, because they’re “stronger: Bugs ○ Scorpions – tetanus, convulsions ○ Centipedes convulsions Hospitals (TCM ones) ○ They do have normal, allopathic (Western) hospitals ○ Chronic problems that can’t always be helped by Western medicine ○ Broken up into wards ○ Moxibustion – take leaves of a sage; rolled up like a cigar, then lit like a scar; not applied directly to skin, but held over acupuncture points; ○ Acupuncture needles are sometimes wired and given a small electrical charge ○ Problem is that proof is based on anecdote, not science… Ingredients in Dali Cold Formula ○ Perilla frutescens ○ Asarum heterotropoides ○ Anisomeles indica ○ Adenophora potaninii ○ Eriobotrya japonica (loquat) ○ Platycodon grandiflorum ○ Pinellia ternate ○ Glycyrrhiza uralensis (licorice genus) ○ Citrus reticulate – Mandarin Orange ○ Prunus armenica – Apricot ○ Poria cocos – fungus ○ Unidentified fungus Patent medicines are sold; sometimes have species names on them. You don’t want to buy these, because you don’t always know what’s in them Notes from Oct. 26 Partial Chemistry of a Cold Formula○ Citric acid ○ Amygdalin ○ DLlactic acid ○ Betaionone ○ Phenyl ethyl alcohol ○ Oleic acids ○ Arsenic ○ Citral ○ Glycyrrhizic acid ○ Botulin ○ Inulin ○ Kikyosaponin ○ Phenol ○ Platycodigenin ○ Asarinin ○ Eucarvone ○ Safrole ○ Apigenin ○ Luteolin ○ Alphapinene ○ Chrysoeriol glycoside ○ Ascorbic acid ○ Bergamottin ○ … Characteristics of a Clinical Trial ○ Controls (Placebos) ○ Doubleblind procedure ○ Random assignment of patients to groups ○ Statistical analysis of data Mammals in the Materia Media of TCM ○ Antelope horn ○ Asshide glue ○ Cave bat dung ○ Bear’s gall ○ Deer tail ○ Goat whisker ○ Pangolin scales ○ Seal penis & testis ○ Ambergris ○ Charred human hair ○ Hedgehog skin ○ Leopard bone UGA Artemisia Improvement Program ○ Led by Dr. Hazel Wetzstein ○ Malaria is the leading cause of death and illness worldwide (655,000 deaths a year, one death every 48 seconds) ○ Goals were to develop plants with high artemisinin content and desirable agronomic traits ○ Approach involved sexual breeding and selection and clonal propagation of superior genotypes Antiparasite drugs sweep Nobel prize in medicine in 2015. Youyou Tu is the first Chinabased scientist to win a science Nobel ○ In the 1960s, the main treatments for malaria were chloroquine and quinine, but they were proving increasingly ineffective. ○ So, in 1967, China established a national project against malaria to discover new therapies. ○ Tu and her team screened more than 2,000 Chinese herbal remedies to search for drugs with antimalarial activity. ○ An extract from the wormwood plant Artemisia annua proved especially effective and by 1972, the researchers had isolated chemically pure artemisinin. Notes from Oct. 31st Can the supply of medicinal plants meet the rising demand? ○ WHO estimates 80% of people in developing countries rely on herbal medicines for their primary health care ○ Herbal medicines are also popular in many industrialized countries (ex: European Union) ○ The market for herbal medicines in the US has grown rapidly in the last decade How many medicinal plants are in cultivation? ○ Estimates for the number of plant species used medicinally range from 35,000 to 70,000 (out of 250,000 to 442,000 flowering plant species worldwide) ○ The great majority of these are used only in traditional or folk medicine ○ About 2,500 species are traded internationally ○ Probably no more than a few hundred are in formal cultivation for commercial purposes Silphium ○ Collected to extinction ○ Parsley fam (apiacae) ○ Genus: Ferula ○ Stamped on a coins from 500 BCE and 400 BCE. In Ancient Roman documents that was worth its weight in silver ○ Giant Tangier Fennel; Ferula tingitana ▪ Thought to be related ○ Collected to extinction in 400 CE ○ Contraceptive Queen Anne’s Lace ○ Daucus carota ○ Contraception and Abortion ○ In an experiment on mice, extracts have shown to prevent pregnancy ▪ Women in the Appalachian Mountains Book: Contraception and Abortion from the Ancient World to the Renaissance by John M. Riddle ▪ Information was shared among women. Siberian Tiger ○ A dozen or so left in China ○ Every body part is useful in TCM Pangolin ○ Two species of which are endangered and all of which are protected by international treaty ○ Most trafficked (poached) mammal in the world ○ Anteater ○ Scales used in TCM ○ Blood is drunk like a tonic; seen as a healing tonic ○ Meat is considered a highend delicacy in China ○ Imported to China from all over, even Africa Rhinos ○ The horn is the most prized part in TCM ○ It’s made of the same stuff your nails are made of ○ Rhinos have to be protected full time Yellow Lady’s Slipper ○ A “nervine” – tonic for the nervous system ○ Roots are used ○ Orchid ○ Has a pouch that pollinators to bounce around in and collect pollen on them ○ Called the “American Valerian” ○ Used in Colonial times Spigelia marilandica ○ Georgia native ○ Used for intestinal worms ○ Colonial times ○ Kind of poisonous, so not widely used What is causing the loss of plant biodiversity worldwide? ○ The current rate of plant and animal extinctions is estimated to be 1001,000 times greater than previous average levels ○ In North America, about 1/3 of flowering plant species are at risk.○ Factors reducing plant diversity: ▪ Habitat destruction ▪ Invasive species ▪ Exotic diseases ▪ Pollution (water, soil, air, etc.) ▪ Absence of natural disturbances (like wildfires) ▪ Overexploitation ▪ Deforestation ▪ Human/Urban development ▪ Herbicides ▪ Pests ▪ Some plants only live in very specific places, like stuff on Stone Mountain ○ Hemlock Woolly Adelgid, Headwaters of Tallulah River, GA ○ Pitcher plants ▪ All species are protected in Georgia because of wild collecting ▪ Whitetop Pitcherplant – Sarracenia leucophylla ○ Cut flower trade impacts wild populations Snow Lotus ○ Saussurea laniceps ○ At risk of extinction ○ Caterpillar fungus Strategies for Medicinal Plant Conservation ○ Establishment of protected areas, including extractive reserves ▪ Like national parks ○ Regulation of collection for sustainability ○ Reintroduction projects ○ Domestication of medicinal plant species that currently only grow as wild populations (conservation through propagation) Establishment of protected areas ○ Discovery of Ancistrocladus korupensis in Korup Park, Cameroon. ▪ Area of ancient forests ▪ Tropical, woody vine ▪ Sample labeled Ancistrocladus abbreviates tested by Nation Cancer Institute in 1986 ▪ Showed activity against HIV ▪ Contained alkaloids called michellamines ▪ When researchers sent back more material of the plant (collected from a different source population), the extracts were no longer effective ▪ They concluded the original sample from the park was a new species, with a different alkaloid composition○ Maya Biosphere Reserve ▪ An “extractive reserve” is an area where local people can extract small products on a small scale while still preserving a largely intact ecosystem ▪ “Use it or lose it” ▪ Nontimber forest products collected from the Peten reserve include chicle, xate palm, and allspice ▪ Sustainably Regulation ○ Put restrictions on size of plants and time of year they can be harvested ○ Ex: Ginseng – regulating the collection of Ginseng in Georgia for sustainability ▪ Panax quinquefolius ▪ Ginseng fam ▪ Herbaceous perennials ▪ Native to east Asia and eastern North America ▪ Root used ▪ Fatigue, tonic, athletic performance ▪ Cautions: high blood pressure, heart palpitations ○ Convention on Trade in Endangered Species (CITES, 1973) ▪ An international agreement between governments to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival ○ Regulations governing the collection and sale of Ginseng in GA ▪ Sellers must register with the DNR ▪ Ginseng wildharvest season extends from August 15 to December 21 ▪ Plants must have at least 3 prongs (leaves); this is an indicator of age ▪ All seeds must be buried at the collection site Reintroduction Projects ○ Echinacea ▪ E. purpurea ▪ E. angustifolia ▪ Sunflower fam ▪ Herbaceous perennial ▪ Native to US ▪ Root and aboveground parts used ▪ Colds and flus; immune system stimulant ▪ Cautions: allergic reactions ○ Benefits of Cultivation ▪ More reliable supply ▪ More consistent quality (less adulteration, better postharvest handling) ▪ Opportunities for selection and breeding (chemistry, morphology, phenology, resistance, hardiness) ▪ Less pressure on wild populations ▪ Economic opportunities ○ Risks of Cultivation▪ May not be costcompetitive with wild harvest ▪ May not be technically feasible ▪ Requires greater financial investment; danger of doom and bust markets ▪ Local human populations may lose interest in conserving wild populations ▪ May remove a source of cash for local harvesters Domestication of medicinal plant species ○ Bloodroot Alkaloids ▪ Bloodroot produces several highly bioactive isoquinoline alkaloids; sanguinarine is the most abundant ▪ Other alkaloids in this class include codeine and morphine ▪ These are broadspectrum defense chemicals that deter or kill bacteria, fungi, insects, nematodes, and protozoa ○ Medicinal Uses of Bloodroot ▪ Used by Native Americans as an emetic and for treatment of respiratory problems and fevers; the red sap was applied to warts and a variety of cancers ▪ Extract has been used commercially as additive in toothpastes and mouthwashes ▪ “Sangrovit” marketed in Europe as poultry and swine feed additive ○ In biology, a “cline” is a gradual change in a character or feature across the distributional range of a species or population, usually correlated with an environmental or geographic transition ▪ Bloodroot exhibits a cline in the concentration of sanguinarine alkaloid in the rhizomes Notes from Nov 7th Part 1 What are some of the risks in using herbal meds? ○ Efficacy isn’t always clinically demonstrated ○ Actual content not guaranteed ○ Adulteration ○ Interactions with other herbs and drugs ○ May contain toxic substances New York Times: “Herbal Supplements Are Often Not What They Seem” ○ Canadian researchers used DNA barcoding to verify the contents of several popular OTC herbal medicines ○ Tested 44 bottles of supplements sold by 12 companies ○ Onethird showed no trace of the plant advertised on the bottle ○ 50% of them were adulterated with things mixed in that were not mentioned on the label ○ In some cases, the only plants detected in the bottle were fillers (rice, soybean, wheat) ○ DSHEA deregulated herbal medicine industry. ▪ Made it easier for Americans to access them, but not ▪ No required drug testing ○ In response, a science group organized by the American Botanical Council claims that the article is “flawed, contains errors, creates confusion, and should be retracted”: ▪ “DNAbased analysis is not appropriate when used in some of the ways that the authors appear to have done so, i.e. when trying to use DNA to determine the identity of commercial herb products that may contain plant extracts” Why do so many people try herbal medicines in spite of the risks? ○ Frustration with allopathic medicine ○ Ability to selfmedicate ○ Often less expensive; can grow it at home ○ Can address conditions not addressed by allopathic medicines (e.g., adaptogens) ○ Backtonature attitude ○ In less developed countries, traditional medicine may be all that is available or affordable ○ Prefer more gently acting medicines ○ Can include modalities not used in allopathic medicine (e.g., aromatherapy, smudging, etc) Part two: Allergy Plants Overreactions of the immune system Certain plants are capable of causing allergic reactions in sensitive individuals. ○ Some plants trigger respiratory allergies, due to inhalation of airborne pollen ○ Others cause dermatitis (skin rash) due to contact with oils or resins ○ Allergic reactions are hypersensitivity reactions – in sensitive individuals, the immune system overreacts to harmless substances. ○ Respiratory allergies are Mechanism of an Allergic Reaction ○ Mast cells store a number of different chemical mediators –including histamine and various enzymes—in coarse granules found throughout the cell ○ After the first encounter with an allergen (i.e. pollen, mold spores) IgE antibodies are produced and attach to the surface of the mast cells lining the respiratory tract, skin, and intestine.○ Antibodies are proteins that bind to antigens (a substance capable of producing an immune response) ○ When the allergen is encountered again, it will bind to the IgE antibodies and cause the release of histamine and other chemicals that are responsible for the allergy symptoms ○ gen part mean generates Video ○ Wut ○ IgE ○ Mast cells ○ Histamine ○ Antihistamines work by blocking ___, decreasing the amount of histamines ○ Respiratory Allergies ○ 2025% of the human population suffers from one or more significant allergies, with hay fever and allergic asthma as the most common ○ Triggered by exposure to pollen, mold spores, dust, animal dander, and insect allergens ○ Sensitivity to a particular substance is not inherited, but the tendency to develop allergies is genetically controlled ○ The term “hay fever” originated in the early 19th Century because the condition appeared at the same time of year when hat was cut and baled. ○ Since the condition has little to do with hay, and seldom if ever produces a fever, the term allergic rhinitis is more appropriate. ○ Typical symptoms are sneezing, runny nose, nasal congestion, and postnasal drainage along with red, itchy, puffy, and teary eyes ○ With few exceptions, plants that produce hay fever are windpollinated; they produce abundant quantities of lightweight pollen that is passively dispersed into the air. ○ To be allergic, the pollen wall must contain actual allergens; these compounds are glycoproteins (proteins with attached sugars) that probably act as recognition factors for stimulating growth of the pollen tube on the stigma ○ The most notorious hay fever plant is Ragweed (Ambrosia spp.) ▪ Short Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) and Giant Ragweed (A. trifida) cause more hay fever than all other plants combined ▪ Ragweed allergy season in the South normally peaks in midSeptember, with allergy symptoms at their worst during the four or five weeks before and after that date. ○ Tree pollen is the leading cause of spring hay fever. ▪ Pine tree pollen usually peaks in early April in Georgia. ▪ Oak, Maple, Elm, Birch, Pecan, Walnut, and Mulberry trees are among the major producers of airborne allergens○ Grasses are the leading cause of early summer allergies, including Bermuda grass and Kentucky Bluegrass Allergy Controls ○ Avoidance (pets, landscaping, air filters) ○ Antihistamine and decongestants ○ Immunotherapy or desensitization (allergy shots) Herbs that are used to treat hay fever symptoms include: ○ Dong quai (Angelica sinensis) – used as an antihistamine and antiinflammatory ○ Eyebright (Euphrasia officinales) – reduces congestion and secretions. It’s good for itchy eyes, sneezing, and excess mucus. ○ Gingko (Ginbko biloba) – contains flavonoids and is used as an antioxidant and antiinflammatory ○ Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum) – helps reduce allergic, inflammatory, and histaminic reactions and supports liver function ○ Red Clover (Trifolium pretense) – helps build the body’s resistance to allergies. ○ Stinging Nettles (Urtica dioica) – used as an antihistamine and antiinflammatory. ○ Yarrow (Achillea millefolium) – reduces congestion and secretions Contact Dermatitis ○ An allergic reaction of the skin to something touched. ○ Like other allergic reactions, it’s triggered by an immune system response. ○ Symptoms take several hours or days to appear. ○ Posion Ivy ▪ Toxicodendron radicans ▪ Cashew fam ▪ Native to USA and southern Canada ▪ Grows as a woody shrub or vine ▪ Related species are Poison Oak and Poison Sumac. ▪ About half the population is sensitive to Poison Ivy ▪ Urushiol, an oily resin found in all parts of the plant, is the actual allergen. It rapidly bonds to proteins in the skin and can be spread to other parts of the body by rubbing, scratching, or just touching the rash or blisters Botanists have develop dermatitis after studying Poison Ivy specimens that have been stored for over 100 years ▪ Some herbal remedies for Poison Ivy rash include: Gumweed tincture (Grindelia squarrosa, G. robusta) Jewelweed compress or tincture (Impatiens capensis) Plantain poultice (Plantago spp.) Aloe gel (Aloe vera) Witch Hazel fluid extract (Hamamelis virginiana) Tea bag poultice (Camellia sinensis)Herbs and Women’s Health Nov. 9th HRT hormone replacement therapy Study by Women’s Health Initiative (WHI): HRT clinical trials with estrogen and progestin had to because it had major side effects: raised the risk for stroke, invasive breast cancer, heart disease, and blood clots. ○ When compared to subjects taking the placebo, women in the estrogen plus progestin treatment group (mostly between the ages of 6069) showed the following response: ▪ The number of women who were diagnosed with breast cancer was slightly higher in women taking estrogen plus progestin. ▪ The number of women who developed heart attacks, strokes, or blood clots in the lungs and legs was higher in women taking estrogen plus progestin ▪ The number of women who had hip and other fractures or colorectal cancer was lower in women taking estrogen plus progestin ▪ There were no differences in the number of women who had endometrial cancer (cancer of the lining of the uterus) or in the number of total deaths ▪ There was no observed increase in the risk of breast cancer in women taking estrogen alone versus women taking a placebo. In fact, there was a slight decrease. ▪ Conclusion: For women taking estrogen plus progestin, the risks (increased breast cancer, heart attack, stroke, and blood clots in the lungs and legs) outweighed the benefits (fewer hip fractures and colon cancer) for women who do not have other reasons besides prevention to take hormone therapy. This study should not be applied to younger women or symptomatic women. Vitex (Chasteberry) ○ Vitex agnuscastus ○ Verbena fam ○ Shrub (ornamental) ○ Native to western Asia and the Mediterranean region ○ Fruit is use (peppercorn size) ○ Used by Roman women and Medieval monks to dampen sexual urges (this use is discredited) ○ Influences hormone activity by affect the pituitary gland ○ Leads to a shift in estrogenprogesterone ratios ○ In one clinical study 90% of women reported reduction in PMS symptoms ○ Cautions: do not combine with HRT or birthcontrol pills; avoid during pregnancy ○ Target ailments: menopause symptoms , irregular periods/menstrual cycle, and PMS Black Cohosh ○ Buttercup fam ○ Cimicifuga racemosa○ Perennial herb ○ Native to eastern North America; many Native American uses including snake bite and colds ○ Root is used ○ Officially recognized in Britain and Germany for menopause and PMS ○ Cautions: Don’t take during pregnancy; may cause upset stomach ○ Black Cohosh was the primary ingredient in Lydia Pinkham’s Vegetable Compound, sold to millions of women between 1875 and the 1920s. ○ Remifemin is a German product containing Black Cohosh that is currently popular for treating menopause symptoms ○ Previously, it was thought that Black Cohosh contained estrogenlike compounds (hot flashes are linked with low estrogen), but recent detailed chemical analyses do not detect any such compounds. ○ New studies indicate that some yettobe identified ingredient in Black Cohosh binds to serotonin receptors, which could affect the brain’s “thermostat,” cooling the body down ○ Apparent health risks (heart disease and stroke) associate with Hormone Replacement Therapy have led many women to look for natural alternatives. ○ Federally funded clinical trials of Black Cohosh are underway ○ Some small scale commercial production, but the roots are still wildharvested; demand is expected to increase. ○ Video: Wildharvesting Black Cohosh (Billy Taylor) Evening Primrose ○ Evening Primrose fam ○ Oenothera biennis ○ Annual or biennial herb ○ Native to eastern North America; common on disturbed sites (weedy areas) ○ Flowers open at dusk, pollinated by the sphinx moth ○ Seed oil is used ○ Gamma linolenic acid (GLA) is an essential fatty acid that must be obtained from diet. ○ Our bodies convert GLA into prostaglandins, hormonelike substances that regulate various functions; they reduce inflammation in some cases and promote it in others ○ GLAderived prostaglandins are antiinflammatory ○ Evening Primrose may help relieve: ▪ Discomforts of PMS (GLA reduces cramping and other symptoms) ▪ Some types of eczema that are caused by low levels of GLA ▪ Multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and acne. ▪ Side effects: 2% of subjects in clinical trial experienced nausea, abdominal discomfort, or headache; contraindicated with epilepsy. Expert websites frequently reflect uncertainty in their evaluation of the safety and efficacy of popular herbal medicines: ○ National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health: ▪ http://nccih.nih.gov/health.blackcohost/ataglance.htm ○ University of Maryland Medical Center ▪ http://umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/herb/blackcohosh Arnica ○ Sunflower fam ○ Arnica montana ○ Perennial herb ○ Native to Europe ○ Whole plant and flower used ○ Sprains, bruises, sports injuries ○ External use, don’t use on open wounds ○ Cautions: poisonous, do not take internally (except homeopathically) ○ Boosts circulation to area where applied ○ Reduces swelling ○ Mild analgesic ○ Antibacterial ○ Combination of effects useful for treating bruises, muscle strain, and sore joints ○ Gels, creams, ointments, compresses (do not apply to open wounds) Witch Hazel ○ Witch Hazel fam ○ Hamamelis virginiana ○ Shrub ○ Native to eastern North America ○ Leaf and bark used ○ Astringent ○ Hemorrhoids, varicose veins, and sunburn ○ Cautions: not for longterm internal use ○ Witch Hazel tannins have a drying, astringent effect. ○ Tightens proteins in the skin and across the surface of abrasions ○ Creates protective covering that increases resistance to inflammation and promotes healing of broken skin Nettle ○ Urtica dioica ○ Grows in disturbed (weedy) areas ○ Covered with stinging hairs ○ Used as a counterirritant to decrease join pain (e.g., arthritis) ○ Juice of roots and leaves relieves bronchitis and asthma ○ Good for allergies like hay fever Green Tea ○ Camellia sinensis○ Same genus as Camellia ○ Shrubs ○ Contains caffeine ○ Polyphenols are powerful antioxidants ○ Cancerpreventative and good for the circulatory system ○ Black tea leaves are fermented; in green tea the leaves are lightly steamed and then quickly dried, preserving polyphenols. ○ Nutritionfact.org video on Green Teas ▪ Inner lining of blood vessels (endothelial cells). ▪ Green tea has shown to have a beneficial effect on endothelial cells quickly for up to 2 hours ▪ Black tea is just as good, but taking it with milk cancels out the effects. Completely prevents benefits by milk (casein) Butterfly Milkweed – Asclepias tuberosa Notes from Nov 14 Part 1: Indian Essential Herbs presentation Atharva Veda: ○ 20 Kandas (parts/books) ○ 730 Suktas (hymns) ○ 5,987 Mantas (verses) ○ Spiritual, psychological, health, and healing. Ayurveda ○ Three fundamental energy complexes Doshas ○ Three energies: vata, pitta, and kapha ▪ Vata Respiration, circulation, elimination, locomotion, movement, speech, creativity, enthusiasm, and the entire nervous system Space (Akash) and Air (Vayu) Rajasic Catabolic, activating, and dynamic Energy of movement ▪ Pitta Transformations such as digestion and metabolism, vision, complexion, body temperature, courage, cheerfulness, intellection, and discrimination Fire (Tejas) and Water (Jala) Satwic Metabolism, balancing, and transformative Energy of metabolism ▪ Kapha Growth (anabolic processes), lubrication, fluid secretions, binding, potency, patience, heaviness, fluid balance, compassion, and understanding in the organism Water (Jala) and Earth (Prithvi) Tamasic Anabolic, conserving, and stabilizing Energy of structure Indian Tradition for a reason ○ Uses: Culinary, medicinal, and religious ceremonies ○ Turmeric (Curcuma longa) roots used ▪ Tradition – wedding rituals ▪ Ayurvedic cuts, wounds, face packs, etc. ▪ Culinary – “curries” ▪ Antiinflammatory, antiseptic ▪ Curcumin – active ingredient; gives yellow color ○ Holy Basil (Ocimum sanctum) leaves and flowers ▪ Traditional: Tulasi as Goddess ▪ Culinary – in decoctions, juices, or raw ▪ Ayurvedic – removes kidney stones, cures stomach aches, and prevents heart disorders; adaptogen ○ Neem (Azadirachta indica) ▪ Traditional and culinary: part of Ugadi (South Indian New Year); Festive food (Ugadi): chutney Neem is the bitter contributor of the 6 tastes of Ugadi Chutney ▪ Ayurvedic: Provides excellent skin care; clears breath and respiratory problems, and maintains healthy blood sugar levels. Part Two: Class notes Neem ○ Azadirachta indica ○ Extract is powerfully active against many insect pests ○ Has antifungal, antimicrobial, and antiinflammatory activity ○ Mixture of neem leaves and turmeric root is effective in curing scabies, an infestation of the skin by tiny mites ○ Included in many skin care products Catnip ○ Nepeta cataria ○ Felines love catnip and respond to it ▪ Signs: licking noses; then rubbing ▪ Thought to be a genetic related ○ Gentle sedative effect on humans ○ Tranquilizer○ Carminative ○ Drink catnip tea 45 before bedtime Comfrey ○ Symphytum officinale ○ Traditionally used for skin problems and to mend broken bones ○ Sometimes called “bone set” ○ German Commission E recognizes its antiinflammatory properties and recommends applying comfrey to the skin to treat bruises, dislocations, and sprains ○ Do not use internally without professional guidance (pyrrolizidine alkaloids cause liver damage) ○ Has helpful chemicals ○ Good for ○ Do not take internally – poisonous to livers ○ Traditionally used for skin problems Yellowroot ○ Native to southeast US ○ Xanthorhiza simplicissima ○ Contains alkaloid: Berberin (also in goldenseal); potent antibiotic ○ Alabama herbalist Tommie Bass claimed it was one of the most effective treatments for ulcers, which are linked to bacterial infections Jewelweed ○ Native plant ○ Impatiens capensis ○ Insect pollinated ○ Fruits are explosive: ▪ When ripe, just touching it will make it burst open ○ Used to treat rashes caused by Poison Ivy, Poison Oak, and Poison Sumac ○ Crush the leaves and rub them on areas that have come in contact with Poison Ivy ○ Jewelweed contains the chemical lawsone that competes with urushiol for receptor binding sites Eucalyptus ○ Eucalyptus globulus ○ Australia ○ Aromatic ○ Source of Eucalyptol ○ Essential oil is a primary component of Vicks VapoRub ○ Used externally for chest congestion, to clear the sinuses, and to ease aches and pains ○ Antibiotic and insecticide ○ Primary active ingredient is cineole (also call eucalyptol)○ Only for external use Dandelion ○ Originally from Europe and Asia ○ Taraxacum officinales ○ Used as a diuretic to remove excess fluid that accompanies swelling ○ Contain lecithin, a compound that promotes a healthy liver ○ Traditionally used to treat gallstones ○ Leaves gathered in spring and eaten in salads as a spring tonic, stimulating digestion and vitality Tea Tree ○ Melaleuca alternifolia ○ Also known as “bottle bush” ○ Native to Australia ○ Contains a powerful antiseptic that is potent against bacteria and fungi ○ Popular treatment worldwide for insect bites, cuts, and wounds; effective treatment for acne ○ Antifungal for athlete’s foot ○ Oil is for external use only Raspberry ○ Rubus idaeusI ○ Close relative to roses ○ Native to Europe, Asia, and N. America ○ Used as an astringent to treat diarrhea and as a gargle for mouth or throat infections ○ Traditionally used to ease menstrual cramps and labor during childbirth ○ Do not take during pregnancy without medical guidance; can cause uterine contractions Burdock ○ Arctium lappa ○ Fruits have little hooks like Velcro (idea of Velcro came from them) ○ Used to treat skin disorders including eczema and acne (use tea prepared from roots as a face wash) ○ Used as a diuretic to treat PMS symptoms of bloating and water retention ○ General detoxifier Marshmallow ○ Same fam as hibiscus ○ Althaea officinale ○ Original marshmallows were made from root extracts ○ Contains abundant mucilage that is effective as a demulcent, relieving throat pain ○ Treats intestinal problems ○ Used as a poultice to treat wounds Cat’s Claw ○ Uncaria tomentosa○ Vine in the Coffee fam (Rubiaceae) ○ Gets name from clawlike thorns that hook into tree for climbing ○ Bark harvested by Ashaninka tribe in Peru ○ Used in modern herbal medicine to boost the immune system ○ Also used for arthritis, rheumatism, gastritis, and all kinds of inflammation. Yerba Mate ○ Ilex paraguariensis ○ Ornamental ○ Holly is in same genus ○ Stimulant (has caffeine) ○ Diuretic ○ Tonic ○ High tannin content – not good while you’re eating ○ South American drink, prepared as an infusion and sipped through a metal tube. ○ Communal drink Peperina – Mithostachys verticillata Jardin Botanico “Miguel J. Culaciati”: A Parallel Mission ○ Located in region rich in native, commercially harvested medicinal plants ○ Dedicated to conservation and public education ○ Interested in international collaboration and the development of garden networks for conservation, education, and development Notes from Nov. 16th O’Connor guest lecture Effects of low doses of caffeine added to apple juice and cocoa on mental energy\ ○ Lots of people report being mentally fatigued ○ It costs the world about $500 billion each year due to accidents, lost productivity, and health care ○ There are multiple benefits of being mentally energetic: ▪ Better learning ▪ Greater enjoyment of life ▪ Better work productivity Ways to increase mental energy ○ Sleep better ○ Engage in brainactivating behaviors ▪ Physical activity ▪ Exciting/interesting sedentary activities ○ Ingest stimulant drugs ▪ Adderall ▪ Modafinil ▪ Etc. ○ Ingest certain plantbased products▪ Glucose ▪ Caffeine ▪ Polyphenols? ○ Acute mental benefits of caffeine – effects are thought to be caused via adenosine receptors ○ Polyphenols are organic chemicals with multiple phenols: a hydroxyl group (—OH) bonded directly to an aromatic hydrocarbon group ○ Flavanols are a class of flavonoids that contain a ketone group ○ Polyphenols (especially flavanols such as epicatechin and catechin) can act directly and indirectly on blood vessels. ○ A few studies show that cocoa drinks, high in flavanols, can increase brain blood flow, neural activity and cognitive function. Mental Energy ○ Numerous variables can influence mental energy, including genetics, sleep, pain, disease, drugs, and nutrients. ○ Mental energy influences the mood of energy, motivation, and cognition (sustained attention). All four of these things influence one another. ○ Adequate doses of caffeine improve performance on tests of sustained attention ▪ Caffeine increases motivation to perform cognitive work Notes from Nov 28 Hallucinogenic Plants Psychoactive plants act on the Central Nervous System (CNS). We have discussed ○ Stimulants – provide a sense of wellbeing and exhilaration, even power (cocaine, caffeine) ○ Depressants – produce effects of euphoria and wellbeing, beginning with sedation and followed by sleep (Kava, opiates) ○ Hallucinogenic Plants – produce an altered stated of consciousness, a kind of dream world, including the apparent perception of sights, sounds, and tactility that are not actually present ▪ Religious, rituals Old World Hallucinogens ○ Fly Agaric (Amanita muscaria) ○ Belladonna (Atropa belladonna) ○ Henbane (Hyoscyamus niger) ○ Mandrake (Mandragora officinalis) ○ Datura species ○ Iboga (Tabernanthe iboga) ○ Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) Fly Agaric ○ Amanita muscaria ○ Mushroom ○ Hallucinogenic mushroom widely distributed in the north temperate zones ○ Ibotenic acid is metabolized into muscimole, which remains unaltered by the kidneys and is excreted intact in urine ○ May be the plant worshiped as the god Soma (ca. 2000 BCE) India European hallucinogenic plants ▪ Potato fam a lot of plants in the potato family are hallucinogenic ○ Propane alkaloids ▪ Scopolamine ○ Mandrake flowers and fruit ○ Herbane ○ Datura plants ▪ Gypsum – D. stramonium ▪ D. inoxia ▪ D. metel (old world) ▪ D. inoxia (new world) Iboga ○ Periwinkle fam ○ Tabernanthe iboga ○ Hallucinogenic plant used by Native Africans ○ Contains alkaloids (ibogaine) that lead to frightening visions; overdoses can be fatal ○ Parts used: bark or roots are powdered or chewed, often with other plant species ○ Family is rich in alkaloids (i.e. Madagascar Periwinkle, but most are toxic)○ Central to ritual practices of the growing Bwiti cult; communication with the ancestors ○ Taken by shamans to enhance psychic powers ○ Consumed by people seeking valuable objects concealed in former lives (can find random lost stuff) ○ Produces visual hallucinations; use is spreading and Iboga societies are popular ○ Bwiti is like Buddhism, anyone can join. The word ‘Bwiti’ simply means the experience of iboga, which is the essence of love. Iboga has developed a cult following in the US and in Europe, where it’s known as Ibogaine ○ In the West, the psychedelic is being promoted as a potential oneshot cure for treating addiction to heroin and other drugs. Some researchers believe that ibogaine has the ability to “reset the switches” of addiction, freeing addicts from withdrawal symptoms and all drug cravings for up to six months Marijuana, Hemp ○ Cannabis sativa ○ Hemp fam ○ Native to central Asia; humans have spread it worldwide ○ An important fiber crop for ropes, fishnets, and clothing ○ Dioecious, female plants are more potent than males; resins exuded on leaves and bracts of female inflorescences are particularly rich in intoxicating substances ○ Hallucinogenic properties first exploited in India; “bhang” is a milkbased beverage with Cannabis leaves, sugar, and spices ○ Hashish is relatively pure resin; 13th century “hashishans” were political assassins in a sect led by AlHasan ibn alSabbah ○ Picked up by artists and intellectuals in Europe and the US in the 19th century, then spread to general use ○ Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a complex alcohol, is responsible for marijuana’s intoxicating effects ○ THC binds to and activates cannabinoid receptors in the brain, interfering with their normal functioning. ○ Cannabidiol (CBD) is the most abundant cannabinoid in C. sativa; it’s not responsible for the “high” associated with marijuana, but it may be responsible for many of the potential therapeutic benefits/effects ○ Cannabis sativa is a highly variable species, including hemptype (fiber) cultivars low in resin, and drugtype cultivars with THC content up to 6% ○ Medical marijuana is the use of this drug to help treat symptoms like pain, nausea, vomiting, and lack of appetite. It’s often used by people with cancer, AIDS, multiple sclerosis, glaucoma, epilepsy, and other conditions ○ In 2015, it became legal for registered patients in Georgia possess up to 20 fluid ounces of lowTHC oil (no more than 5%) with their physician’s prescription○ It doesn’t, however, provide a legal means of access to the oil within the state; patients must obtain the oil from other states where the oil can be legally produced ○ Acceptable medical conditions include cancer, ALS, seizure disorders, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson’s disease ○ Following the 2016 election, there are 8 states plus the District of Colombia where recreational use of marijuana is now legal (CA, MA, NV, and ME added) ○ All but 6 states allow at least limited medical use of marijuana ○ Nearly onequarter of the US population lives in places where adult use of marijuana is now legal New World Hallucinogens ○ Fly Aagaric (Amanita muscaria) ○ Datura and Brugmansia species ○ Peyote (Lophophora williamsii) ○ Morning Glory (Ipomoea species) ○ Ebena (Virola species) ○ Yopo (Anadenanthera peregrina) ○ Ayahuasca (Banasteriopsis caapi) Peyote ○ Lopophora williamsii ○ Native to the Rio Grande Valley ○ Used by the Aztec priesthood, banned by the Spanish ○ Contains the alkaloid mescaline ○ It’s used today by the Native American Church ○ Believed to be an enthogen – has god within it and when consumed, god is within you. ○ Peyote visions (and flashbacks) ▪ Initial response after ingestion includes vomiting, chills, nausea, and anxiety ▪ Followed by clarity and intensity of thought, brilliantly colored visions, and exaggerated sensitivity to sounds and other sense impressions Morning Glory Families ○ Ipomoea and Turbina species ○ Seeds of these species contain hallucinogenic lysergic acid alkaloids (LSD is semisynthetic) ○ Known by common name ololiuqui (olowleeookey) ○ Carefully measured quantities of seeds are ingested during divinatory rituals ○ Little lay experimentation since lethal dose is very close to hallucinogenic one ○ Used for divination by Aztec, Mayan, and other Mexican tribes ○ When used today by Native Americans in Oaxaca, seeds are ground to flour and soaked in water; liquid is strained and a small quantity is drunk ○ Hallucinations are similar to those of peyote and psilocybin Ebena ○ Nutmeg fam ○ Virola species ○ Bark releases a red sap containing powerful alkaloids (DMT and other indole alkaloids) ○ Combined with other plants and ground to a powder to produce a hallucinogenic snuff ○ Inhaled by shamans to diagnose and treat disease, and for prophecy and divination. ○ Virola (yakee) intoxication usually involves initial excitability, followed by numbness of limbs, facial muscle twitching, lack of muscular coordination, nausea, visual hallucinations, followed by a deep and disturbed sleep ○ Objects often appear unnaturally large. Yopo ○ Anadenanthera peregrina ○ Legume fam ○ Snuff is made from powdered pods of this legume ○ Active components (tryptamines) are chemically similar to those in ebena snuff (Virola) Ayahuasca ○ Banasteriopsis caapi ○ Malpighiacae (fam?) ○ Active compounds (alkaloids harmine and harmaline) are obtained from the bark of this Amazonian vine ○ Often taken in communal rituals (“telepathine”) ○ Hallucinations are often terrifying with jaguars and snakes ○ Harmaline in Ayahuasca is a MAO inhibitor; it inhibits the endogenous monoamine oxidase that breaks down the psychoactive substance DMT ○ Psychotria viridis (chacruna leaves) provide the DMT in the Ayahuasca mixture ○ Because of the powerful visions, it’s been nicknamed “Amazonian television” or “jungle cinema” ○ Supreme Court says Church can use hallucinogen from Ayahuasca ▪ Unanimous decision says law enforcement goals in some cases must yield to religious rights ▪ Justice Roberts notes similar exception already made for Native American Church for the use of peyote ▪ UDV members believe ritualistic use of the drug brings them closer to God. Hallucinogenic preparations are administered in various ways: ○ Eaten – peyote, iboga, marijuana ○ Drunk as decoctions – amanita, ayahuasca ○ Smoked – marijuana ○ Snuffs – ebena, yopo○ Applied topically as salves and pastes – Datura, hexing herbs Many hallucinogenic compounds affect neurotransmitting chemicas ○ Norepinephrine enhancement – peyote and mescaline ○ Serotonin enhancement – mushrooms, S. American snuffs, morning glories ○ Acetylcholine depression – tropane alkaloids Hallucinogenic plants were used ritually for healing and divination, not for recreational purposes The publicity given to LSD by Harvard professor Timothy Leary in the 1960s caused a backlash, which slammed the door on research concerning the clinical uses of hallucinogens