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atoc 1050

atoc 1050

Description

School: University of Colorado at Boulder
Department: Political Science
Course: Atoc 1050
Term: Fall 2016
Tags:
Cost: 25
Name: ATOC 1050 notes
Description: notes over the labs due
Uploaded: 12/09/2016
22 Pages 168 Views 1 Unlocks
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ATOC 1070 Weather Lab  Lab 5- Infrared Radiation and the Greenhouse Effect  Abby Anello John Bale and Ashley Lab section: 5 Objectives: There are many objectives of the lab. One of them is to learn  and understand the properties of absorption or taking in and emission  or giving off of radiation in the Earth’s atmosphere. Also, to learn how  the Earth’s surface and atmospheric temperatures can be or may be  estimated by weather measurements from a satellite in space. Another thing we learned was how the amount of carbon dioxide, water vapor,  and other greenhouse gases affect the temperature of the Earth’s  lower atmosphere. Lastly, we learned to understand that if  electromagnetic radiation is absorbed by a solid, liquid, or gas it warms and that if electromagnetic radiation is emitted by a liquid, solid, or gas it cools. The Earth’s atmosphere is both heated and cooled by  radiation. Excel:Questions: 1. A- when you add plastic sheets, the amount of IR radiation  escaping into the room from the hot pot decreases. The physical process that makes this happen is that the plastic is absorbing  the energy the pots putting out which reemitted the energy  based on the temperature of the sheet. Therefore, when you  look at the sheet, you’re looking at its temperature, not the pots.  B- In the sky experiment, the addition of plastic sheets increases  the amount of IR radiation entering the IR thermometer. The  plastic is room temperature and when we measured the IR  temperature with them it increases cause the machine is reading the plastic’s temperature not the sky as much so it’s warmer.  2. A- There is an increase cause the plastic absorbs and reemits  more of the gases into the atmosphere. The further up in the sky, the colder the temperature and when the plastic sheets are  added they absorb most of the energy behind it and emit the  energy based on their temperature.  B- In theory, an increase of Greenhouse gases in the atmosphere  leads to warmer surface temperatures. Less heat radiates into  space and the Earth is warmer.  3. A.  ∙ The IR temperature measured through 1 sheet of plastic with  a hot water background is 56 degrees Celsius  ∙ The IR temperature measure through the plastic cup full of  water with a hot water background is 25 degrees Celsius.  ∙ The dial temperature measured in the plastic cup full of water  is 22 degrees Celsius  B. The measured IR temperature that is lower through the  plastic bowl full of water than the IR temperature measured through one sheet of plastic because any amount of water effects the  temperature because it absorbs most of the IR.  C. The measured IR temperature through the plastic bowl full of  water of the heated hot pot is similar to the dial temperature of the  water in the plastic bowl itself because infrared is reading the  temperature of what’s in front of it and the thermometer also is.  4. A. One of the five substances that were listed above water vapor is responsible for most of the emitted IR that I measured.  B. Dry regions typically have cooler nights than moist regions  even if the regions considered are both at the same latitude,  altitude, and far from oceans. This happens because there is a  greater absence of solar radiation at night in dry regions than warm regions, which causes the surface temperature to decrease during  the night.  Conclusion: i. We accomplished the objectives that our experiment aimed to address because we understood the properties of emission  and absorption due to actually doing the experiment by  measuring the IR temperature through the plastic sheets over  the hot pot and over the sky. Also, we learned that the Earth’s  atmospheric and surface temperatures might be estimated by measurements from a weather satellite by using the Infrared  Thermometer. It made me understand how many elements  go into a weather satellite. We understood how the  temperature of Earth’s lower atmosphere depends in part on  the amount of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and other  greenhouse gases present because we did a part in the  experiment where we put plastic sheets over the sky and  measured the IR temperature. Doing this, we learned that the plastic sheets absorbs and reemits more of the gases into the  atmosphere. Therefore, all the gases have a massive effect  on how the temperature of Earth’s lower atmosphere depends in part on the amount of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and  other greenhouse gases present. Most importantly, we  learned how electromagnetic radiation is absorbed by a solid,  liquid or gas that the solid, liquid, or gas warms. We learnt  this because when we did the data outside with the plastic  sheets the IR temperature warmed up. Also, if  electromagnetic radiation is emitted, the solid, liquid, or gas  cools. We learnt this when we did the experiment with hot  water and plastic. The more sheets of plastic we added, the  colder the IR temperature would get.  ii. One physical source of error was that the thermometer, for  the part measuring the temperature of the plastic cup over  the bowl, was not working well. The temperature wouldn’t  stay consistent and changed each time we did it. Another  physical source of error was that halfway through measuring  our IR temperatures the IR thermometer stopped working and  would only display the same number on the thermometer  even if we measured things with different temperatures.  iii. One of the physical sources of error could affect our outcome  because if there weren’t extra IR thermometers our whole  experiment would have not been able to continue. The other  physical source of air would push the temperatures to be  inconsistent because of the data we were receiving wasn’t  ever the same, but we just used the one that was the closest to our estimate which could cause our excel sheet to be a  failure. iv. What I have learned during this lab that has tied to my  experiences with weather patterns is that solids, specifically  plastic affect the temperature and electromagnetic radiation  of a solid. For example, the plastic being put over the sky  warmed the IR temperature. ATOC 1070 Weather Lab Lab 9- Light Scattering Abby Anello John Bale and Ashley  Lab Section: 5  Objectives During this lab, we were shown that some particles scatter blue  and to the side while others scatter a red tinted light and this light is  going forward. This can be illustrated in your everyday due to when the sky is blue and when sunsets are red. We also learned that there are  differences between exponential and linear processes in nature. Also,  light absorption increases exponentially due to the concentration of  scatters/absorbers being increased.Activities Questions:1. A. The person whose bucket will go first is Tim. This will happen  because is bucket goes out in 20 days while Jims bucket will  never become empty.  B. 1000/20= 50 therefore it will take Tim fifty days to get to  $1000, 0.01* 2^50-1 = 0.01* 2^49 = 0.01 * 562949953421312  = $5,629,499,534,213.12. By The time Tim quits gambling Jim  will have 5,629,499,534,213.12 dollars.  C. Tim represents exponential decay in 1a and 1b.  2. A. In Graph 1, the trend line that fits my experimental data  more accurately is exponential.  B. The percentage of original that would make it through 20  screens with a 90% transmission rate for each is 55%.  C. The percentage of the original light would make it through 20  screens with an 85% transmission rate for each would be 52%.  D. The percentage of the original light that would make it  through 20 screens with an 80% transmission rate for each  would be 49%. E. I believe that when I compared my answers fro B- D that there would be a linear decrease in the total percentage of light  transmitted through 20 screens as the transmission rate of each  screen is increased linearly. This does not match what I observed  in 2a.  3. A. If I took meter readings of a red light source, such as a stop  light, I would expect there to be a larger EV (red).  B. If I took meter readings of a red light source, I would expect  the measured value difference, EV (red) – EV (blue), to be  greater than zero because EV (red) source must have a  positive number for EV (red) – EV (blue).  C. If the plotted value of EV (red) – EV (blue) on the graph  increases as you add more milk that means that the light  being measured is getting redder.  D. This conclusion does agree with the EV (red) – EV (blue)  values my lab group measured and the colors you noted for  the light coming out the exit end of the tank with 8cc milk  because my graph reads that there is more red light than  blue.  4. A. If EV (red) –EV (blue) is negative that means the light being  measured is blue.   B. When milk is added to the tank, the value of EV (red)- EV  (blue) measured at the side of the tank generally is negative  based on the measurements from my lab.  C. The color of the light on the side of the tank was blue.  D. The measurement of EV (red) – EV (blue) at the side of the  tank did agree with the color I noted for the light coming out of  the side of the tank with milky water because there was more  blue light there. Conclusion:  We accomplished the objectives that our experiment aimed to  address by doing each step the lab directions gave. The experiment  had us have the lights in the classroom out and there was a shining  light through a large tank of water. Then we used an EV reader and  also put a red and blue screen in front of the EV reader and entered in  the data. Then, we added 2cc of milk four times repeated those EV  readings and entered the data into our excel graph. There could have  been two physical sources of error. The first is that when adding the  milk we could have added unequal amounts each time. Another  physical source of error could be that weren’t reading/using our EV  reader correctly and consistently each time. The physical sources of  error would affect the outcome because it would mess up/ skew the  information on the Excel’s graph. This would cause us to make wrong  assumptions. If we added different amounts of milk each time, the  information would be incorrect and if we measured the EV’s incorrectly  our information wouldn’t be useful. This lab ties with my experience  with weather patterns like sunsets. The sky is red during a sunset  because the sunlight passes through more of the atmosphere and red  wavelengths are longer like when we did the experiment and the long  wavelength coming forward was red and the shorter one going  sideways was blue. ATOC 1070 Weather Lab  Lab 10- Wind Tunnels Abby Anello John Bale and Ashley Lab section: 5 Objectives: There are many objectives of the lab. The first one is that we  learned how to use a wind tunnel to find the wind-pressure  relationship. We learned how to do that when air flows out of a flat  surface first. Then, we put a toy car in the wind tunnel and measured  the effect of wind on the model toy car. After, we scaled the results and predicted what we believed the effect of wind is on a full size vehicle.  Lastly, we used the wind tunnel with a Quonset hut. We learned how  to measure the pressure distribution when air flows over the Quonset  hut. This aided us to predict or see what would happen when air flows over a building during a windstorm.  ActivitiesQuestions1. a. My experimental value of n is greater than the expected  value of two. b. The condition I chose that makes the most sense for my  experiments shortcomings is condition C. This condition  states that the wind speeds have been measure correctly,  but the pressures were measured higher than actual  pressures.  c. For the condition I chose, the problems with the  experimental procedure that could have caused this  specific measurement to be higher than expected were  that our manometer was not functioning correctly. We had  to trade in our manometer and redo our measurements  because it kept reading the wrong pressures. But, the new  one was then giving us accurate readings.  2. a. The vehicle type of my model car was unknown. It did not  say the named on the bottom of the vehicle, but it was a  small black sedan with the word “image” on top of it.  b. The wind speed when the car blew out of the tunnel was  16.8 meters per second.  c. The wind speed would be 16.8 m/sec * 2.3 * 4 = 154.6  mph. d. This speed seems a high because in hurricanes with lower  wind speeds, you will see some cars get turned over. e. In the real world, there are other objects around the car  that will affect how the wind might move the car. Also, in  the real world, different cars have different weights that  may cause one to get affected more than another. 3. a. Our measured wind speed for the hut experiment was 7.5  meters per second. b. The wind speed would be 7.5 m/sec * 2.3 = 17.25 mph. c. With a scale factor of 10, the wind speed would be 172.5  mph. d. The greatest negative pressure on the hut was -37 Pa. e. -37 * 100 = -3,700. f. -3700 * 0.021 = -77.7 pounds per square foot. 4. a. 100 ft2 * 77.7 lbs/ft2 = 7,770 lbs of force. b. The ratio is 7770/800 = 9.7 to 1. c. The high ratio of 9.7 to 1 would lift the roof off of the  house. Conclusion I accomplished the objectives that the experiment aimed to  address by doing every step in the experiment correctly. First, we set  the lab up and made sure the pitot tube was inserted correctly into the  top of the tunnel, and that the Variac was on and reading m/sec. Then, we started the experiment. Our experiment was a success because we got accurate measurements for pressure and wind speed with the  different Variac settings and with different objects in the wind tunnel  like the toy car. The results supported a successful lab because they  were consistent and nothing was bizarre. The more the Variac pressure  went up, the higher the pressure got. Also, the car flew out of the wind tunnel at a comparable speed to what the wind speed would be to  knock over a full size car. The physical sources of error that could  happen in this experiment are that the manometer was not measuring  the pressure correctly and that the Variac was performing accurate  with what setting was being chosen. The physical sources of error  would affect the outcome because both of them would effect the  pressure measurements taken during the lab. The manometer in my  experience was measuring the pressure to high. We even tried it  multiple times, but each time the pressure that was said to be  representing the experiment was irregularly high. If the Variac were  off, it would affect the wind speed at which it would take the car to  blow over and out of the wind tunnel. Also, it would affect the pressure  readings accuracy at specific Variac settings. If the Variac was set at  40 and the pressure was read as 85, then that could be an incorrect  reading. This would also skew the ratio between pressure and velocity.  What I have learned during this lab that can tie with my experiences  with weather patterns is that it takes a much higher wind speed to  affect the stability of a car. When I first started driving, I would get  scared that my car would flip just during a thunderstorm. Now, I know  that is not true. ATOC 1070 Weather Lab Lab 9- Light Scattering Abby Anello John Bale and Ashley  Lab Section: 5  Objectives During this lab, we were shown that some particles scatter blue  and to the side while others scatter a red tinted light and this light is  going forward. This can be illustrated in your everyday due to when the sky is blue and when sunsets are red. We also learned that there are  differences between exponential and linear processes in nature. Light  absorption increases exponentially due to the concentration of  scatters/absorbers being increased.Activities Questions:1. A. The person whose bucket will go first is Tim. This will happen  because is bucket goes out in 20 days while Jims bucket will  never become empty.  B. 1000/20= 50 therefore it will take Tim fifty days to get to  $1000, 0.01* 2^50-1 = 0.01* 2^49 = 0.01 * 562949953421312  = $5,629,499,534,213.12. By The time Tim quits gambling Jim  will have 5,629,499,534,213.12 dollars.  C. Tim represents exponential decay in 1a and 1b.  2. A. In Graph 1, the trend line that fits my experimental data  more accurately is exponential.  B. The percentage of original that would make it through 20  screens with a 90% transmission rate for each is 55%.  C. The percentage of the original light would make it through 20  screens with an 85% transmission rate for each would be 52%.  D. The percentage of the original light that would make it  through 20 screens with an 80% transmission rate for each  would be 49%. E. I believe that when I compared my answers fro B- D that there would be a linear decrease in the total percentage of light  transmitted through 20 screens as the transmission rate of each  screen is increased linearly. This does not match what I observed  in 2a.  3. A. If I took meter readings of a red light source, such as a stop  light, I would expect there to be a larger EV (red).  B. If I took meter readings of a red light source, I would expect  the measured value difference, EV (red) – EV (blue), to be  greater than zero because EV (red) source must have a  positive number for EV (red) – EV (blue).  C. If the plotted value of EV (red) – EV (blue) on the graph  increases as you add more milk that means that the light  being measured is getting redder.  D. This conclusion does agree with the EV (red) – EV (blue)  values my lab group measured and the colors you noted for  the light coming out the exit end of the tank with 8cc milk  because my graph reads that there is more red light than  blue.  4. A. If EV (red) –EV (blue) is negative that means the light being  measured is blue.   B. When milk is added to the tank, the value of EV (red)- EV  (blue) measured at the side of the tank generally is negative  based on the measurements from my lab.  C. The color of the light on the side of the tank was blue.  D. The measurement of EV (red) – EV (blue) at the side of the  tank did agree with the color I noted for the light coming out of  the side of the tank with milky water because there was more  blue light there. Conclusion:ATOC 1070 Weather Lab  Lab 8­ Boulder Windstorms  Abby Anello John Bale  Lab section: 5 Activities A. and B. (each activity is worth 10pts) Use the tables below for the answers. Use the data from the lab to answer questions 1 and 2 1. Look at the meteograms for 10/29/1996: a. What is the peak gust in meters/sec for Foothills Lab? What time did it occur? b. What is the peak gust in meters/sec for Mesa Lab? What time did it occur? c. At the time of the peak gusts at Foothills and Mesa, what was the wind direction(s)? d. At the time of the peak gusts at Foothills and Mesa, what was the pressure? e. At the time of the peak gusts at Foothills and Mesa, what was the temperature, dew point, and  dew point spread (temperature minus dew point)? Activity Table A FOOTHILLS LAB MESA LAB ELEVATION 1625 m 1885 m PEAK WIND GUST (M/S) 45 m/s 44 m/s TIME OF PEAK GUST 0600 1000 WIND DIRECTION 270 West 270 West PRESSURE 815 mb 798 mb TEMPERATURE 8 C 6 C DEW POINT TEMP. ­8 C ­6 C DEW POINT SPREAD 16 C 12 C


What is the peak gust in meters/sec for Foothills Lab?



If you want to learn more check out cis 4500 textbook notes

2. Look at the meteograms for 11/07/1996: a. What is the peak gust in meters/sec for Foothills Lab? What time did it occur? b. What is the peak gust in meters/sec for Mesa Lab? What time did it occur? c. At the time of the peak gusts at Foothills and Mesa, what was the wind direction(s)? d. At the time of the peak gusts at Foothills and Mesa, what was the pressure? e. At the time of the peak gusts at Foothills and Mesa, what was the temperature, dew point, and  dew point spread (temperature minus dew point)? Activity Table B FOOTHILLS LAB MESA LAB ELEVATION 1625 m 1885 m PEAK WIND GUST (M/S) 24 m/s 32 m/s TIME OF PEAK GUST 0800 0400

WIND DIRECTION 270 West 265 West PRESSURE 838 mb 808 mb TEMPERATURE 4 C 0 C DEW POINT TEMP. ­13 C ­15 C DEW POINT SPREAD 9 C 15 C


What is the peak gust in meters/sec for Mesa Lab?




What time did it occur?



Don't forget about the age old question of lucbus
We also discuss several other topics like indiana jones asu
Don't forget about the age old question of mymsum
If you want to learn more check out uh cot
We also discuss several other topics like ec 101 bu

Weather and the atmosphere ∙ Tonight at 9 pm log into D2l and go to the discussions page and  within that there will be 6 discussion topics: optional  ∙ First quiz: due by next Thursday is all chapter one and some of  chapter two  The great Louisiana flood of August 2016 ∙ August 10-15 ∙ Great flood that impacted much of the southern half of the state ∙ The state is at a very low elevation ∙ Overview o Event was considered a 1,000 year flood in some parts of  Louisiana o 13 reported deaths  o While the rain was very widespread across multiple states,  Louisiana received more rainfall  ∙ Rainfall totals o 31.39 inches near Watson, LA o 27.47 inches near Brownfields, LA o 24.75 inches near Denham Springs, LA o 22.84 inches near Goster, MS o 21.60 in Lafayette, LA o 14.43 in Panama city, FL ∙ how did it happen o Winds for the south brought warm, juicy moisture into  Louisiana/ Mississippi from the Gulf of Mexico o Ingredients were perfect to allow rising air thanks to a low pressure center over Mississippi/Louisiana o Winds rotating around the counter-clockwise low were  relatively weak, not allowing precipitation to move quickly ∙ Low pressure- storm and precipitation ∙ High pressure- blue sky Chapter two: warming the earth and the atmosphere ∙ Temperature: a quantity that describes how warm or cold an  object is with respect to some standard measure ∙ Temperature: can also be described as the average speed of  atoms or molecules in a substance (measure of kinetic energy) ∙ Kinetic energy: energy associated with the motion of an object ∙ Three units for temperature: Celsius, Fahrenheit, kelvin  o C= (5/9)*(F-32) o F= (1.8*C)+32 o K= C +273 o C= K-273 ∙ Heat- the transfer of energy into or out of an object because of  temperature differences between that object and its surroundings. Heat travels from high temperature to low  temperature  o Sensible eat: the heat we can feel and measure with a  thermometer o Latent heat: the amount of energy required to change  water from one state to another. This energy is used to  break/ form the molecular attractions that exist in different  phases of water ∙ How does water change phase? o In order for water to change phase, it must exchange heat  with its surroundings and heat is measured in units of  calories o Calorie- the amount of heat required to raise the  temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius ∙ How do these phase changes affect the atmosphere o Evaporation- cools the atmosphere o Melting- cools the atmosphere o Condensation- warms the atmosphere o Sublimation- cools the atmosphere o Deposition- warms the atmosphere  ∙ How is heat transferred? o Conduction: the transfer of heat through electron and  molecular collisions from one molecular collision from one  molecule to another. Some substances conduct heat  better than others. In the atmosphere, conduction is mostly important between the earths surface and the air  immediately in contact with the surface o Insulators: substances that are poor conductors ∙ Warm air is less dense than cold air ∙ Mechanisms of heat transfer  o Convection: heat transfer that involves the actual  movement or circulation of a substance o Thermals: warm parcels of rising air o Advection: the horizontal component of convective flow aka wind o Radiation: heat transfer that does not require a medium.  Electromagnetic waves carry energy and do not require  molecules to propagate. In a vacuum, they travel at the  speed of light- 300,000 km/s o
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