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NEW JERSEY INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY / 352 / PSYCH 109 / How is the concept of ethnicity different from the concept of race?

How is the concept of ethnicity different from the concept of race?

How is the concept of ethnicity different from the concept of race?

Description

School: New Jersey Institute of Technology
Department: 352
Course: Race & Ethnicity
Professor: Charles brooks
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: race, ethnicity, and questions
Cost: 50
Name: race and ethnicity
Description: final for race and ethnicity
Uploaded: 12/09/2016
6 Pages 27 Views 5 Unlocks
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Basma Abukwaik


How is the concept of ethnicity different from the concept of race?



Dr. Brooks

STS 352: Race & Ethnicity  

FINAL NOTES (QUESTIONS ANSWERED)

1. Explain why scholars and others say that the term “race” should not be used.

i. Scholars and many others say that the term “race’ should  not be used because of the consequences associated with  it. The concept of race has subjective ties to social or  

cultural creations. This allows people to discriminate  

against certain groups based on these classifications thus  causing disunity and tension amongst them. An example  

from American history is seen when the confederate states wanted to form their own country after disagreeing on how  to treat people of the black race. They thought they were  

the superiors and focused on the differences between  


What does collective identity mean?



themselves rather than the look at the similarities. The  

idea of race causes people to fight based on superficial  

reasons.

2. When it is used today, what does the term “race” mean? i. Today, race is defined as a population of humans based on  their genetic and physical inheritance that makes them  

differ from other human groups. Race has become a  

common thing in daily life. It is seen in breaking news on  

TV channels, newspapers, and social media. It is a hot topic that interests many millennials and older generations  

that’s causes much debate and tension. Although, there  

are some negative aspects to race there are also positive  

features. Such as benefiting from demographics received  


How is ethnicity related to class?



If you want to learn more check out What do economists do?

from census and other applications. On almost every  If you want to learn more check out What is social attraction theory?

application there is an option to identify race. This helps to  identify and understand the discrimination that many  

minority groups face today.

3. How is the concept of ethnicity different from the concept of race? i. The concept of ethnicity focuses more on the cultural  

differences seen in humans. Ethnic groups are classified  

within larger groups of people based upon special traits  

that allows those within to feel like they belong. This idea  

of belonging comes from the common traits such as  

culture, beliefs, and even race. While race is only based on  genetic and physical characteristics, that is almost more  

superficial. For instance, racially I am a white but ethnically I identity as a Palestinian Muslim Arab American. If you want to learn more check out What is transcription?

Basma Abukwaik

Dr. Brooks

STS 352: Race & Ethnicity  

FINAL NOTES (QUESTIONS ANSWERED)

4. Why do some people think our common racial categories are absurd? i. Racial categories are considered absurd because of the  hate, tensions, violence, discrimination and stereotypes it  causes. For many people, racial categories are not an  Don't forget about the age old question of When did paranthropus boisei live?

important identity feature but because of the bubble  

surrounding race it becomes one. Many institutions wishing to diversify their organizations will try to meet quotas. For  instance, a black student might receive an acceptance to a school where a white student with the same credentials  

does not. It is also considered absurd because of the  

feature of an “other” category, as if to say a certain race is  recognized and another is not. It is a system that has faults in some ways and needs to be worked on. Don't forget about the age old question of What is plato’s view?

5. What do political scientists say are the main elements of conflict  between groups?

i. Political scientists say the main elements of conflict  

between groups occurs with ethnic pluralism. That is when  multiple groups of different ethnic communities inhabit the  same political space. These groups can have either a  

hostile or friendly relationship towards the other. Hostile  

relationships tend to cause conflict and can resort to  

violence.  

6. What does Esman mean when he says most of us share a number of  collective identities? Why is this relevant?

i. Esman says most of us share a number of collective  

identities because of globalization. When people move  

from place to place they are mixing their personal  

identities with the surrounding societies identities. This  

mixing causes many to alter their identity to accommodate the new society’s as well as assimilating into this new  We also discuss several other topics like What is the collective action problem?

place. Assimilation causes one’s ethnic identity to become  less relevant as they become a citizen of a new nation,  

thus broadening their identity.  

7. What are some of the commonalities people might share with others  whom they consider in the same ethnic group? Give examples. i. Some commonalities people share with others whom they  consider in the same ethnic group include language,  

cultural practices, and religion. For instance, Jordanians  

and Palestinians both speak Arabic despite being from

Basma Abukwaik

Dr. Brooks

STS 352: Race & Ethnicity  

FINAL NOTES (QUESTIONS ANSWERED)

different countries. While Bangladeshis and Pakistanis  

share similar cultural practices in their traditional clothing  despite being from different countries as well. Whereas  

Turkish Muslims and Arab Muslims share similar religious  

practices but are from different countries with different  

cultures.  

8. How is ethnicity related to class?

i. Ethnicity is related to class through a ranking system. This  ethnic hierarchy has a high ranking ethnic group that is  

superior to other ethnic groups. They have special  

privileges including more power, wealth, and opportunities. This causes disunity because of the inequality seen in the  system and society. Some hierarchy systems rarely allow  

for one to move up.

9. How might globalization impact ethnic solidarities?

i. Globalization might impact ethnic solidarities because of  increases in communication, technology, transportation,  

and worldwide migration. Despite globalization being seen  as positive thing, many people worry they will lose their  

jobs, their homes, and their security. These people in  

similar situations stick together to overcome these  

changes as they recognize what they have in common and  form ethnic solidarities.  

10. How does Esman define ethnic solidarity?

i. Esman’s definition of ethnic solidarity is when ethnicity  gives people a sense of comfort, community, and  

belonging. It is when a group has similar cultural ideologies with similar goals that make them feel interconnected. The  group is willing to help each other out, build a special  

connection with one another, and spread the sense of  

security.

11. What are the three things upon which ethnicity may be based  upon?

i. Three things upon which ethnicity may be based upon  

include culture, common belief systems, and common  

racial features. These are things people in ethnic groups  

have in common and are similar to each other.  

12. What are the three perspectives social scientists have used you  explain the formation of ethnic identity?

Basma Abukwaik

Dr. Brooks

STS 352: Race & Ethnicity  

FINAL NOTES (QUESTIONS ANSWERED)

i. The three perspective social scientists have used to explain the formation of ethnic identity are primordialist,  

instrumentalist, and social constructionist. They are also  

known as the three persuasions.  

13. Why does ethnic solidarity conflict with American liberalism? i. The ethnic solidarity conflict with American liberalism is  group value versus individual value. American liberalism’s  concept is that every person is considered valuable and  

thus for society to function civilly each should have rights.  While ethnic solidarity looks at the group as whole instead  of as an individual.  

14. What is the core of the ideology of ethnic nationalism? i. The core of the ideology of ethnic nationalism is ethnic  

solidarity. This means one’s ethnic group becomes a  

“nation” to them. Thus this core of ideology is what makes  up this “nation” and what it consists of. Ethnic nationalism  says shared heritage with a common language, faith, and  ethnic ancestry is a “nation”.  

15. What is the definition of ethnic pluralism? Why is it relevant in  the discussion of ethnic conflict?

i. Ethnic pluralism is a situation where two or more ethnic  groups are occupying the same political space. It is  

relevant in the discussion of ethnic conflict because of the  inevitable human interaction that is expected from this  

precondition. Thus these ethnic groups with different  

values, beliefs, and cultures are to experience ethnic  

conflict when they are in contact.  

16. What are the five principal sources of ethnic pluralism? There are five principal sources of ethnic pluralism:

 Conquest: invasion, subjugation of in habitants

Annexation: treaty, purchase, colonialism

Settler Migration: taking over “unpopulated” land

Voluntary Movement: economic opportunity

Coerced Migration: slavery, indenture, refugees

17. Define coerced migration and give an example.

i. Coerced migration is forced migration. It is the movement  of people displaced by conflicts in their country due to  

natural disasters or anthropogenic disasters. These people  are considered refugees or can be taken as slaves. A  

current example is the Syrian crisis that began in 2011.  

Many of the people in Syria fled to outside countries that  

can offer them protection from the war torn area. An

Basma Abukwaik

Dr. Brooks

STS 352: Race & Ethnicity  

FINAL NOTES (QUESTIONS ANSWERED)

example of a natural disaster causing coerced migration  

can be seen with victims of Hurricane Katrina who had to  

leave their homes and belongings to seek shelter in 2005.  18. What are some of the ways self-determination can be achieved? i. Some of the ways self-determination can be achieved is  through the right for people to rule themselves or rule by  

foreigners is illegitimate. This does not guarantee political  sovereignty but can offer some form of autonomy and  

multiethnic states. This can be seen with the people of  

China, India and Kurdistan.  

19. What are the components required for the organization of a  political movement?

i. The components required for the organization of a political  movement include a leadership, intellectuals and activists.  The leader is usually one that is seen as legitimate and  

charismatic.  

20. Describe and discuss two examples of violence rooted in ethnic  conflict.

i. Ethnic conflicts are associated with many acts of violence.  It can usually involve an extremist group taking control. An  example in current news is the fight against ISIS. They are  an extremist group using violence to make an “Islamic  

State”. They justify their actions through religious reasons  while seeing themselves as superiors. Another way  

violence is seen is when different ethnic groups stop  

having the same goals and start having disagreements.  

When no compromise is met, violence usually follows.  

Usually the group with more political advantage and  

stronger army will be victorious. A current example that  

has been happening for decades is the Palestinian Israeli  

conflict. It includes many years of bloodshed that neither  

group is willing to surrender or negotiate.  

21. What are some of the strategies nations may use to manage  ethnic conflicts?

i. Some of the strategies nations use to manage ethnic  

conflicts include instituting and administering policies that  affect ethnic communities. This involves equal access to  

financial resources, regard for ethnic cultures and  

government participation. While different roles of State  

include partisans of the dominant community, neutral  

mediators, or an arena where groups openly contend for  

power and influence. This allows for resolution of conflicts,

Basma Abukwaik

Dr. Brooks

STS 352: Race & Ethnicity  

FINAL NOTES (QUESTIONS ANSWERED)

establishment of humanitarian, technical and economic  

assistance, proposal of nonviolent actions and coercive  

sanctions through preventive interference.  

22. What are some of the reasons why ethnic conflicts develop? i. There are different reasons why ethnic conflicts develop  and can vary in progress. Some can be nonviolent or  

violent, on the large scale or short scale, long lived or short lived, widespread or local, and can be directed at the  

government or other ethnic groups. These conflicts can be  to protect the community’s honor and dignity in regards to  language, culture, and religion. Another reason for conflicts can be serious threats to property, work, or alienation.  

Conflicts can also develop as a retribution or due to an  

open opportunity to advance status.

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