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UM - PSYC 260 - PSY 260, Study Guide for Final - Study Guide

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UM - PSYC 260 - PSY 260, Study Guide for Final - Study Guide

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background image CHAPTER 11: Personality Development in Childhood and Adolescence
WHAT IS PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT?
I. Questions of Personality Development a. Personality development: how the parts of personality and  their organization grow and develop throughout the 
lifespan
i. Emphasizes personality’s major parts and their  configurations b. Joelle Fraser’s memoir example (many fathers)
c. Resilience: capacity to survive/thrive in response to a 
negative or difficult environment d. Temperament: broad trends in motivational and emotional  responsiveness; building blocks of traits e. Developmental psychologists divide people into different  groups based on their personality types/forms II. Dividing the Life Span a. TIME= single most distinguishing feature of research in  personality development b. Erik Erikson’s 8 Stages of Development i. Development is psychosocial: person develops along  paths expected by society ii. Begins at home, as a youth must meet expectations  of schools and community, later at work and with 
newly formed family
iii. First 5 stages track person from infancy to  adolescence III. Research Designs in Developmental Studies a. Cross-Sectional i. People of two or more different ages are examined at a single point in time to compare personality 
characteristics
b. Longitudinal i. Follows same people across a period of time to  examine growth and maturation ii. Gold standard because it gives researcher view of  differences across age groups AND an understanding 
of how individuals develop over time
DO INFANTS HAVE A PERSONALITY? I. The Infant’s Challenge a. William James: infant’s world is “one great blooming  buzzing confusion” i. Not true, newborn brain and mind already possess  substantial organization; prepared for social contract;
stares at face-like images more than non face-like 
images
b. 6-10 weeks: social smile
background image c. Little evidence of self identity during year 1; rouge test
d. 15-18 months: self-recognition begins (same test)
e. Melanie Klein
i. Splitting: a person alternately idealizes and devalues  a loved partner  f. Erikson believed if parents could understand and meet  needs of infant  sense of security i. If parents neglected infant’s emotional needs   insecure II. Infant Temperament  a. Temperament: the basic motivational and emotional  building blocks that make up personality traits b. Easy Child Temperament i. Rhythmic in hunger, sleeping, excretion ii. Positive approach to others iii. Mild-moderate intensity of reactions iv. Positive mood c. Slow to warm up child i. Varied rhythm in hunger, sleep, excretion ii. Low to moderate in activity iii. Mildly reactive iv. Slightly negative mood d. Difficult Child i. Irregular in hunger, sleep, excretion ii. Withdrawal from others  iii. High intensity of reactions iv. Negative mood e. Rothbart and three broad dimensions of temperament i. Surgency  1. Infants with high activity level, smiling and  laughing, high-intensity pleasure, and a 
willingness to approach others
ii. Negative affect 1. Distress in response to limits, fearfulness,  sadness, and high reactivity to stimuli iii. Affiliation 1. Calm orienting (attention) toward others,  calmness, soothability, and cuddliness  III. Attachment Patterns a. Harry Harlow and the surrogate mothers for chimpanzees  experiment  i. Contradicted the fact that parental bond was a result  of association between parents and feeding b. Attachment Theory and John Bowlby i. Theory about existence of a special mental  system/attachment system in infants responsible for 
background image establishing secure relationships with a caretaker, 
which continues to exert control over relationships as
the individual matures
c. Attachment Pattern: distinctive relationship an infant can  form with it’s mother or other primary caretaker d. Mary Ainsworth and the strange situation: divided  attachment patterns into 3 types: i. Secure attachment 1. Mothers are accurate and sympathetic to  infant’s feelings 2. Infants enjoy mother and tolerate absence 
3. Mother is comforting, dependable figure
ii. Anxious-resistant attachment 1. Mothers inconsistently attend to infant 
2. Infants have difficulty tolerating being apart 
from mother 3. Infants are tentative/unsure at reunion
4. Mothers (and others) are unpredictable and not
always comforting iii. Anxious-avoidant attachment 1. Mothers seem uninterested in their infants, and rebuff them consistently 2. Infant does not seek out caretaker
3. Deny importance of contact
HOW DOES THE YOUNG CHILD’S PERSONALITY DEVELOP? I. The Young Child’s Self-Concept a. Period from about 2 and a half to 5 years of age
b. Most central issue= of parental control vs. self control 
surrounding toilet training c. Erikson believed we become more responsible for our  actions during this time d. Freud: infantile amnesia  i. Children have no cognitive organization of memories  before about 3 years of age ii. Now, sustained memories are laid down that form  the basis of the person’s life story e. Pillemer, Picariello & Pruett; 4 and 5 year olds remember  having to leave day care center when popcorn maker 
caught fire, but 3 year olds mistakenly recalled where they 
were
II. Parents and the Family Context a. Baumrind observed preschool children at home with  parents, at school with mothers, and at school on their own i. Nurturance: degree to which the parents supported,  cared for and provided love and caring for the child

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School: University of Miami
Department: Psychology
Course: Personality Psychology
Professor: Jill Kaplan
Term: Fall 2016
Tags:
Name: PSY 260, Study Guide for Final
Description: This study guide is for the final exam on 12/12/16
Uploaded: 12/10/2016
10 Pages 76 Views 60 Unlocks
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