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Sac State - GOVT 150 - Study Guide - Final

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Sac State - GOVT 150 - Study Guide - Final

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background image Short-Answer Civil Liberties: Civil liberties or personal freedoms are personal guarantees 
and freedoms that the government cannot abridge, either by law or by 
judicial interpretation, without due process.
The Constitution’s framers placed individual liberty ahead of all other 
political values, a concern that led many of the framers to distrust both 
democracy and equality. They feared that democracy could degenerate into 
a majority tyranny in which the populace trampled on liberty. Unfortunately, 
liberty can never be taken for granted. It is the duty of each generation to 
guard its liberty from that which may threaten it.
Iron Triangle: The stable, cooperative relationships that often develop 
an executive branch program, another angle in a Senate or House  legislative committee or subcommittee, and a third angle in some highly 
stable and well-organized interest group. One of the most important iron 
triangles in recent American political history: that of the defense industry. 
Iron triangles explain how interest groups have influence over both Congress 
and the government agency directly regulating their interests in many policy 
Yellow Journalism:   A type of  journalism  that presents little or no legitimate  well-researched news and instead uses eye-catching headlines to sell more 
 It Uses eye-catching headlines to sell media (usually  newspapers, but now web-page clicks). Often provide little research, 
analysis, or legitimacy and exaggerates news events. 
Techniques may  include exaggerations of news events, scandal-mongering or sensationalism. Yellow journalism threatens the perceived legitimacy of the media. Propositions: A ballot proposition can be a referendum or an initiative 
measure that is directly voted on by the states voter population. If passed, 
the proposition becomes law. It is the purest form of direct democracy. 
Political Polarization: The ideological differences (and consequently, policy
preferences) of political parties within a political system.
 It refers to the  divergence of political attitudes to ideological extremes and is the vast and 
growing gap between liberals and conservatives, Republicans and Democrats
as seen today. 
Notably, polarization between the parties means that party  endorsements (such as of an issue or candidate) have a larger impact on 
public opinion formation than they used to. At the same time, polarization 
decreases the impact of other information on public opinion. Party 
polarization actually reduces levels of political knowledge. Thus, elite 
polarization may have negative implications for public opinion formation. 
Top Two Primary: A primary election in which all candidates for the same 
background image elected office,  regardless of respective political party, run against each other  at once, instead of being segregated by political party. Under this system, 
the candidates receiving the most and second-most votes become the 
contestants in the general election. It is entirely possible that two candidates
of the same political party could advance to the general/run-off.
Equal Protection Clause provisionof the Fourteenth Amendment  guaranteeing citizens “the equal protection of the laws”; this clause has 
served as the basis for the civil rights of African Americans, women, and 
other groups
With the adoption of the Fourteenth Amendment in 1868, civil rights became
part of the Constitution, guaranteed to each citizen through “equal 
protection of the laws.” 
The very simplicity of the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth 
Amendment left it open to interpretation. This provision of the Fourteenth 
Amendment guarantees citizens “the equal protection of the laws.” These 
words launched a century of political movements and legal efforts to press 
for racial equality. The African American quest for civil rights in turn inspired 
many other groups, including members of other racial and ethnic groups, 
women, the disabled, and gay men, lesbians, and the trans- gendered, to 
seek new laws and constitutional guarantees of their civil rights. 
Electoral College:  The electors from each state who meet after the popular  election to cast ballots for president and vice president. The assumption 
underlying such processes was that ordinary citizens were not really qualified
to choose their leaders and could not be trusted to do so directly. As a result, 
the electoral college system can sometimes distort the outcomes of 
presidential races, although it does not undermine the principle of popular 
selection of the nation’s leaders. 
Fairness Doctrine:  Under this doctrine, broadcasters who aired programs  on controversial issues were required to provide time for opposing views. In 
1985 however the FCC stopped enforcing the fairness doctrine on the 
grounds that there were so many media outlets that many different 
viewpoints were already being presented without each station’s being 
required to try to present all sides of an argument. 
Right to Privacy:  A right to privacy is derived from the first 10  amendments even though it is not directly stated within the constitution 
itself. Judges and legal scholars disagree about where the right comes from 
within the constitution but insist the spirit of it is fundamental in the 
constitution. The idea behind the right to privacy is simple: people have a 
right to be left alone from government or other persons’ interference in 
certain personal areas. 
The sphere of privacy was drawn by the Supreme Court in 1965, when it 
ruled that a Connecticut statute forbidding the use of contraceptives violated
background image the right of marital privacy. 
The right to privacy was confirmed and extended in 1973 in an important but
controversial privacy decision: 
Roe v. Wade.  Like any important principle, once privacy was established as an aspect of 
civil liberties protected by the Bill of Rights through the Fourteenth 
Amendment, it created precedent. In a number of important decisions, the 
Supreme Court and the lower federal courts sought to protect rights that 
could not be found in the text of the Constitution but could be discovered 
through a study of the philosophic sources of fundamental rights. 
In recent years right to privacy claims have been made by those attempting 
to preserve the right to obtain legal abortions, by those seeking to obtain 
greater rights for homosexuals, and by supporters of physician-assisted 
suicide (the “right to die” movement). 
Expanding programs of government surveillance is thought to potentially 
infringe upon the individual right to privacy. Governments pursuit of safety 
may pose a threat to political liberty, as government agencies appear to be 
recording Americans’ emails and phone conversations at an unprecedented 
Voter ID:Voter ID Laws require registered voters to provide proof of identity 
before voting on election day. Government ID often required, but sometimes 
also allow:
• Student ID
• Birth certificates
• Bank statements, etc. Voter ID reduces voter fraud and insures the integrity and security of the 
electoral process. However, Voter ID does nothing to stop other forms of 
election fraud.
Habeas Corpus: A  law whereby a person can report an unlawful detention  or imprisonment before a court, usually through a prison official. Encourages 
due process and gives individuals their right to see court and trial. 
Cointelpro: Aka Counterintelligence Programs. It was a secret government 
organization that used CIA tactics against citizens who were acting in 
opposing views of the government. This program encouraged government 
action that was not legal in order to subdue pro civil right movers, Black 
nationalists, KKK, hate-type group organizations, MLK JR. When Cointelpro 
was found guilty breaking the law, they were not charged of committed 
crimes. This showed that the federal government viewed themselves as 
above the law in this situation. 
Strict Scrutiny:  This higher standard of judicial review is used by  courts to  determine the constitutionality of certain laws. To pass  strict scrutiny , the  legislature must have passed the law to further a "compelling governmental 
interest," and must have narrowly tailored the law to achieve that interest.

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School: California State University Sacramento
Department: Government
Course: American Governments
Professor: Joshua Pryor
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: American Government, Government, and Federal Government Role
Name: GOV 150 final study guide
Description: This study guide covers all of the potential short answer topics presented to us on the study guide by professor pryor. The definition and significance is given of each topic.
Uploaded: 12/10/2016
7 Pages 50 Views 40 Unlocks
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