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VIRGINIA TECH / Psychology / PSYC 1004 / What is client-centered therapy?

What is client-centered therapy?

What is client-centered therapy?

Description

School: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Department: Psychology
Course: Introduction to Psychology
Professor: Benjamin devore
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Psychology and Intro to Psychology
Cost: 50
Name: Psychology Final Study Guide
Description: This study guide covers what will be on the final exam.
Uploaded: 12/09/2016
11 Pages 46 Views 2 Unlocks
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Psychology Final Exam Study Guide/ Key Terms Chapter 12: Therapies


What is client centered therapy?



- Components of Therapy

 Therapeutic alliance: mutual respect

- Medical or Disease Model

 Assumptions:

i. All behavior has underlying meaning

ii. Explain behavior with hypothetical constructs

iii. Systems reflects underlying cause

iv. Symptom substitution

1. Same symptom with different causes

2. Different symptoms with same cause

v. Diagnostic labeling

vi. GIVE INSIGHT  CHANGE BEHAVIOR

 Therapy:

a) Professionalism

b) Blame placed on disease

c) Patient admits incompetence

d) Rapport (willing to tell counselor/psychiatrist all of  thoughts/dreams) Emphasis


What triggers the appraisal of a stressor?



e) Insight Development

- Behavior Model:

 Assumptions

a) No need to go beyond overt behavior

b) Only observables (little inference)

c) Attack the symptom

d) All behavior is learned

e) Diagnostic labeling

∙ (Human Skinner Box)

f) CHANGE BEHAVIOR  CHANGE FEELINGS

 Therapy:

a) Behavior Managers

b) Blame placed on environment Don't forget about the age old question of Who is the author of the girl on the train?
If you want to learn more check out What is the definition of oxidation?

c) Protégé assumes responsibility

d) Rapport is not necessary

e) Insight not necessary

 General Clinical Approach

a) What behavior is maladaptive?

b) What are the supporting contingencies?


How can equity theory be applied in a workplace?



If you want to learn more check out What is aqueous solubility?

c) What contingencies can be re-arranged?

- Humanistic Therapy (client centered)

 Assumptions:

a) Phenomenology; Idiographic

b) Unobservable Intentionality, Creativity

c) Not a disease; now therapy

d) Internal, Subjective, Experiential

Basic Behavioral Approach:

DO-IT

Define behavior is target

Observe to collect baseline data

Intervene to influence target behavior

Test to measure impact of interventions

Chapter 13

Chapter 13: Stress, Health, Well-being 

- Stressors lead to positive stress or negative distress depending on  appraisal of personal control

- People feel more personal control when working to achieve than when  working to avoid failure

 Causes of Stress:

 o Traumatic Stressors: Trauma

 Vicarious Traumatization: lived through it, not involved

 Collectivism vs. Individualism: handle trauma better vs. by  yourself

 Humiliation: server source of traumatic stress

 PTSD: exposure therapy

 o Chronic Stressors: If you want to learn more check out What is a party's role in elections?

 Work stress: Burnout vs. Engagement

 Work related distress:  

∙ Lack of decision making

∙ Conflict with employees If you want to learn more check out What is the phonological process?

∙ Responsibility of others

∙ Lack of support

 Workload, Control, Rewards

 Community, Fairness, Value

∙ Fair=more motivated

 Compassion Fatigue vs. Compassion Satisfaction  

 Daily Hassles

  Equity theory: good way to look at work satisfaction

o Benevolent: feel better when ratio is greater than the others,  actively caring

o Entitled: feel best when ratio is less than others and getting just  as much or more

o Equity Sensitive: want ratios are equal

  General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) If you want to learn more check out What is the content of the declaration of the rights of man and the citizen 1789?

o Alarm: stressor or trauma (fight or flight)

o Resistance

o Exhaustion: burnout

o Tend and Befriend

o Cognitive Appraisal

  Dispositional Factors

o Type A personality & hostility  

o Locus of Control: internal or external (you in charge or the world)  Health and longevity

 Learned helplessness  

o Hardiness

 Challenge, commitment, control

 Opportunity not requirement

o Optimism, Resilience  

 Optimism: brighter side, how you see the world

 vs Hopeful: do everything you know to do to get, wishful  thinking

  Coping Strategies

o Negative to Positive (distress to stress)

o Emotion focused vs problem focused

o Cognitive restructuring  

o Social Comparison (downward vs upward): compare how other  people are doing

o Meaningfulness: Sense making and benefit making

o Psychological Debriefing: tell someone else your problems; riots;  sounds the same as exposure

o Social Support and Positive Reinforcement  

o Exercise

o Nutrition & Diet

o Sleep

o Smoking

 Subjective Well-Being (SWB): How you see it

o Community

o Choice

o Competence

o Biological

o Behavioral

o Cognitive

Chapter 14: Social Psychology

 Social Cognition and Attributions

o Fundamental attribution error:

 overestimate person factors/dispositions “he  worked unsafely because he is a “risky” person” o Self-serving bias:

 How you evaluate your own behavior; professors  fault vs. being smart

o In-group/out-group favoritism:

 “Hokies”: in-group: only we can criticize our  

football team

 UVA: outgroup

o Group-serving bias:

 Blame outside world  

o Proximity and similarity

 Tend to like people we get to know; how close you  are to them: proximity 

 Attitude towards a person if you are similar is  better

o Stereotypes, prejudices, and discrimination

 Prejudices: making a judgement before you know   Stereotypes: Men don’t cry and Women are bad  drivers

 Discrimination: college SATs, Essays, Applications Attitudes

o Central vs. Peripheral route

 Peripheral: react without thinking

 Central: Reflect, think, values and attitudes to  influence decision  

 Self-Persuasion is Key to Long-Term behavior change o 1. Defined by self-directive behavior

o 2. The more outside control the less inside control  o 3. The more obnoxious the external control, the less the self-persuasion

o 4. Mild threats influence more self-persuasion  boys don’t play with firetrucks when asked both  mildly and sternly

o 5. Large incentives can hinder self-persuasion  o 6. Perceived choice enhances self-persuasion o 7. Perceived choice is greater when working to achieve  success than when working to avoid failure

 Social Influence

 7 Principles of Social Dynamics

o Consistency  

 We resist change

 We act ourselves into certain thinking and visa  versa

 We honor public, active, and voluntarily  

commitment

 Cognitive Dissonance: contradictory attitude  and behavior

o change attitude, change behavior, or  

adopt a new behavior to match

 Self-Perception: does what you see yourself  

do

o Reciprocity:

 We return favors

 More likely to comply after retreating “foot in the  door” 

o Ingratiation:

 We are attracted to similarities

 Actively care for people we like

 Like those who praise us and cooperate

 Self-monitoring

o Conformity:

 Follow those who are similar and creditable

 Model most in unfamiliar situations

o Authority:

 Follow authority blindly and mindlessly

 Follow those with credibility

 Milgram’s Obedience Study

 Sanford Prison Study (Phil Zimbardo, 1971)

o Idea that people fall into the rolls they  

are assigned

o Scarcity:

 React to protect individuality

 Value rare opportunities

 Motivated to avoid loss

 Cabbage Patch dolls; “door in the face”: sue  

for $25 million, settle for 1 million

 Psychological reactance 

o Novelty:

 Habituate to the routine

 Attentive and attracted to the unique

 Group Dynamics

o Social Facilitation-Inhibition  

o Social Loafing

 5 strangers pulling a rope; some loafed

 more effort when performed individually  

o Groupthink, Polarization, Risky Shift  

Chapter 14: Social Psychology

 Social Cognition and Attributions

o Fundamental attribution error:  

 overestimate person factors/dispositions “he  

worked unsafely because he is a “risky” person”

o Self-serving bias:

 How you evaluate your own behavior; professors  fault vs. being smart

o In-group/out-group favoritism:

 “Hokies”: in-group: only we can criticize our  

football team

 UVA: outgroup

o Group-serving bias:

 Blame outside world  

o Proximity and similarity

 Tend to like people we get to know; how close you  are to them: proximity 

 Attitude towards a person if you are similar is  

better

o Stereotypes, prejudices, and discrimination

 Prejudices: making a judgement before you know   Stereotypes: Men don’t cry and Women are bad  drivers

 Discrimination: college SATs, Essays, Applications Attitudes

o Central vs. Peripheral route

 Peripheral: react without thinking

 Central: Reflect, think, values and attitudes to  influence decision  

 Self-Persuasion is Key to Long-Term behavior change o 1. Defined by self-directive behavior

o 2. The more outside control the less inside control  o 3. The more obnoxious the external control, the less the self-persuasion

o 4. Mild threats influence more self-persuasion  boys don’t play with firetrucks when asked both  mildly and sternly

o 5. Large incentives can hinder self-persuasion  o 6. Perceived choice enhances self-persuasion

o 7. Perceived choice is greater when working to achieve  success than when working to avoid failure

 Social Influence

 7 Principles of Social Dynamics

o Consistency  

 We resist change

 We act ourselves into certain thinking and visa  versa

 We honor public, active, and voluntarily  

commitment

 Cognitive Dissonance: contradictory attitude  and behavior

o change attitude, change behavior, or  

adopt a new behavior to match

 Self-Perception: does what you see yourself  

do

o Reciprocity:

 We return favors

 More likely to comply after retreating “foot in the  door” 

o Ingratiation:

 We are attracted to similarities

 Actively care for people we like

 Like those who praise us and cooperate

 Self-monitoring

o Conformity:

 Follow those who are similar and creditable

 Model most in unfamiliar situations

o Authority:

 Follow authority blindly and mindlessly

 Follow those with credibility

 Milgram’s Obedience Study

 Sanford Prison Study (Phil Zimbardo, 1971)

o Idea that people fall into the rolls they  

are assigned

o Scarcity:

 React to protect individuality

 Value rare opportunities

 Motivated to avoid loss

 Cabbage Patch dolls; “door in the face”: sue  

for $25 million, settle for 1 million

 Psychological reactance 

o Novelty:

 Habituate to the routine

 Attentive and attracted to the unique

 Group Dynamics

o Social Facilitation-Inhibition  

o Social Loafing

 5 strangers pulling a rope; some loafed

 more effort when performed individually  

o Groupthink, Polarization, Risky Shift  

Key Terms for Chapter 15: Industrial/Organizational 

♦ Job Analysis & Selection

∙ Interviewing: The structured interview: same questions for each interviewee  ∙ Dispositional vs. Situational Factors

∙ The Big 5: “OCEAN”

 Trait vs. State*

∙ Performance Appraisals

 360­degree feedback

∙ coworkers, clients, supervisors, etc. evaluate an employee’s 

performance

 Bias: halo & contrast effects

 Halo: good at one thing so good at everything

 Contrast: 1 person is outstanding so the next is horrible

♦ Affect & Attitude at Work

∙ Job Satisfaction vs. Burnout

 Employees are happier when:

∙ Supervisors are effective leaders

∙ They are recognized appropriately for individual effort

∙ They feel empowered

∙ Three beliefs

o Self­efficacy: “can I do it?”

o Response efficacy: “will it work?”

o Outcome expectancy: “Is it worth it?”

∙ They set SMART goals

o Specific

o Motivational

o Achievable

o Relevant

o Trackable

∙ They focus on the present with learning from the past, & a vision 

or purpose for the future.

∙ Fulfillment & Intrinsic Reinforcement*

∙ Hostility & Aggression

∙ Sexual Harassment

 Unwelcomed 

♦ Leadership

∙ Self­monitoring 

 Adjusting behavior based on the situation

∙ Discretionary behavior* 

 Holding oneself accountable 

∙ Transformational vs. Transactional Leadership

 Transactional: holds you accountable and gives extrinsic rewards 

(manager)

 Transformational: goes beyond the call of duty

∙ Character: prudence, fortitude, temperance, 

Justice, courage, humility, integrity, compassion, flexibility ∙ Positive vs. Negative Gossip

♦ Teamwork: social loafing; groupthink 

Key Terms for Chapter 16: Actively Caring

♦ Actively Caring for People (AC4P)

∙ Vision vs. Goals; ABC Model

∙ Maslow’s revised hierarchy

 Self­transcendence is at the top

∙ Latané & Darley Model

1. Is something wrong?

2. Am I needed?

3. Should I intervene? 

4. What should I do?

♦ Cultivating an AC4P Culture

∙ Direct Approach: from cards to wristbands

 COACH

∙ Care

∙ Observe

∙ Analyze

∙ Communicate

∙ Help

∙ Indirect Approach: Person­States

∙ Self­esteem vs. self­efficacy 

 People are more likely to intervene if they feel good about  themselves (self esteem)

∙ “I can do it” (self­efficacy) 

 Personal control, optimism, belonging

∙ Enhancing the Person­States

 SMARTS Goals

 Achieve vs. Avoid 

Key Terms for Chapter 17: The Courage to Actively Care

♦ What is Courage?

∙ Physical: putting yourself in physical harm’s way

∙ Psychological: dealing with a challenge

∙ Moral: “I should help them”

♦ The Kevin Brother’s Story

∙ Group Commitment

∙ Group Support

∙ A Trusting Culture

∙ A Worthwhile Purpose

♦ A Family Mindset

o With family it takes less courage to intervene 

♦ AC4P Intervention Strategies

∙ The Flash­for­Life: increase safety belt use; The AC4P­Behavior Promise  Card; The AC4P Polite Light; The Airline Lifesaver; The Driver­Training  Score Card; The Taxi­Cab Feedback Card; The AC4P Thank­You Card ♦ How to Give Recognition

∙ Be Timely; Make it Personal; Make it Meaningful; Deliver it Privately; Let  it Sink in; Use Tangibles for Symbolic Value; Use Secondhand  Recognition: someone else relays information

♦ How to Accept Recognition

∙ Don’t Deny; Listen Actively, Use it for  

Self­Motivation; Show Appreciation; 

Reward the Recognition; Embrace the Reciprocity Norm; Ask for  Recognition

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