Theory I: Final Exam Study Guide 12/13 9/1: What is pitch? - Pitch is basically how high or low a note is - The ear hears certain tones through consistent frequency which is what we know as pitch Order of writing on manuscript 1. Staff: The five lines that are used to place music notes 2. Bar line: The line that divides meWe also discuss several other topics like soup de jure
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asures in a staff 3. Clef: This tells you how to read the notes on the staff; a different clef will allow you to avoid using ledger lines a. Treble Clef or G Clef b. Bass Clef or F Clef c. Alto Clef or C Clef d. Tenor Clef or C Clef How to read the clefs 1. Treble Clef a. The spaces on the staff spell out F-A-C-E starting from the first space b. The lines on the staff spell out E-G-B-D-F or Every Good Boy Does Fine c. Notice that the clef curls around the G which is the second line on the staff. This is why this clef is nicknamed the G Clef. 2. Bass Clef a. The spaces on the staff spell out A-C-E-G or All Cows Eat Grass b. The lines on the staff spell out G-B-D-F-A or Good Boys Do Fine Alwaysc. Notice that the two dots are above and below the F and the clef also sits on the F. This is why this clef is nicknamed the F Clef 3. Alto Clef a. The spaces on the staff spell out G-B-D-F or Good Boys Do Fine b. The lines on the staff spell out F-A-C-E-G or FACE with a G c. Because this is a C Clef, the note in the middle of the clef is middle C 4. Tenor Clef a. The spaces on the staff spell out E-G-B-D or Every Good Boy Dances b. The lines on the staff spell out D-F-A-C-E or D-FACE (feel free to get creative with this acronym) c. This is also a C Clef, so the Clef is centered around middle C So what’s the difference between the tenor clef and the alto clef? - The Tenor Clef and the Bass Clef are actually centered around the same line even though F in Bass Clef is C in Tenor Clef - The Alto Clef is centered around the middle line which is middle C *Whenever you are changing clefs you are actually transposing the notes from the other clefs. *Tip: In each clef the top space is the same note as the bottom line and the bottom space is the same note as the top line. Key Signatures - Sharps always occur in fifths - Order of sharps: F-C-G-D-A-E-B - There are several mnemonics for this order: Fried Chicken Goes Down Awful Easy Brother, Father Charles Goes Down And End Battle - Key Signatures with Sharps- 1 sharp: G Major (F#) - 2 sharps: D Major (F# and C#) - 3 sharps: A Major (F#, C#, and G#) - 4 sharps: E Major (F#, C#, G#, and D#) - 5 sharps: B Major (F#, C#, G#, D#, and A#) - 6 sharps: F# Major (F#, C#, G#, D#, A#, and E#) - 7 sharps: C# Major (F#, C#, G#, D#, A#, E#, and B#) - Tip: to find the key with sharps, take the last sharp and go up a half step (ex. In the key of G Major the last sharp is F# so a half step up from F# is G) - Flats occur in fifths backwards and fourths forwards - Order of flats: B-E-A-D-G-C-F - The mnemonic I use for this: Battle Ends And Down Goes Charles’ Father - You can also remember: BEAD with Greatest Common Factor at the end - Key Signatures with Flats - 1 flat: F Major (Bb) - 2 flats: Bb Major (Bb and Eb) - 3 flats: Eb Major (Bb, Eb, and Ab) - 4 flats: Ab Major (Bb, Eb, Ab, and Db) - 5 flats: Db Major (Bb, Eb, Ab, Db, and Gb) - 6 flats: Gb Major (Bb, Eb, Ab, Db, Gb, and Cb) - 7 flats: Cb Major (Bb, Eb, Ab, Db, Gb, Cb, and Fb) - Tip: to find the key with flats, use the second to last flat to name the key - Here are some tricks to help remember key signatures: - All plain letter scales are sharps except F- All other scales are flats except F - Always remember F Major is one flat (Bb) - If you can remember sharps but not flats or vice versa, remember 7 is the magic number - Ex: You want to know what accidentals fall into Ab Major - If you know that A Major has 3 sharps then this is a breeze - Just take 7-3 which is 4 - This is the number of flats in Ab major - If all else fails use the keyboard trick - Just draw a keyboard like this on your paper and you see all the steps you need to find the key signatures - Sharps and Flats and Naturals - What is the difference? - Sharps go up a half step - Flats go down a half step - This is why Gb is the same note as F# - Naturals cancel out any sharps and flats that were either in the key signature or in the given measure - Double Sharps and Double Flats - Double sharps go up a whole step and are notated as “x” - Double flats go down a whole step and are notated as “bb” - To cancel only one of the flats or sharps in a double flat or sharp you must use a natural sign before a single flat or sharp - Once the bar line occurs that accidentals from the previous measure do not apply to the current measureThe Grand Staff - The Grand Staff shows all possibilities for notes on a keyboard - On a keyboard, every next move is a half step - C dictates which octave the notes are played in - C4 is middle C - The lowest C on an 88 key piano is C1 and the highest is C8 - A0 is the first note on an 88 key piano - Ledger lines which are line above and below the staff allow for an extension on the grand staff - The reason that so many different clefs can be used is to avoid the excessive use of ledger lines - In C Clefs, the C that the clef is centered around in C4 or middle C What is Music? 9/6: - Art through sound and silence - Elements include properties of sound - Pitch: The highness or lowness of a sound - Duration: The length of the sound - Timbre: The distinctive quality of the sound (the difference between an oboe and a flute) - Intensity: the loudness or softness (amplitude or dynamics) - Organized sound - First mentioned in the Bible in Genesis 4 Scales A scale is always named by its home toneDiatonic Scale: - Two modes (major and minor) - Means through the tonic - You can only use a letter name once Major Scale - Steps: W W H W W W H - C Major Scale: C D E F G A B C - This scale can be broken up by tetrachord - CDEF is a tetrachord and GABC is another tetrachord - The second tetrachord is the start of the next scale so G Major is the next scale after C - Every tetrachord adds a sharp Chromatic Scale - This scale uses all half steps - Accidentals are notated as sharps ascending and flats descending - Enharmonics: these are two accidentals that have different note names, but mean the same note (i.e. Bb/A#) Minor Scales - Relative minor: This minor is in the same key as the major, but it has a different tonic (i.e. C Major/A Minor) - The 6th note of the major scale is the first note of the relative minor scale - Parallel minor: This minor is in a different key as the major, but it has the same tonic (i.e. C Major/C Minor) - A relative minor has to be 3 letter names away from the major and 3 half steps down- Remember major goes up minor goes down - 3 different types of minor - Natural: same key as the major WHWWHWW - Harmonic: raise 7th degree - Melodic: raise 6th and 7th degrees Whole Tone Scale - This scale is composed of all whole steps Rhythm 9/15 Rhythm: the part of music that affects note duration and silence - The durations in rhythm are proportional so they change in relation to each other Types of Notes and Rests: - Breve: the longest held note/rest; in common time this would be held for two measures or 8 beats - Whole Note/Rest: worth half of the breve; more commonly used than the breve; in common time this would be held for 4 beats or one measure - Half Note/Rest: worth half of the whole note; in common time this would be held for 2 beats - Quarter Note/Rest: worth half of the half note; in common time this would be held for one beat - Eighth Note/Rest: worth half of the quarter note; in common time this would be held for half of a beat - Sixteenth Note/Rest: worth half of the eighth note; in common time this would be held for a quarter of a beat- Thirty-Second Note/Rest: worth half of the sixteenth note; in common time this would be held for an eighth of a beat *When there is more than one eighth, sixteenth, or thirty-second, note after another the flags can be replaced by beams Increasing Duration of a Note: - Tie: You can make a note longer by tying them with another note as long as they are the same pitch - Augmentation dot: this extends the notes value by half of its value; if two are used the second dot is half the value of the first Beat: This is what conductors motion during a piece, what note counts as the beat is determined by the time signature Tempo: the is how fast or slow the beat is throughout a piece Measure: this contains one grouping of beats Bar lines: this is what separates measures Anacrusis: this is an unaccented beat before the first measure in a song Accent: this is an emphasis placed on a note; there are three types of accents in music - Tonal accent: this is when a note is higher than those around it - Agogic accent: This is when a note is longer than others - Dynamic accent: This is when a note is louder than others and is usually marked with an articulation Meter: This is how beats are grouped together - Time signature: this tells how many of what type of beat are in a measure; the bottom number tells what kind of note gets the beat while the top number tells how many beats per measure Simple Meter vs. Compound Meter- Simple Meter: When the upper number in a time signature is 2, 3, or 4 - Duple: If 2 beats are in a measure - Triple: If 3 beats are in a measure - Quadruple: If 4 beats are in a measure - Compound Meter: When the upper number in a time signature is 6, 9, or 12; each of the simple time signatures multiplied by 3 Special Time Signatures: - Common time: this is when the quarter notes get the beat and there are 4 beats per measure also known as 4/4 - Cut time: this is when the half notes get the beat and there are 2 beats per measure also known as 2/2 Borrowed divisions: this is when you fit a note that normally is in simple meter into compound meter or vice versa (i.e. triplets, tuplets…) Syncopation: This is when you place stress on a beat that is normally unstressed; this normally happens when you elongate a note that is on the weaker beat Hemolia: when 3 notes are played in the time of two like a triplet Special Rules: - Use a dot on any note as long as it doesn’t make the note over extend the measure or obscure the beat - If a dot would over extend the measure or obscure the beat you must use a tie - Do not use a beam if it obscures the beat - Never tie a rest - The beat should be able to be seen Introduction to Intervals 9/22 - Scale Degrees- I : Tonic, or the first note of the scale - II: Supertonic, or the second note of the scale - III: Mediant, or the third note of the scale - IV: Sub-Dominant, or the the fourth note of the scale - V: Dominant, or the fifth note of the scale - VI: Submediant, or the 6th note of the scale - VII: Leading Tone or Subtonic, this depends on the type of seventh note in a scale - Leading Tone vs. Subtonic - When the note is a half step below the tonic, it is a leading tone - When the note is a whole step below the tonic, it is a subtonic - In the Minor Scale, the Mediant and Submediant are the only notes that change. Each goes down a half step. - Interval: This is the distance between 2 notes - If Melodic, these notes are played separately - If Harmonic, these notes are played at the same time - An interval in the major scale is either Perfect or Major - Perfect Intervals include: Unison, Octave, Fourth, and Fifth - Major Intervals include: Second, Third, Sixth, and Seventh Tips for Finding Intervals 9/28 - The difference between a major and perfect interval - If the interval is of a second, third, sixth, or seventh that interval will follow the rules of a major interval- If the interval is of a unison, fourth, fifth, or octave that interval will follow the rules of a perfect interval - Finding a major or perfect interval (refer to above pictures) - Look at the lower note on the staff - If the higher note is in the major scale of the lower note than this a major or perfect interval - Finding other intervals - If the higher note is note is not in the major scale of the lower note than there are three other options - Minor interval - This only happens in intervals of a second, third, sixth, and seventh - When the distance between the two notes is a half step lower than that of a major interval, it becomes a minor interval - Diminished intervals - This may happen in two different scenarios - If the interval is of a unison, fourth, fifth, octave (a.k.a. Perfect interval) the distance between the two notes will be a half step smaller than that of the perfect interval - If the interval is of a second, third, sixth or seventh then this will be a half step lower than that of a minor interval - Augmented intervals- If the interval is of a unison, fourth, fifth, or octave the distance between the two notes will be a half step larger than the perfect interval - If the interval is of a second, third, sixth, or octave the distance between the two notes will be a half step larger than that of the major interval - Finding the number of an interval - To find the number of an interval count the number of lines and spaces between the two notes including both notes in the count - Example: For an interval of a fourth there should be a line and a space between the two notes as well as a line and a space that either note rests on Tips on Finding Scale Degrees - How to find degrees up from tonic to dominant - Example: What is the subdominant in A Major? - First we can count the letter names away from the tonic, so since the subdominant is the 4th note of the scale this will be 3 letter names away from the tonic A (i.e. A, B, C, D) - Next we can think of the key signature of A Major which has 3 sharps: F#, C#, and G# - If the note name that we came up with is not in the key signature as a sharp or flat, then we can leave it as is - Example 2: What is the mediant of A minor? - We will start with the same first step from before so because the mediant is the third note in the scale it will be two letter names away from the tonic A (i.e. A, B, C) - Next is a little trick. Because the mediant and submediant are the only notes that change in the natural minor scale the mediant will only be a half step lower than in the major scale - Since the third note of the major scale falls on a sharp (C#) in the minor scale this will be a half step down and is therefor C natural - How to find the submediant, subtonic and leading tone - Example: What is the leading tone in D Major? - Because the leading tone is the 7th degree of the scale it is easier to go backwards. This will be one letter name away from the tonic D (i.e. D, C)- The leading tone will always be one half step down from the tonic therefore in this case the leading tone is C# which fits right into the key of the major scale - If we were to try to find the subtonic this would be one whole step away from the tonic but still the 7th degree of the scale,thus it would be C natural - Example 2: What is the submediant in D minor? - Recall that the mediant and submediant are the only notes that change in the natural minor scale - Going backwards this will be two letter names away from the tonic D (i.e. D, C, B) - Because B is not a sharp in the D Major Scale we have to go down a half step from B to find the submediant Bb - *Pro Tip* The submediant in the major scale is actually the same as the name of the relative minor scale, so if you have these memorized you will know these really quickly 10/4: Modes: - This is an arrangement of notes that is easiest to understand based on the C Major Scale - Each mode is played on the white keys within a C Major scale - There are two mnemonics to use to remember the 7 modes - I Don’t Punch Like Muhammed A Li - I Don’t Particularly Like My Aunt Lucy - The 7 modes:- Ionian: C-C (also the major scale) - Dorian: D-D - Phrygian: E-E - Lydian: F-F - Mixolydian: G-G - Aeolian: A-A (also the minor scale) - Locrian: B-B - The first tone of the scale is the fundamental - The last tone of the scale is the final Pentatonic Scale: - This scale is based on the black keys of the piano - For a major pentatonic scale the number of half steps between are as follows: 2-2-3-2-3 - For a minor pentatonic scale the number of half steps between are as follows: 3-2-2-3-2 10/11: Tertian Harmony: - This is a chord that is built by stacking 3rds on top on each other - This produces four types of triads: - Major Triad: This consists of a M3 and P5 interval from the root note - Minor Triad: This consists of a m3 and P5 interval from the root note - Augmented Triad: This consists of a M3 and +5 interval from the root note - Diminished Triad: This consists of a m3 and º5 interval from the root note- Major and Minor chords are considered consonant chords while Augmented and Diminished chords are considered dissonant chords - This is because the perfect fifth that exists in both major and minor chords stabilizes the triads - Every chord in the major scale takes the key signature of that scale we produces this form: I ii iii IV V vi viiº - This mean that chords I, IV, and V are major; chords ii, iii, and vi are minor; and chord viiº is diminished - In a Major scale, I, IV, and V are primary triads, and ii, ii, vi, and viiº are secondary triads - In a Minor scale, i, iv, and V are primary triads - Primary triads are deemed such because they include all the notes within the scale 10/18: Seventh Chords: - Seventh chords are another form of tertian harmony similar to triads - These are triads with another 3rd added above them - There are 5 different types of seventh chords - Major Seventh (MM7): This consists of a Major Triad and a M7 interval from the root note (a.k.a Major-Major Seventh) - Minor Seventh (mm7): This consists of a Minor Triad and a m7 interval from the root note (a.k.a Minor-Minor Seventh) - Dominant Seventh (Mm7): This consists of a Major Triad and a m7 interval from the root note (a.k.a Major-Minor Seventh) - Half-Diminished Seventh (ø7): This consists of a Diminished Triad and a m7 interval from the root note - Fully-Diminished Seventh (º7): This consists of a Diminished Triad and a º7 interval from the root note - In addition to the inversions that apply to triads, seventh chords have an additional inversion because of the 4th note- Third inversion: When the 7th is in the bass 11/1: Lead Sheet Notation - A lead shows the melody with chords above the staff. Symbols - Triads - Major (M): E, EMA, EMaj - Minor (m): Em, E-, Emi - Augmented (+): E+, EAug, E+5 - Diminished (º): Eº, Edim, Eb5 - Seventh Chords - Major (MM7): EM7, EMaj7, E∆7 - Dominant (Mm7): E7 - Minor (mm7): Em7, Emi7, E-7 - Half-Diminished: Eø7, Em7b5, Em7-5 - Full-Diminished: Eº7, Edim7 - When the bass note is the root of the chord it is written - E/G# - with the bass note after the backslash - Chords are named after the root note Figured Bass Notation:- This form of notation is similar to lead sheet notation but more precise How to Construct Figured Bass - When the chord is in first inversion it is written 53 - When the chord is in first inversion it is written 63 - When the chord is in second inversion it is written 64 - Example: In the Key of C - FAC = IV - ACF = IV6 - CFA = IV64 - When the seventh chord is in root position 753 - When the seventh chord is in first inversion 653 - When the seventh chord is in second inversion 643 - When the seventh chord is in third inversion 642 - Example: In the Key of C 11/8: Cadences - A cadence acts as an end or pause in music Finished Cadences - Authentic Cadence (AC) - This is the most conclusive sounding cadence - In major the progression may be as follows: V-I, V7-I, or viiº-I - In minor the progression may be as follows: V-i, V7-i, or viiº-I - There are two types:- Perfect Authentic Cadence (PAC): when both chords are in root position and the soprano note ends on the tonic and is higher than in the chord before - Imperfect Authentic Cadence (IAC): when one or both of the chords are not in root position or the soprano note in the I chord is not the tonic (e.g. V-I6, V6-I6, V6-I) - Plagal Cadence (PC) - A.K.A. the Amen Cadence - In major the progression is IV-I - In minor the progression is iv-i Unfinished Cadences - Half Cadence (HC) - This is any cadence that ends in V (e.g. ii-V) - In a minor key, if the cadence is iv6-V, then cadence is called a Phrygian Half Cadence which sounds like the theme - Deceptive Cadence (DC) - This is a cadence in which V resolves to anything other than the tonic (e.g. V-vi or V-VI in minor) Other Cadences - Plagal Half cadence - In major the progression is I-IV - In minor the progression is i-iv 11/14: Cadences - A cadence acts as an end or pause in musicFinished Cadences - Authentic Cadence (AC) - This is the most conclusive sounding cadence - In major the progression may be as follows: V-I, V7-I, or viiº-I - In minor the progression may be as follows: V-i, V7-i, or viiº-I - There are two types: - Perfect Authentic Cadence (PAC): when both chords are in root position and the soprano note ends on the tonic and is higher than in the chord before - Imperfect Authentic Cadence (IAC): when one or both of the chords are not in root position or the soprano note in the I chord is not the tonic (e.g. V-I6, V6-I6, V6-I) - Plagal Cadence (PC) - A.K.A. the Amen Cadence - In major the progression is IV-I - In minor the progression is iv-i Unfinished Cadences - Half Cadence (HC) - This is any cadence that ends in V (e.g. ii-V) - In a minor key, if the cadence is iv6-V, then cadence is called a Phrygian Half Cadence which sounds like the theme - Deceptive Cadence (DC) - This is a cadence in which V resolves to anything other than the tonic (e.g. V-vi or V-VI in minor) Other Cadences- Plagal Half cadence - In major the progression is I-IV - In minor the progression is i-iv 11/29: Embellishing Tones - Embellishing tones are pitches that connect consonant pitches - These tones can be consonant or, most commonly, dissonant - Nonchord tones: dissonant embellishing tones - Embellishing tones occur in one of the voices in a piece of music - Four Standard Voices - Soprano: the highest voice - Alto: the second highest voice - Tenor: the 2nd lowest voice - Bass: the lowest voice Step-Step Combinations - Passing Tones (PT) - A nonchord tone that passes stepwise between adjacent chord members - These can be diatonic or chromatic - Neighbor Tones (NT) - A nonchord tone that is a step above or below the chord tone and its repetition Step-Leap Combination - Appoggiatura (APP) - A nonchord tone that jumps then steps up or down into the next chord tone- This normally occurs on the strong beat - If this occurs on a weak beat it is called an incomplete neighbor (IN) - Escape Tone (ET) - A nonchord tone that steps up or down and then jumps usually in the opposite direction in the next chord tone - This is usually on the weak beat - Double Neighbors (DN) - A nonchord tone that steps above or below a chord tone and then jumps in the opposite direction directly above the repeated chord tone Step-Repetition Combinations - Anticipation (ANT) - When one voice, usually the soprano, moves stepwise to its next tone before the rest of the voices move - This is usually of a smaller note value than the previous pitch which creates a characteristic stutter - Suspension (SUS) - When a note is repeated before it is resolved - The repeated note is on the beat and metrically stronger than the resolving note - There are 3 parts to a suspension - Preparation: the tone is part of the chord - Suspension: The tone is repeated causing dissonance - Resolution: The tone the becomes a chord tone - This can only happen at certain intervals above the bass: 9-8, 7-6, 4-3, 2-1- This can only change in the bass at a 2-3 interval, meaning the bass moves up - If the suspension resolves upwards it is called a retardation (RET) - When the resolution tone becomes the preparation tone of the next suspension it is called a chain suspension 12/6: Brief Review of Musical Phrases - Repetition (a a): When a phrase is repeated exactly even it is in a different octave - Varied Repetition (a a’): When a phrase is repeated with slight modifications such as rhythmic changes, additions of embellishing tones, and minor changes in harmony - Different phrases (a b): When there are two completely different phrases Combining and Extending Phrases - Period: When the second phrase ends more conclusively than the first phrase - Parallel Period (a a’): When two phrases are have very few differences, but the second ends more conclusively than the first - Contrasting Period (a b): When two phrases are completely different and the second phrase ends more conclusively than the other